Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Overexploitation of a seagrass-dominated fishery by fish fences in the Pacific Coral Triangle, Indonesia

Ashley J. Endacott A B and Bruce Carlisle A

A Department of Geography, Northumbria University, Sutherland Building, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, England, UK.

B Corresponding author. Email: ashley_endacott@hotmail.co.uk

Marine and Freshwater Research - http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF16236
Submitted: 30 June 2016  Accepted: 22 November 2016   Published online: 20 January 2017

Abstract

Marine resources are vital to many coastal communities in South-east Asia, although their sustainable management is often neglected as they are perceived to be open access. In light of their small scale of operation, artisanal fisheries have been considered non-threatening to fish stocks and are frequently overlooked in comparison with industrial fisheries. In the present study, catch composition and fish fence attributes were measured from two fishing grounds on the island of Kaledupa, Indonesia, to investigate the effect of artisanal fishing on juveniles and ecologically important herbivores. The results do not support the expected differences between locations due to habitat type and quality, nor the expected influence of fence characteristics on the catch. However, there is a significant downward trend in catch size over a 10-year period. These results indicate that the characteristics of the fish community are being distorted by the fish fences. This suggests that the agreed fishery regulations are inadequate and this artisanal fishing technique is unsustainable.

Additional keywords: artisanal fishing, feeding guild, herbivory, juvenile, Malthusian overfishing, Marine Protected Areas.


References

Adams, S. M. (1976). Feeding ecology of eelgrass communities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105, 514–519.
Feeding ecology of eelgrass communities.CrossRef | open url image1

Allen, G. R. (2008). Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18, 541–556.
Conservation hotspots of biodiversity and endemism for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.CrossRef | open url image1

Altman, J., Bek, H., and Roach, L. (1996). ‘Use of Wildlife by Indigenous Australians: Economic and Policy Perspectives.’ (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

Ashworth, J. S., Ormond, R. F. G., and Sturrock, H. T. (2004). Effects of reef-top gathering and fishing on invertebrate abundance across take and no-take zones. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 303, 221–242.
Effects of reef-top gathering and fishing on invertebrate abundance across take and no-take zones.CrossRef | open url image1

Aswani, S. (1998). Patterns of marine harvest efforts in south-western New Georgia, Solomon Islands: resource management or optimal foraging? Ocean and Coastal Management 40, 207–235.
Patterns of marine harvest efforts in south-western New Georgia, Solomon Islands: resource management or optimal foraging?CrossRef | open url image1

Baskett, M. L., Micheli, F., and Levin, S. A. (2007). Designing marine reserves for interacting species: insights from theory. Biological Conservation 137, 163–179.
Designing marine reserves for interacting species: insights from theory.CrossRef | open url image1

Beck, M. W., Heck, K. L., Able, K. W., Childers, D. L., Eggleston, D. B., Gillanders, B. M., Halpern, B. S., Hays, C. G., Hoshino, K., Minello, T. J., Orth, R. J., Sheridan, P. F., and Weinstein, M. P. (2003). The role of nearshore ecosystems as fish and shellfish nurseries. Issues in Ecology 11, 1–12. open url image1

Bejarano, S., Golbuu, Y., Sapolu, T., and Mumby, P. (2013). Ecological risk and the exploitation of herbivorous reef fish across Micronesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 482, 197–215.
Ecological risk and the exploitation of herbivorous reef fish across Micronesia.CrossRef | open url image1

Bellwood, D. R., and Fulton, C. J. (2008). Sediment-mediated suppression of herbivory on coral reefs: decreasing resilience to rising sea levels and climate change? Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography 53, 2695–2701.
Sediment-mediated suppression of herbivory on coral reefs: decreasing resilience to rising sea levels and climate change?CrossRef | open url image1

Bellwood, D. R., Hughes, T. P., Folke, C., and Nyström, M. (2004). Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429, 827–833.
Confronting the coral reef crisis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXltVKltb8%3D&md5=2c0cdef8dca6b64be0005003d7d3f9fbCAS | open url image1

Berkes, F., Mahon, R., Mcconney, P., Pollnac, R., and Pomeroy, R. (2001). ‘Managing Small-Scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods.’ (IDRC Books: Ottawa, ON, Canada.)

