Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Insects in the diet of fish from Amazonian streams, in western Pará, Brazil

A. C. Cardoso A and S. R. M. Couceiro A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das Águas, Laboratório de Ecologia e Taxonomia de Invertebrados Aquáticos, Avenida Mendonça Furtado, 2946 sala 223, Fátima, Santarém-PA, CEP 68040-470, Brazil.

B Corresponding author. Email: sheylacouceiro@yahoo.com.br

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16173
Submitted: 11 May 2016  Accepted: 24 January 2017   Published online: 13 April 2017

Abstract

In the present study we evaluated the contribution of insects, in particular aquatic forms, to the diet of Amazonian stream fish in western Pará, Brazil. The fish and insect fauna of 10 streams were sampled in the Tapajós National Forest. The fish consumed a diversity of nutrients of terrestrial and aquatic origin (algae, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic insects, fish), confirming that most are generalists. In the case of the species that fed exclusively on aquatic insects, a comparison of the diets with the availability of prey indicates that the fish do not forage selectively. Only 5 of the 21 species analysed fed exclusively on aquatic insects, and only 3 of these were taxon selective. Fifteen species consumed terrestrial insects, but did not feed exclusively on these organisms. This flexible feeding behaviour guarantees survival when preferred resources are scarce or absent. The results of the present study reinforce the importance of riparian forest in the feeding ecology of stream fish, because this habitat provides terrestrial insects and influences the occurrence of aquatic insects. The diversity of the Amazon region is reflected in that of local communities, and the present study provides important new data on the diet of the stream fish communities of western Pará.

Additional keywords: aquatic and terrestrial resource, aquatic invertebrates, food chain, lotic systems.


References

Abelha, M. C., Agostinho, A. A., and Goulart, E. (2001). Plasticidade trófica em peixes de água doce. Acta Scientiarum 23, 425–434. open url image1

Agostinho, A. A., Pelicice, F. M., and Marques, E. E. (2009). ‘Reservatório de peixe angical: bases ecológicas para o manejo da ictiofauna.’ (Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RiMa): São Carlos, Brazil.)

Borba, C. S., Fugi, R., Agostinho, A. A., and Novakowski, G. C. (2008). Dieta de Astyanax asuncionensis (Characiformes, Characidae), em riachos da bacia do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. Acta Scientiarum 30, 39–45. open url image1

Brandão-Gonçalves, L., De Oliveira, S. A., and Lima-Junior, S. E. (2010). Diet of fish fauna from Franco stream, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 10, 21–30. open url image1

Buckup, P. A. (1999). Sistemática e biogeografia de peixes de riachos. In ‘Ecologia de peixes de riachos, Série Oecologia Brasiliensis, 6’. (Eds E. P. Caramaschi, R. Mazzoni and P. R. Peres-Neto.) pp. 91–138. (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação (PPGE)–Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ): Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.)

Bührnheim, C. M. (2002). Heterogeneidade de habitats: rasos e fundos em assembléias de peixes de igarapés de terra firme na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19, 889–905.
Heterogeneidade de habitats: rasos e fundos em assembléias de peixes de igarapés de terra firme na Amazônia Central, Brasil.CrossRef | open url image1

Bührnheim, C. M., and Cox-Fernandes, C. (2003). Structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian rain-forest streams: effects of habitats and locality. Copeia 2003, 255–262.
Structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian rain-forest streams: effects of habitats and locality.CrossRef | open url image1

Casatti, L. (2002). Alimentação dos peixes em um riacho do parque estadual Morro do Diabo, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica 2, 1­–14.
Alimentação dos peixes em um riacho do parque estadual Morro do Diabo, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sudeste do Brasil.CrossRef | open url image1

Catarino, M. F., and Zuanon, J. (2010). Feeding ecology of the leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus (Perciformes: Polycentridae) in a terra firme stream in the Brazilian Amazon. Neotropical Ichthyology 8, 183–186.
Feeding ecology of the leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus (Perciformes: Polycentridae) in a terra firme stream in the Brazilian Amazon.CrossRef | open url image1

Couceiro, S. R. M., Hamada, N., Luz, S. L. B., Forsberg, B. R., and Pimentel, T. P. (2007). Deforestation and sewage effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban streams in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 575, 271–284.
Deforestation and sewage effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban streams in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xhtlait73M&md5=e8a392add7cfd6f3f37ad8e1bf44edfeCAS | open url image1

