Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Differentiating the roles of shrimp and aquatic insects in leaf processing in a Neotropical stream

Claudia M. Andrade A B , Vinicius Neres-Lima C and Timothy P. Moulton C D

A Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20550-013, Brazil.

B Present address: Laboratório de Limnologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Edifício CCS, Bloco A, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil.

C Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20550-013, Brazil.

D Corresponding author. Email: moulton.timothy@gmail.com

Marine and Freshwater Research - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF16206
Submitted: 5 June 2016  Accepted: 17 November 2016   Published online: 23 January 2017

Abstract

There is interest in the relationships between macroconsumers (e.g. shrimp) and aquatic insects, as well as their role in ecological processes, including leaf breakdown, in tropical freshwater environments. Many studies have shown that shrimp have the capacity to reduce the abundance of aquatic insects (by predation and behavioural inhibition) and promote leaf breakdown as shredders. To discriminate between these effects, we used fresh leaves of Erythroxylum pulchrum and manipulated the presence of shrimp and insects by electric exclusion at high and low intensities of electric field. In the control treatment (no electric exclusion) shrimp (the brushing collector Potimirim brasiliana and the shredding omnivore Macrobrachium olfersii) and aquatic insects (including shredders) were present. The low-intensity electric field excluded only shrimp, whereas the high-intensity electric field excluded both shrimp and medium- and large-sized aquatic insects (>2 mm). Leaf processing was approximately twice as fast in the absence of shrimp and in the presence of insects than when both or neither were present. This implied a trophic cascade of shrimp acting as potential predators of insect shredders, but not acting as shredders themselves. We postulate that increased leaf processing was caused by a behavioural response of the putative shredders to the absence of shrimp; abundant leptophlebiid ephemeropterans were the most likely shredders.

Additional keywords: electric exclusion, leaf decomposition, Leptophlebiidae, Macrobrachium, trophic cascade, tropical stream.


References

Baptista, D. F., Buss, D. F., and Dias, L. G. (2006). Functional feeding groups of Brazilian Ephemeroptera nymphs: ultrastructure of mouthparts. Annales de Limnologie 42, 87–96.
Functional feeding groups of Brazilian Ephemeroptera nymphs: ultrastructure of mouthparts.CrossRef | open url image1

Bello, C. C. L., and Cabrera, F. M. I. (2001). Alimentación ninfal de Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) en el Caño Paso del Diablo, Venezuela. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49, 999–1003.
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BD38vjtlejsg%3D%3D&md5=980326336cb5e4218e3b11db130d3fe0CAS | open url image1

Benfield, E. F. (2007) Decomposition of leaf material. In ‘Methods in Stream Ecology’, 2nd edn. (Eds F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti.) pp. 711–720. (Elsevier: San Diego, CA, USA.)

Boyero, L., Pearson, R., Dudgeon, D., Graca, M., Gessner, M., Albariño, R., Ferreira, V., Yule, C., Boulton, A., Arunachalam, M., Callisto, M., Chauvet, E., Ramirez, A., Chara, J., Moretti, M., Goncalves, J., Helson, J., Chara, A. M., Encalada, A., Davies, J., Lamothe, S., Cornejo, A., Castela, J., Li, A., Buria, L., Díaz Villanueva, V., Zúñiga, M. C., and Pringle, C. (2011). Global distribution of a key trophic guild contrasts with common latitudinal diversity patterns. Ecology 92, 1839–1848.
Global distribution of a key trophic guild contrasts with common latitudinal diversity patterns.CrossRef | open url image1

Boyero, L., Rincón, P. A., and Bosch, J. (2012). Contrasting behavioural responses of grazing mayflies and detritivorous caddisflies to predatory fish. Marine and Freshwater Research 63, 9–16.
Contrasting behavioural responses of grazing mayflies and detritivorous caddisflies to predatory fish.CrossRef | open url image1

Boyero, L., Pearson, R. G., Gessner, M. O., Dudgeon, D., Ramírez, A., Yule, C. M., Callisto, M., Pringle, C. M., Encalada, A. C., Arunachalam, M., Mathooko, J., Helson, J. E., Rincón, J., Bruder, A., Cornejo, A., Flecker, A. S., Mathuriau, C., M’Erimba, C., Gonçalves, J. F., Moretti, M., and Jinggut, T. (2015). Leaf-litter breakdown in tropical streams: is variability the norm? Freshwater Science 34, 759–769.
Leaf-litter breakdown in tropical streams: is variability the norm?CrossRef | open url image1