Briggs, J. C. (2005). Coral reefs: conserving the evolutionary sources. Biological Conservation 126, 297–305.
Coral reefs: conserving the evolutionary sources.CrossRef | open url image1

Burke, L. M., Reytar, K., Spalding, M., and Perry, A. (2011). ‘Reefs at Risk Revisited.’ (World Resources Institute: Washington DC, USA.)

Cabral, R., Cruz-Trinidad, A., Geronimo, R., Napitupulu, L., Lokani, P., Boso, D., Casal, C. M., Ahmad Fatan, N., and Aliño, P. (2013). Crisis sentinel indicators: averting a potential meltdown in the Coral Triangle. Marine Policy 39, 241–247.
Crisis sentinel indicators: averting a potential meltdown in the Coral Triangle.CrossRef | open url image1

Campbell, S. J., and Pardede, S. T. (2006). Reef fish structure and cascading effects in response to artisanal fishing pressure. Fisheries Research 79, 75–83.
Reef fish structure and cascading effects in response to artisanal fishing pressure.CrossRef | open url image1

Carpenter, K. E., and Niem, V. H. (2001). The living marine resources of the western Central Pacific. Volume 5: bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Castilla, J. C., and Defeo, O. (2001). Latin American benthic shellfisheries: emphasis on co-management and experimental practices. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11, 1–30.
Latin American benthic shellfisheries: emphasis on co-management and experimental practices.CrossRef | open url image1

Castilla, J. C., Gelcich, S., and Defeo, O. (2007). ‘Successes, Lessons, and Projections from Experience in Marine Benthic Invertebrate Artisanal Fisheries in Chile.’ (Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.)

Caughley, J., Bomford, M., and McNee, A. (1996). ‘Use of Wildlife by Indigenous Australians: Issues and Concepts.’ (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

Cinner, J., Marnane, M. J., McClanahan, T. R., and Almany, G. R. (2006). Periodic closures as adaptive coral reef management in the Indo-Pacific. Ecology and Society 11, art31.
Periodic closures as adaptive coral reef management in the Indo-Pacific.CrossRef | open url image1

Cinner, J., Daw, T. M., and McClanahan, T. R. (2009). Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers’ readiness to exit a declining fishery. Conservation Biology 23, 124–130.
Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers’ readiness to exit a declining fishery.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1M%2FntVGjsg%3D%3D&md5=2f6f6fcd3aae646e7245614f38b9ed92CAS | open url image1

Clifton, J., and Unsworth, R. K. F. (2010). Introduction. In ‘Marine Research and Conservation in the Coral Triangle: the Wakatobi National Park’. (Eds J. Clifton, R. K. F. Unsworth, and D. J. Smith.) pp. 9–17. (Nova Science Publishers: Hauppauge, NY, USA.)

Crabbe, J. M., and Smith, D. J. (2002). Comparison of two reef sites in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (SE Sulawesi, Indonesia) using digital image analysis. Coral Reefs 21, 242–244.
Comparison of two reef sites in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (SE Sulawesi, Indonesia) using digital image analysis.CrossRef | open url image1

Crabbe, J. M., and Smith, D. J. (2003). Computer modelling and estimation of recruitment patterns of nonbranching coral colonies at three sites in the Wakatobi Marine Park, S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia; implications for coral reef conservation. Computational Biology and Chemistry 27, 17–27.
Computer modelling and estimation of recruitment patterns of nonbranching coral colonies at three sites in the Wakatobi Marine Park, S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia; implications for coral reef conservation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXivFCitL4%3D&md5=5be461009813726368adacb7a55733e5CAS | open url image1