Couceiro, S. R. M., Hamada, N., Forsberg, B. R., and Padovesi-Fonseca, C. (2010). Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Soils and Sediments 10, 89–103.
Effects of anthropogenic silt on aquatic macroinvertebrates and abiotic variables in streams in the Brazilian Amazon.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlslentA%3D%3D&md5=d16a24b603489ae34348ace7de33f2ecCAS | open url image1

Dávalos-Dehullu, E., and González-Navarro, E. (2003). Stomach content of one pelagic ray Dasyatis violacea (Bonaparte, 1832) (Rajiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of California, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Oceánides 18, 43–44. open url image1

EMBRAPA (2001). ‘Levantamento e Conservação de Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Caracterização dos solos da área do planalto de Se/terra, município de Santarém, Estado do Pará.’ (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária: Belém, Brazil.)

Esteves, K. E., and Aranha, J. M. R. (1999). Ecologia trófica de peixes de riachos. In ‘Ecologia de peixes de riachos, Série Oecologia Brasiliensis, 6’. (Eds E. P. Caramaschi, R. Mazzoni and P. R. Peres-Neto.) pp. 157–182. (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação (PPGE)–Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ): Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.)

Ferraris, C. J. (2007). Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa 1418, 1–628.
Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types.CrossRef | open url image1

Fidelis, L., Nessimian, J. L., and Hamada, N. (2008). Deforestation and sewage effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban streams in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Acta Amazonica 38, 127–134.
Deforestation and sewage effects on aquatic macroinvertebrates in urban streams in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Fittkau, E. J. (1967). On the ecology of Amazonian rainforest streams. Biota Amazônica 3, 97–108. open url image1

Galina, A. B., and Hahn, N. S. (2003). Comparação da dieta de duas espécies de Triportheus (Characidae, Triportheinae), em trechos do reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences 25, 345–352. open url image1

Gerking, S. D. (1994). ‘Feeding Ecology of Fish.’ (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.)

Goulding, M. (1980). ‘The Fishes and the Forest. Exploration in Amazonian Natural History.’ (University of California: Berkeley, CA, USA.)

Gurgel, H. C. B., Silva, N. B., Lucas, F. D., and Souza, L. L. G. (2005). Alimentação da comunidade de peixes de um trecho do rio Ceará Mirim, em Umari, Taipu, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum 27, 229–233. open url image1

Hahn, N. S., Loureiro, V. E., and Delariva, R. L. (1999). Atividade alimentar de curvina Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) no rio Paraná. Acta Scientiarum 21, 309–314. open url image1

Hahn, N. S., Fugi, R., Peretti, D., Russo, M. R., and Loureiro-Crippa, V. E. (2002). Estrutura trófica da ictiofauna da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Available at http://www.peld.uem.br/Relat2002/pdf/comp_biotico_estruturaTrofica.pdf [Verified 22 November 2016].

Hamada, N., and Couceiro, S. R. M. (2003). An key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera) genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 47, 477–480.
An key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera) genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Henderson, P. A., and Walker, I. (1986). On the leaf litter community of the Amazonian black water stream Tarumãzinho. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2, 1–16.
On the leaf litter community of the Amazonian black water stream Tarumãzinho.CrossRef | open url image1

Jacobs, J. (1974). Quantitative measurement of food selection: a modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev’s electivity index. Oecologia 14, 413–417.
Quantitative measurement of food selection: a modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev’s electivity index.CrossRef | open url image1

Kahilainen, K., and Lehtonen, H. (2003). Piscivory and prey selection of four predator species in a whitefish dominated subarctic lake. Journal of Fish Biology 63, 659–672.
Piscivory and prey selection of four predator species in a whitefish dominated subarctic lake.CrossRef | open url image1

Knöppel, H. A. (1970). Food of central Amazon fishes. Contribution to the nutrient–ecology of Amazonian rain-forest streams. Amazoniana 2, 257–352. open url image1

Krebs, C. J. (1989). ‘Ecological Methodology.’ (Harper Collins: New York, NY, USA.)