Brito, E. F., Moulton, T. P., Souza, M. L., and Bunn, S. E. (2006). Stable isotope analysis indicates microalgae as the predominant food source of fauna in a coastal forest stream, south-east Brazil. Austral Ecology 31, 623–633.
Stable isotope analysis indicates microalgae as the predominant food source of fauna in a coastal forest stream, south-east Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Brown, G. C., Norris, R. H., Maher, W. A., and Thomas, K. (2000). Use of electricity to inhibit macroivertebrate grazing of epilithon in experimental treatments in flowing waters. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19, 176–185.
Use of electricity to inhibit macroivertebrate grazing of epilithon in experimental treatments in flowing waters.CrossRef | open url image1

Casotti, C. G., Kiffer, W. P., and Moretti, M. S. (2014). Leaf traits induce the feeding preference of a shredder of the genus Triplectides Kolenati, 1859 (Trichoptera) in an Atlantic Forest stream, Brazil: a test with native and exotic leaves. Aquatic Insects 36, 43–52.
Leaf traits induce the feeding preference of a shredder of the genus Triplectides Kolenati, 1859 (Trichoptera) in an Atlantic Forest stream, Brazil: a test with native and exotic leaves.CrossRef | open url image1

Cheshire, K., Boyero, L., and Pearson, R. G. (2005). Food webs in tropical Australian streams: shredders are not scarce. Freshwater Biology 50, 748–769.
Food webs in tropical Australian streams: shredders are not scarce.CrossRef | open url image1

Cogo, G. B., and Santos, S. B. (2013). The role of aeglids in shredding organic matter in neotropical streams. Journal of Crustacean Biology 33, 519–526.
The role of aeglids in shredding organic matter in neotropical streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Crowl, T. A., McDowell, W. H., Covich, A. P., and Johnson, S. L. (2001). Freshwater shrimp effects on detrital processing and nutrients in a tropical headwater stream. Ecology 82, 775–783.
Freshwater shrimp effects on detrital processing and nutrients in a tropical headwater stream.CrossRef | open url image1

de Albuquerque, C. H., Tavares, J. F., de Oliveira, S. L., Silva, T. S., Gonçalves, G. F., Costa, V. C. de O., Agra, M. de F., Pessôa, H. de L.F., and de Silva, M. S. (2014). Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae). Quimica Nova 37, 663–666.
Flavonoides glicosilados de Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae).CrossRef | open url image1

Dobson, M., Magana, A., Mathooko, J. M., and Ndegwa, F. K. (2002). Detritivores in Kenyan highland streams: more evidence for the paucity of shredders in the tropics? Freshwater Biology 47, 909–919.
Detritivores in Kenyan highland streams: more evidence for the paucity of shredders in the tropics?CrossRef | open url image1

Encalada, A. C., Calles, J., Ferreira, V., Canhoto, C. M., and Graça, M. A. S. (2010). Riparian land use and the relationship between the benthos and litter decomposition in tropical montane streams. Freshwater Biology 55, 1719–1733. open url image1

Gessner, M. O., Chauvet, E., and Dobson, M. (1999). A perspective on leaf litter breakdown in streams. Oikos 85, 377–384.
A perspective on leaf litter breakdown in streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Gonçalves, J. F., Graca, M. A. S., and Callisto, M. (2006). Leaf-litter breakdown in 3 streams in temperate, Mediterranean, and tropical Cerrado climates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25, 344–355.
Leaf-litter breakdown in 3 streams in temperate, Mediterranean, and tropical Cerrado climates.CrossRef | open url image1

Graça, M. A. S., Ferreira, V., Canhoto, C., Encalada, A. C., Guerrero-Bolaño, F., Wantzen, K. M., and Boyero, L. (2015). A conceptual model of litter breakdown in low order streams. International Review of Hydrobiology 100, 1–12.
A conceptual model of litter breakdown in low order streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Konishi, M., Nakano, S., and Iwata, T. (2001). Trophic cascading effects of predatory fish on leaf litter processing in a Japanese stream. Ecological Research 16, 415–422.
Trophic cascading effects of predatory fish on leaf litter processing in a Japanese stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Landeiro, V. L., Hamada, N., and Melo, A. S. (2008). Responses of aquatic invertebrate assemblages and leaf breakdown to macroconsumer exclusion in Amazonian ‘terra firme’ streams. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 172, 49–58.
Responses of aquatic invertebrate assemblages and leaf breakdown to macroconsumer exclusion in Amazonian ‘terra firme’ streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Landeiro, V., Hamada, N., Godoy, B., and Melo, A. (2010). Effects of litter patch area on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and leaf breakdown in Central Amazonian streams. Hydrobiologia 649, 355–363.
Effects of litter patch area on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure and leaf breakdown in Central Amazonian streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Loiola, M. I. B., Agra, M. F., Baracho, G. S., and Queiroz, R. T. (2007). Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Erythroxylaceae Kunth. Acta Botanica Brasílica 21, 473–487.
Flora da Paraíba, Brasil: Erythroxylaceae Kunth.CrossRef | open url image1