Crabbe, J. M., and Smith, D. J. (2005). Sediment impacts on growth rates of Acropora and Porites corals from fringing reefs of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Coral Reefs 24, 437–441.
Sediment impacts on growth rates of Acropora and Porites corals from fringing reefs of Sulawesi, Indonesia.CrossRef | open url image1

Crabbe, J. M., and Smith, D. J. (2006). Modelling variations in corallite morphology of Galaxea fascicularis coral colonies with depth and light on coastal fringing reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia). Computational Biology and Chemistry 30, 155–159.
Modelling variations in corallite morphology of Galaxea fascicularis coral colonies with depth and light on coastal fringing reefs in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjvFyisr4%3D&md5=185d807ef0441f2f28673c9b47ce4d98CAS | open url image1

Crabbe, J. M., Karaviotis, S., and Smith, D. J. (2004). Preliminary comparison of three coral reef sites in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (S.E. Sulawesi, Indonesia): estimated recruitment dates compared with Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Bulletin of Marine Science 74, 469–476. open url image1

Cullen, L. C. (2007). ‘Marine Resource Dependence, Resource Use Patterns and Identification of Economic Performance Criteria within a Small Island Community: Kaledupa, Indonesia.’ (University of Essex: Colchester, UK.)

Dalzell, P., Adams, T. J. H., and Polunin, N. V. (1996). Coastal fisheries in the Pacific islands. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 34, 395–531. open url image1

Dasgupta, P. (1997). Nutritional status, the capacity for work, and poverty traps. Journal of Econometrics 77, 5–37.
Nutritional status, the capacity for work, and poverty traps.CrossRef | open url image1

de Oliveira, F. C., and Hanazaki, N. (2011). Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Environmental Management 92, 1783–1792.
Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.CrossRef | open url image1

Dunn, D. C., Stewart, K., Bjorkland, R. H., Haughton, M., Singh-Renton, S., Lewison, R., Thorne, L., and Halpin, P. N. (2010). A regional analysis of coastal and domestic fishing effort in the wider Caribbean. Fisheries Research 102, 60–68.
A regional analysis of coastal and domestic fishing effort in the wider Caribbean.CrossRef | open url image1

Dutton, I. M. (2005). If only fish could vote: the enduring challenges of coastal and marine resources management in post-reformasi Indonesia. In ‘The Politics and Economics of Indonesia’s Natural Resources’. (Ed. B. Resosudarmo.) pp. 162–179. (ISEAS Publications: Singapore.)

Duxbury, A., and Duxbury, A. (1996). ‘Fundamentals of Oceanography’, 2 edn. (C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque, IA, USA.)

Ebisawa, A. (1997). Some aspects of reproduction and sexuality in the spotcheek emperor, Lethrinus rubrioperculatus, in waters off the Ryukyu Islands. Ichthyological Research 44, 201–212.
Some aspects of reproduction and sexuality in the spotcheek emperor, Lethrinus rubrioperculatus, in waters off the Ryukyu Islands.CrossRef | open url image1

Epstein, N., Bak, R. P. M., and Rinkevich, B. (1999). Implementation of a small-scale ‘no-use zone’ policy in a reef ecosystem: Eilat’s reef-lagoon six years later. Coral Reefs 18, 327–332.
Implementation of a small-scale ‘no-use zone’ policy in a reef ecosystem: Eilat’s reef-lagoon six years later.CrossRef | open url image1

Exton, D. (2010). Nearshore fisheries of the Wakatobi. In ‘Marine Research and Conservation in the Coral Triangle: The Wakatobi National Park’. (Eds J. Clifton, R. K. F. Unsworth, and D. J. Smith.) pp. 183–197. (Nova Science Publishers, Inc: Hauppauge, NY, USA.)

Exton, D. (2011). Conservation efforts to restrict over-fishing in Wakatobi. In Biodiversity Science, issue 3. Available at http://www.biodiversityscience.com/2011/07/25/restrict-over-fishing-wakatobi/ [Verified 5 December 2016].

