Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Long-term migration patterns and bisexual philopatry in a benthic shark species

Nathan Charles Bass A , Johann Mourier A , Nathan A. Knott B , Joanna Day C , Tristan Guttridge D and Culum Brown A E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Macquarie University, Department of Biological Sciences, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.

B NSW Department of Primary Industries, Marine Ecosystems Research, 4 Woollamia Road, Huskisson, NSW 2540, Australia.

C Taronga Conservation Society Australia, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia.

D Bimini Biological Field Station Foundation, 15 Elizabeth Drive, South Bimini, Bahamas.

E Corresponding author. Email: culum.brown@mq.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16122
Submitted: 29 January 2016  Accepted: 23 August 2016   Published online: 23 September 2016

Abstract

Knowledge of the broad-scale movement patterns of sharks is essential to developing effective management strategies. Currently there is a large bias in studies focusing on species that are either large apex predators or found in tropical to subtropical regions. There is limited knowledge of the movements and migrations of benthic and temperate shark species. The present study used passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the movement patterns of a benthic shark species, the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni). Individuals were tagged with acoustic transmitters between 2012 and 2014 and their movements were monitored within Jervis Bay and along the east Australian coastline for up to 4 years. Male and female Port Jackson sharks demonstrated high levels of philopatry to both Jervis Bay and their tagging location across multiple years. Although males and females did not differ in their arrival times, females departed from Jervis Bay later than males. Approximately half the tagged individuals migrated in a southward direction, with individuals being detected at Narooma, Bass Strait and Cape Barron Island. This study provides conclusive evidence of bisexual philopatry in a benthic temperate shark species, confirming previous hypotheses, and presents the most detailed migration route for Port Jackson sharks to date.

Additional keywords: dispersal, ecology, elasmobranch, mark–recapture, site fidelity.


References

Bonfil, R. (1997). Status of shark resources in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean: implications for management. Fisheries Research 29, 101–117.
Status of shark resources in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean: implications for management.CrossRef | open url image1

Campana, S. E., Joyce, W., and Kulka, D. W. (2009). Growth and reproduction of spiny dogfish off the eastern coast of Canada, including inferences on stock structure. In ‘Biology and Management of Dogfish Sharks’. (Eds V. F. Gallucci, G. A. McFarlane, and G. G. Bargmann.) pp. 195–208. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD, USA.)

Carlisle, A. B., and Starr, R. M. (2009). Habitat use, residency, and seasonal distribution of female leopard sharks Triakis semifasciata in Elkhorn Slough, California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 380, 213–228.
Habitat use, residency, and seasonal distribution of female leopard sharks Triakis semifasciata in Elkhorn Slough, California.CrossRef | open url image1

Chapman, B. B., Skov, C., Hulthén, K., Brodersen, J., Nilsson, P. A., Hansson, L. A., and Brönmark, C. (2012). Partial migration in fishes: definitions, methodologies and taxonomic distribution. Journal of Fish Biology 81, 479–499.
Partial migration in fishes: definitions, methodologies and taxonomic distribution.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38fgs1Cisg%3D%3D&md5=40fd1706e66766d5716c3fc3fd9126b8CAS | 22803721PubMed | open url image1

Chapman, D. D., Feldheim, K. A., Papastamatiou, Y. P., and Hueter, R. E. (2015). There and back again: a review of residency and return migrations in sharks, with implications for population structure and management. Annual Review of Marine Science 7, 547–570.
There and back again: a review of residency and return migrations in sharks, with implications for population structure and management.CrossRef | 25251267PubMed | open url image1

Clark, J. A. (2015). Female reproductive philopatry and male-mediated gene flow in NSW Port Jackson Sharks. M.Res. Thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney.