Longo, M., and Blanco, J. F. (2014). Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia. Revista de Biología Tropical 62, 85–105.
Shredders are abundant and species-rich in tropical continental-island low-order streams: Gorgona Island, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia.CrossRef | open url image1

Lourenço-Amorim, C., Neres-Lima, V., Moulton, T. P., Sasada-Sato, C. Y., Oliveira-Cunha, P., and Zandonà, E. (2014). Control of periphyton standing crop in an Atlantic Forest stream: the relative roles of nutrients, grazers and predators. Freshwater Biology 59, 2365–2373.
Control of periphyton standing crop in an Atlantic Forest stream: the relative roles of nutrients, grazers and predators.CrossRef | open url image1

Malmqvist, B. (1993). Interactions in stream leaf packs: effects of a stonefly predator on detritivores and organic matter processing. Oikos 66, 454–462.
Interactions in stream leaf packs: effects of a stonefly predator on detritivores and organic matter processing.CrossRef | open url image1

Mancinelli, G., and Mulder, C. (2015) Detrital dynamics and cascading effects on supporting ecosystem services. In ‘Advances in Ecological Research’. (Eds G. Woodward and D. A. Bohan.) pp. 97–160. (Academic Press) doi:10.1016/BS.AECR.2015.10.001

Mancinelli, G., Costantini, M., and Rossi, L. (2002). Cascading effects of predatory fish exclusion on the detritus-based food web of a lake littoral zone (Lake Vico, central Italy). Oecologia 133, 402–411.
Cascading effects of predatory fish exclusion on the detritus-based food web of a lake littoral zone (Lake Vico, central Italy).CrossRef | open url image1

Mancinelli, G., Sangiorgio, F., and Scalzo, A. (2013). The effects of decapod crustacean macroconsumers on leaf detritus processing and colonization by invertebrates in stream habitats: a meta-analysis. International Review of Hydrobiology 98, 206–216.
The effects of decapod crustacean macroconsumers on leaf detritus processing and colonization by invertebrates in stream habitats: a meta-analysis.CrossRef | open url image1

March, J. G., Benstead, J. P., Pringle, C. M., and Ruebel, M. W. (2001). Linking shrimp assemblages with rates of detrital processing along an elevational gradient in a tropical stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58, 470–478.
Linking shrimp assemblages with rates of detrital processing along an elevational gradient in a tropical stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Masese, F. O., Kitaka, N., Kipkemboi, J., Gettel, G. M., Irvine, K., and McClain, M. E. (2014). Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in Kenyan highland streams: evidence for a diverse shredder guild. Freshwater Science 33, 435–450.
Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in Kenyan highland streams: evidence for a diverse shredder guild.CrossRef | open url image1

Merritt, R. W., Cummins, K. W., and Berg, M. (2008) ‘An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America’, 4th edn. (Kendall/Hunt: Duque, IA, USA.)

Moulton, T. P., and Magalhaes, S. A. (2003). Responses of leaf processing to impacts in streams in Atlantic rain forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – a test of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship? Brazilian Journal of Biology 63, 87–95.
Responses of leaf processing to impacts in streams in Atlantic rain forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – a test of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3sznvVyhtg%3D%3D&md5=232b9121b22527fdc6c8e3480d0735aaCAS | open url image1

Moulton, T. P., Souza, M. L., Silveira, R. M. L., and Krsulovic, F. A. M. (2004). Effects of ephemeropterans and shrimps on periphyton and sediments in a coastal stream (Atlantic forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23, 868–881.
Effects of ephemeropterans and shrimps on periphyton and sediments in a coastal stream (Atlantic forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).CrossRef | open url image1