Exton, D., and Smith, D. J. (2011). Coral reef fisheries and the role of communities in their management. In ‘Fishery Management (Fish, Fishing, and Fisheries)’. (Ed. J. S. Intilli.) pp. 1–21. (Nova Science Publishers, Inc.: Hauppauge, NY, USA.)

Exton, D., Simonin, P., and Smith, D. J. (2015). Artisanal fisheries and community-based management. In ‘Routledge Handbook of Environment and Society in Asia’. (Eds. P.G. Harris and G. Lang.) pp. 277–291. (Routledge: Abingdon, UK.)

FAO (2001). Fishing gear types. Fyke nets. Technology fact sheets. (FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.) Available at http://www.fao.org/fishery/geartype/226/en [Verified 28 September 2016].

Fenner, D. (2014). Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species. Marine Pollution Bulletin 84, 9–16.
Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXps1Wks7k%3D&md5=391880d41b378beb614e473b15ce9323CAS | open url image1

Ferry, R., and Kohler, C. (1987). Effects of trap fishing on fish populations inhabiting a fringing coral reef. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7, 580–588.
Effects of trap fishing on fish populations inhabiting a fringing coral reef.CrossRef | open url image1

Fox, R. J., and Bellwood, D. R. (2007). Quantifying herbivory across a coral reef depth gradient. Marine Ecology Progress Series 339, 49–59.
Quantifying herbivory across a coral reef depth gradient.CrossRef | open url image1

Freire, K. M. F., and Oliveira, T. L. S. (2007). ‘Reconstructing Catches of marine Commercial Fisheries for Brazil.’ (The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia: Vancouver, BC, Canada.)

Freire, K. M. F., and Pauly, D. (2005). Richness of common names of Brazilian marine fishes and its effect on catch statistics. Journal of Ethnobiology 25, 279–296.
Richness of common names of Brazilian marine fishes and its effect on catch statistics.CrossRef | open url image1

Friedlander, A., and DeMartini, E. (2002). Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian Islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series 230, 253–264.
Contrasts in density, size, and biomass of reef fishes between the northwestern and the main Hawaiian Islands: the effects of fishing down apex predators.CrossRef | open url image1

Froese, R., Zeller, D., Kleisner, K., and Pauly, D. (2012). What catch data can tell us about the status of global fisheries. Marine Biology 159, 1283–1292.
What catch data can tell us about the status of global fisheries.CrossRef | open url image1

Garrison, V. H., Rogers, C., and Beets, J. (1998). Of reef fishes, overfishing and in situ observations of fish traps in St John, US Virgin Islands. Revista de Biologia Tropical 46, 41–59. open url image1

Gell, F. R., and Roberts, C. M. (2003). Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18, 448–455.
Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves.CrossRef | open url image1

Guidetti, P., and Claudet, J. (2010). Comanagement practices enhance fisheries in marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 24, 312–318.
Comanagement practices enhance fisheries in marine protected areas.CrossRef | open url image1

Halford, A. (2003). Fish diversity and distribution. In ‘Rapid Ecological Assessment Wakatobi National Park’. (Eds L. Pet-Soede and M. Erdmann.) pp. 53–64. (WWF/TNC Joint Publication: Denpasar, Indonesia.)

Halpern, B. S., Gaines, S., and Warner, R. R. (2004). Confounding effects of the export of production and the displacement of fishing effort from marine reserves. Ecological Applications 14, 1248–1256.
Confounding effects of the export of production and the displacement of fishing effort from marine reserves.CrossRef | open url image1

Hasse, J. J., Madraisau, B. B., and McVey, J. P. (1977). Some aspects of the life history of Siganus canaliculatus Park (Pisces: Siganidae) in Palau. Micronesica 13, 297–312. open url image1

Hawkins, J. P., and Roberts, C. M. (2004). Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes. Biological Conservation 115, 213–226.
Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes.CrossRef | open url image1

Hilborn, R. (2005). ‘Are Sustainable Fisheries Achievable?’ (Island Press: Washington, DC, USA.)