Clarke, C., Lea, J. S. E., and Ormond, R. F. G. (2011). Reef-use and residency patterns of a baited population of silky sharks, Carcharhinus falciformis, in the Red Sea. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 668–675.
Reef-use and residency patterns of a baited population of silky sharks, Carcharhinus falciformis, in the Red Sea.CrossRef | open url image1

Couturier, L. I., Jaine, F. R., Townsend, K. A., Weeks, S. J., Richardson, A. J., and Bennett, M. B. (2011). Distribution, site affinity and regional movements of the manta ray, Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868), along the east coast of Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 628–637.
Distribution, site affinity and regional movements of the manta ray, Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868), along the east coast of Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnvFanu7w%3D&md5=73ef9e67c864debde89a9f10fdb1296eCAS | open url image1

da Silva, C., Kerwath, S. E., Attwood, C. G., Thorstad, E. B., Cowley, P. D., Økland, F., Wilke, C. G., and Næsje, T. F. (2013). Quantifying the degree of protection afforded by a no-take marine reserve on an exploited shark. African Journal of Marine Science 35, 57–66.
Quantifying the degree of protection afforded by a no-take marine reserve on an exploited shark.CrossRef | open url image1

Dulvy, N. K., Fowler, S. L., Musick, J. A., Cavanagh, R. D., Kyne, P. M., Harrison, L. R., Carlson, J. K., Davidson, L. N., Fordham, S. V., Francis, M. P., Pollock, C. M., Simpfendorfer, C., Burgess, G. H., Carpenter, K. E., Compagno, L. J. V., Ebert, D. A., Gibson, C., Heupel, M. R., Livingstone, S. R., Sanciango, J. C., Stevens, J. D., Valenti, S., and White, W. T. (2014). Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays. eLife 3, e00590.
Extinction risk and conservation of the world’s sharks and rays.CrossRef | 24448405PubMed | open url image1

Espinoza, M., Heupel, M. R., Tobin, A. J., and Simpfendorfer, C. A. (2016). Evidence of partial migration in a large coastal predator: opportunistic foraging and reproduction as key drivers? PLoS One 11, e0147608.
Evidence of partial migration in a large coastal predator: opportunistic foraging and reproduction as key drivers?CrossRef | 26841110PubMed | open url image1

Feldheim, K. A., Gruber, S. H., and Ashley, M. V. (2002). The breeding biology of lemon sharks at a tropical nursery lagoon. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 269, 1655–1661.
The breeding biology of lemon sharks at a tropical nursery lagoon.CrossRef | open url image1

Ferguson, A. M., Harvey, E. S., Taylor, M. D., and Knott, N. A. (2013). A herbivore knows its patch: luderick, Girella tricuspidata, exhibit strong site fidelity on shallow subtidal reefs in a temperate marine park. PLoS One 8, e65838.
A herbivore knows its patch: luderick, Girella tricuspidata, exhibit strong site fidelity on shallow subtidal reefs in a temperate marine park.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXpslOmsb0%3D&md5=f67dde754918df48ac99203d5ddfea70CAS | 23741515PubMed | open url image1

Heithaus, M. R., Frid, A., Wirsing, A. J., and Worm, B. (2008). Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 23, 202–210.
Predicting ecological consequences of marine top predator declines.CrossRef | open url image1

Heupel, M. R., Semmens, J. M., and Hobday, A. J. (2006). Automated acoustic tracking of aquatic animals: scales, design and deployment of listening station arrays. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 1–13.
Automated acoustic tracking of aquatic animals: scales, design and deployment of listening station arrays.CrossRef | open url image1

Hueter, R. E., Heupel, M. R., Heist, E. J., and Keeney, D. B. (2005). The implications of philopatry in sharks for the Management of shark fisheries. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35, 239–247.
The implications of philopatry in sharks for the Management of shark fisheries.CrossRef | open url image1

Huveneers, C., Harcourt, R. G., and Otway, N. M. (2006). Observation of localised movements and residence times of the wobbegong shark Orectolobus halei at Fish Rock, NSW, Australia. Cybium 30, 103–111. open url image1

Huveneers, C., Otway, N. M., Gibbs, S. E., and Harcourt, R. G. (2007). Quantitative diet assessment of wobbegong sharks (genus Orectolobus) in New South Wales, Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science 64, 1272–1281. open url image1

Keeney, D. B., Heupel, M. R., Hueter, R. E., and Heist, E. J. (2005). Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses of the genetic structure of blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) nurseries in the northwestern Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Molecular Ecology 14, 1911–1923.
Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses of the genetic structure of blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) nurseries in the northwestern Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlslemsb8%3D&md5=af7262c3d63fac51cc2351e5004f736eCAS | 15910315PubMed | open url image1