Moulton, T. P., Magalhães-Fraga, S., Brito, E., and Barbosa, F. (2010). Macroconsumers are more important than specialist macroinvertebrate shredders in leaf processing in urban forest streams of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 638, 55–66.
Macroconsumers are more important than specialist macroinvertebrate shredders in leaf processing in urban forest streams of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Moulton, T. P., Souza, M. L., Brito, E. F., Braga, M. R. A., and Bunn, S. E. (2012). Strong interactions of Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae) on periphyton in an Australian subtropical stream. Marine and Freshwater Research 63, 834–844.
Strong interactions of Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae) on periphyton in an Australian subtropical stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Moulton, T. P., Lourenço-Amorim, C., Sasada-Sato, C. Y., Neres-Lima, V., and Zandonà, E. (2015). Dynamics of algal production and ephemeropteran grazing of periphyton in a tropical stream. International Review of Hydrobiology 99, 1–8. open url image1

Mugnai, R., Nessimian, J. L., and Baptista, D. F. (2010) ‘Manual de identificação de macroinvertebrados aquáticos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro.’ (Technical Books Editora: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.)

Neres-Lima, V., Brito, E. F., Krsulović, F. A. M., Detweiler, A. M., Hershey, A. E., and Moulton, T. P. (2016). High importance of autochthonous basal food source for the food web of a Brazilian tropical stream regardless of shading. International Review of Hydrobiology 101, 132–142.
High importance of autochthonous basal food source for the food web of a Brazilian tropical stream regardless of shading.CrossRef | open url image1

Obernborfer, R. Y., McArthur, J. V., Barnes, J. R., and Dixon, J. (1984). The effect of invertebrate predators on leaf litter processing in an alpine stream. Ecology 65, 1325–1331.
The effect of invertebrate predators on leaf litter processing in an alpine stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Oliveira, A. L. H., and Nessimian, J. L. (2010). Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect communities in Serra da Bocaina streams, southeastern Brazil. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 22, 424–441.
Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect communities in Serra da Bocaina streams, southeastern Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Oliveira, L. G., Bispo, P. C., Crisci, V. L., and Sousa, K. G. (1999). Distribuições de categorias funcionais alimentares de larvas de Trichoptera em córregos de uma região serrana do Brasil Central. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 11, 173–183. open url image1

Peckarsky, B. L., Cowan, C. A., and Anderson, C. R. (1994). Consequences and plasticity of the specialized predatory behavior of stream-dwelling stonefly larvae. Ecology 75, 166–181.
Consequences and plasticity of the specialized predatory behavior of stream-dwelling stonefly larvae.CrossRef | open url image1

Petersen, R. C., and Cummins, K. W. (1974). Leaf processing in a woodland stream. Freshwater Biology 4, 343–368.
Leaf processing in a woodland stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Polegatto, C. M., and Froehlich, C. G. (2003) Feeding strategies in Atalophlebiinae (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae), with considerations on scraping and filtering. In ‘Research Update on Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera’. (Ed. E Gaino.) pp. 55–61. (Università di Perugia: Perugia, Italy.)

Pringle, C. M., and Blake, G. A. (1994). Quantitative effects of atyid shrimp (Decapoda: Atyidae) on the depositional environment in a tropical stream: use of electricity for experimental exclusion. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51, 1443–1450.
Quantitative effects of atyid shrimp (Decapoda: Atyidae) on the depositional environment in a tropical stream: use of electricity for experimental exclusion.CrossRef | open url image1

Pringle, C. M., and Hamazaki, T. (1998). The role of omnivory in a Neotropical stream: separating diurnal and nocturnal effects. Ecology 79, 269–280.
The role of omnivory in a Neotropical stream: separating diurnal and nocturnal effects.CrossRef | open url image1

Ramírez, A., and Gutiérrez-Fonseca, P. E. (2014). Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature. Revista de Biologia Tropical 62, 155–167.
Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature.CrossRef | open url image1

Reice, S. R. (1991). Effects of detritus loading and fish predation on leafpack breakdown and benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 10, 42–56.
Effects of detritus loading and fish predation on leafpack breakdown and benthic macroinvertebrates in a woodland stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Rosemond, A. D., Pringle, C. M., and Ramírez, A. (1998). Macroconsumer effects on insect detritivores and detritus processing in a tropical stream food web. Freshwater Biology 39, 515–523.
Macroconsumer effects on insect detritivores and detritus processing in a tropical stream food web.CrossRef | open url image1