Loureiro-Crippa, V. E., and Hahn, N. S. (2006). Use of food resources by the fish fauna of a small reservoir (rio Jordão, Brazil) before and shortly after its filling. Neotropical Ichthyology 4, 357–362.
Use of food resources by the fish fauna of a small reservoir (rio Jordão, Brazil) before and shortly after its filling.CrossRef | open url image1

Mago-Leccia, F. (1994). ‘Electric Fishes of the Continental Waters of America’. (Clemente: Caracas, Venezuela.)

Melo, C. E., Machado, F. A., and Pinto-Silva, V. (2004). Feeding habits of fish from a stream in the savanna of Central Brazil, Araguaia Basin. Neotropical Ichthyology 2, 37–44.
Feeding habits of fish from a stream in the savanna of Central Brazil, Araguaia Basin.CrossRef | open url image1

Mendonça, F. P., Magnusson, W. E., and Zuanon, J. (2005). Relationships between habitat characteristics and fish assemblages in small streams of Central Amazonia. Copeia 4, 750–763. open url image1

Monteiro, A. de S., Oliveira, A. H. M., Pelicice, F. M., and Oliveira, R. J. (2009). Alterações na disponibilidade de recursos alimentares na dieta das principais espécies de peixes. In ‘Reservatório de peixe angical: bases ecológicas para o manejo da ictiofauna’. (Eds C. A. Agostinho, F. M. Pelicice and E. E. Marques.) pp. 77–86. (Relatório de Impacto Ambiental (RiMa): São Carlos, Brazil.)

Moreira, S. S., and Zuanon, J. (2002). Dieta de Retroculus lapidifer (Perciformes: Cichlidae), um peixe reofílico do rio Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 32, 691–705. open url image1

Pereira, A. S. (2008). Variação sazonal e estrutura trófica da assembleia de peixes do delta do Rio Jacuí, RS, Brasil. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Pereira, P. R., Agostinho, C. S., de Oliveira, R. J., and Marques, E. E. (2007). Trophic guilds of fishes in sandbank habitats of a neotropical river. Neotropical Ichthyology 5, 399–404.
Trophic guilds of fishes in sandbank habitats of a neotropical river.CrossRef | open url image1

Pes, A. M. O., Hamada, N., and Nessimian, J. L. (2005). Chaves de identificação de larvas para famílias e gêneros de Trichoptera (Insecta) da Amazônia Central, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 49, 181–204.
Chaves de identificação de larvas para famílias e gêneros de Trichoptera (Insecta) da Amazônia Central, Brasil.CrossRef | open url image1

Rezende, C. F., and Mazzoni, R. (2005). Seasonal variation in the input of allochthonous matter in an Atlantic rain forest stream, Ilha Grande-RJ. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17, 167–175. open url image1

Russo, M. R., Ferreira, A., and Dias, R. M. (2002). Disponibilidade de invertebrados aquáticos para peixes bentófagos de dois riachos da bacia do rio Iguaçu, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Acta Scientiarum 24, 411–417. open url image1

Sabino, J., and Zuanon, J. (1998). A stream fish assemblage in central Amazonia: distribution, activity patterns and feeding behavior. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 8, 201–210. open url image1

Silva, C. P. D. (1993). Alimentação e distribuição espacial de algumas espécies de peixes do igarapé do Candirú, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amazonica 23, 271–285.
Alimentação e distribuição espacial de algumas espécies de peixes do igarapé do Candirú, Amazonas, Brasil.CrossRef | open url image1

Walker, I., Henderson, P., and Sterry, P. (1990). On the patterns of biomass transfer in the benthic fauna of an Amazonian blackwater river, as evidenced by P32 label experiment. Hydrobiologia 12, 23–34. open url image1

Wootton, R. J. (1990). ‘Ecology of Teleost Fishes.’ (Springer: London, UK.)

Wootton, R. J. (1992). ‘Fish Ecology.’ (Chapman and Hall: New York, NY, USA.)

Zuanon, J., Bockmann, F. A., and Sazima, I. (2006). A remarkable sand-dwelling fish assemblage from central Amazonia, with comments on the evolution of psammophily in South American freshwater fishes. Neotropical Ichthyology 4, 107–118.
A remarkable sand-dwelling fish assemblage from central Amazonia, with comments on the evolution of psammophily in South American freshwater fishes.CrossRef | open url image1



Export Citation