Kohler, N. E., and Turner, P. A. (2001). Shark tagging: a review of conventional methods and studies. Environmental Biology of Fishes 60, 191–224.
Shark tagging: a review of conventional methods and studies.CrossRef | open url image1

McFarlane, G. A., and King, J. R. (2003). Migration patterns of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the North Pacific Ocean. Fishery Bulletin 101, 358–367. open url image1

McLaughlin, R. H., and O’Gower, A. K. (1971). Life history and underwater studies of a heterodont shark. Ecological Monographs 41, 271–289.
Life history and underwater studies of a heterodont shark.CrossRef | open url image1

Mourier, J., and Planes, S. (2013). Direct genetic evidence for reproductive philopatry and associated fine-scale migrations in female blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) in French Polynesia. Molecular Ecology 22, 201–214.
Direct genetic evidence for reproductive philopatry and associated fine-scale migrations in female blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) in French Polynesia.CrossRef | 23130666PubMed | open url image1

Mulcahy, D. M. (2003). Surgical implantation of transmitters into fish. ILAR Journal 44, 295–306.
Surgical implantation of transmitters into fish.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXntVKksbg%3D&md5=234c702870bd470ec941f47f642b4496CAS | 13130160PubMed | open url image1

Nosal, A. P., Caillat, A., Kisfaludy, E. K., Royer, M. A., and Wegner, N. C. (2014). Aggregation behavior and seasonal philopatry in male and female leopard sharks Triakis semifasciata along the open coast of southern California, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 499, 157–175.
Aggregation behavior and seasonal philopatry in male and female leopard sharks Triakis semifasciata along the open coast of southern California, USA.CrossRef | open url image1

O’Gower, A. K. (1995). Speculations on a spatial memory for the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) (Meyer) (Heterodontidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 46, 861–871.
Speculations on a spatial memory for the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) (Meyer) (Heterodontidae).CrossRef | open url image1

O’Gower, A. K., and Nash, A. R. (1978). Dispersion of the Port Jackson shark in Australian waters. In ‘Sensory Biology of Sharks, Skates, and Rays’. (Eds E. S. Hodgson and R. F. Mathewson.) pp. 529–544. (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy: Arlington, VA, USA.)

Papastamatiou, Y. P., Meyer, C. G., Carvalho, F., Dale, J. J., Hutchinson, M. R., and Holland, K. N. (2013). Telemetry and random-walk models reveal complex patterns of partial migration in a large marine predator. Ecology 94, 2595–2606.
Telemetry and random-walk models reveal complex patterns of partial migration in a large marine predator.CrossRef | 24400511PubMed | open url image1

Powter, D. (2006). Conservation biology of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in New South Wales. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Newcastle.

Powter, D. M., and Gladstone, W. (2008). The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni in the coastal waters of eastern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 72, 2615–2633.
The reproductive biology and ecology of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni in the coastal waters of eastern Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Powter, D. M., and Gladstone, W. (2009). Habitat-mediated use of space by juvenile and mating adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in Eastern Australia. Pacific Science 63, 1–14.
Habitat-mediated use of space by juvenile and mating adult Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in Eastern Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Ryan, L. A., Meeuwig, J. J., Hemmi, J. M., Collin, S. P., and Hart, N. S. (2015). It is not just size that matters: shark cruising speeds are species-specific. Marine Biology 162, 1307–1318.
It is not just size that matters: shark cruising speeds are species-specific.CrossRef | open url image1

Speed, C. W., Field, I. C., Meekan, M. G., and Bradshaw, C. J. (2010). Complexities of coastal shark movements and their implications for management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 408, 275–293.
Complexities of coastal shark movements and their implications for management.CrossRef | open url image1

Venables, W. N., and Dichmont, C. M. (2004). GLMs, GAMs and GLMMs: an overview of theory for applications in fisheries research. Fisheries Research 70, 319–337.
GLMs, GAMs and GLMMs: an overview of theory for applications in fisheries research.CrossRef | open url image1

Wearmouth, V. J., and Sims, D. W. (2008). Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals: behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications. Advances in Marine Biology 54, 107–170.
Sexual segregation in marine fish, reptiles, birds and mammals: behaviour patterns, mechanisms and conservation implications.CrossRef | 18929064PubMed | open url image1



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (89 KB) Export Citation Cited By (2)

View Altmetrics