Rosemond, A. D., Pringle, C. M., Ramirez, A., and Paul, M. J. (2001). A test of top-down and bottom-up control in a detritus-based food web. Ecology 82, 2279–2293.
A test of top-down and bottom-up control in a detritus-based food web.CrossRef | open url image1

Ruetz, C. R., Newman, R. M., and Vondracek, B. (2002). Top-down control in a detritus-based food web: fish, shredders, and leaf breakdown. Oecologia 132, 307–315.
Top-down control in a detritus-based food web: fish, shredders, and leaf breakdown.CrossRef | open url image1

Schofield, K. A., Pringle, C. M., Meyer, J. L., and Sutherland, A. B. (2001). The importance of crayfish in the breakdown of rhododendron leaf litter. Freshwater Biology 46, 1191–1204.
The importance of crayfish in the breakdown of rhododendron leaf litter.CrossRef | open url image1

Silveira, R. M. L., and Moulton, T. P. (2000). Modelling the food web of a stream in Atlantic forest. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 12, 63–71. open url image1

Sitvarin, M. I., Rypstra, A. L., and Harwood, J. D. (2016). Linking the green and brown worlds through nonconsumptive predator effects. Oikos 125, 1057–1068.
Linking the green and brown worlds through nonconsumptive predator effects.CrossRef | open url image1

Souza, M. L., and Moulton, T. P. (2005). The effects of shrimps on benthic material in a Brazilian island stream. Freshwater Biology 50, 592–602.
The effects of shrimps on benthic material in a Brazilian island stream.CrossRef | open url image1

Souza, M. L., Moulton, T. P., Silveira, R. M., Krsulovic, F. A., and Brito, E. F. (2007). Responses of Chironomidae (Diptera; Insecta) to the exclusion of shrimps and Ephemeroptera in a coastal forest stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 67, 47–51.
Responses of Chironomidae (Diptera; Insecta) to the exclusion of shrimps and Ephemeroptera in a coastal forest stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2s3pslGjuw%3D%3D&md5=2b25339d9346ff405f425033603a6bd6CAS | open url image1

Tank, J. L., Rosi-Marshal, E. J., Griffths, N. A., Entrekin, S. A., and Stephen, M. L. (2010). A review of allocthonous organic matter dynamics and metabolism in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29, 118–146.
A review of allocthonous organic matter dynamics and metabolism in streams.CrossRef | open url image1

Usio, N. (2000). Effects of crayfish on leaf processing and invertebrate colonisation of leaves in a headwater stream: decoupling of a trophic cascade. Oecologia 124, 608–614.
Effects of crayfish on leaf processing and invertebrate colonisation of leaves in a headwater stream: decoupling of a trophic cascade.CrossRef | open url image1

Wallace, J. B., and Webster, J. R. (1996). The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function. Annual Review of Entomology 41, 115–139.
The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XksVyrsw%3D%3D&md5=c52541eed1d2bc976b773cdf0cd46843CAS | open url image1

Wallace, J. B., Eggert, S. L., Meyer, J. L., and Webster, J. R. (1997). Multiple trophic levels at a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. Science 277, 102–104.
Multiple trophic levels at a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXksVygsL0%3D&md5=990159c193c7a288adf656b96985ec95CAS | open url image1

Wantzen, K. M., Yule, C. M., Mathooko, J. M., and Pringle, C. M. (2008) Organic matter processing in tropical streams. In ‘Tropical Stream Ecology’. (Ed. D. Dudgeon.) pp. 44–65. (Academic Press: London, UK.)

Webster, J. R., and Benfield, E. E. (1986). Vascular plant breakdown in freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17, 567–594.
Vascular plant breakdown in freshwater ecosystems.CrossRef | open url image1

Yule, C. M. (1996). Trophic relationships of the benthic invertebrate fauna of an aseasonal tropical stream on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12, 517–534.
Trophic relationships of the benthic invertebrate fauna of an aseasonal tropical stream on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea.CrossRef | open url image1

Yule, C. M., Leong, M. Y., Liew, K. C., Ratnarajah, L., Schmidt, K., Wong, H. M., Pearson, R. G., and Boyero, L. (2009). Shredders in Malaysia: abundance and richness are higher in cool upland tropical streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28, 404–415.
Shredders in Malaysia: abundance and richness are higher in cool upland tropical streams.CrossRef | open url image1



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (14 KB) Export Citation