Holden, M. J., and Raitt, D. F. S. (1974). Manual of fisheries science. FAO Fisheries Technical Report number 115. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Holling, C. S. (2001). Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological and social systems. Ecosystems 4, 390–405.
Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological and social systems.CrossRef | open url image1

Jennings, S., and Polunin, N. V. (1997). Impacts of predator depletion by fishing on the biomass and diversity of non-target reef fish communities. Coral Reefs 16, 71–82.
Impacts of predator depletion by fishing on the biomass and diversity of non-target reef fish communities.CrossRef | open url image1

Khalaf, M. A., and Kochzius, M. (2002). Changes in trophic community structure of shore fishes at an industrial site in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 239, 287–299.
Changes in trophic community structure of shore fishes at an industrial site in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.CrossRef | open url image1

Kronen, M., Magron, F., McArdle, B., and Vunisea, A. (2010). Reef finfishing pressure risk model for Pacific Island countries and territories. Fisheries Research 101, 1–10.
Reef finfishing pressure risk model for Pacific Island countries and territories.CrossRef | open url image1

Kuiter, R. H., and Tonozuka, T. (2001). ‘Pictoral Guide to Indonesian Reef Fishes. Part 3. Jawfishes – Sunfishes, Opistognathidae – Molidae.’ (Zoonetics: Melbourne, Vic, Australia.)

Mallory, T. G. (2015). Fisheries in East Asia: political, economic and security challenges. In ‘Routledge Handbook of Environment and Society in Asia’. (Eds. P.G. Harris and G. Lang.) pp. 253–277. (Routledge: Abingdon, UK.)

Mangi, S. C., and Roberts, C. M. (2006). Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya’s coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52, 1646–1660.
Quantifying the environmental impacts of artisanal fishing gear on Kenya’s coral reef ecosystems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1OhurbL&md5=dcf8e76b724ee4858df45eb3dff61342CAS | open url image1

Marine Management Organisation (2014). Determining mesh size during an inspection. Available at http://www.marinemanagement.org.uk/fisheries/monitoring/net_determining.html [Verified 12 April 2014].

May, D. (2008). Kaledupa fisheries report: Mach 2008. Operation Wallacea Trust, Spilsby, UK.

May, D., and Coles, T. (2004). Proposed strategy for the recovery of the Kaledupan coastal fisheries. Operation Wallacea Trust, Spilsby, UK.

McClanahan, T. R., and Castilla, J. C. (2007). ‘Fisheries Management.’ (Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, UK.)

McClanahan, T. R., and Graham, N. A. (2005). Recovery trajectories of coral reef fish assemblages within Kenyan marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 294, 241–248.
Recovery trajectories of coral reef fish assemblages within Kenyan marine protected areas.CrossRef | open url image1

McClanahan, T. R., and Mangi, S. C. (2004). Gear-based management of a tropical artisanal fishery based on species selectivity and capture size. Fisheries Management and Ecology 11, 51–60.
Gear-based management of a tropical artisanal fishery based on species selectivity and capture size.CrossRef | open url image1

McClanahan, T. R., Muthiga, N. A., Kamukuru, A. T., Machano, H., and Kiambo, R. W. (1999). The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania. Biological Conservation 89, 161–182.
The effects of marine parks and fishing on coral reefs of northern Tanzania.CrossRef | open url image1

McClanahan, T. R., Polunin, N. V., and Done, T. (2002). Ecological status and the resilience of coral reefs. Conservation Ecology 6, art18.
Ecological status and the resilience of coral reefs.CrossRef | open url image1

Miller, R., and Hunte, W. (1987). Effective area fished by Antillean fish traps. Bulletin of Marine Science 40, 484–493. open url image1

Miller, K. I., and Russ, G. R. (2014). Studies of no-take marine reserves: methods for differentiating reserve and habitat effects. Ocean and Coastal Management 96, 51–60.
Studies of no-take marine reserves: methods for differentiating reserve and habitat effects.CrossRef | open url image1

Mumby, P. J. (2006). Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales. Biological Conservation 128, 215–222.
Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales.CrossRef | open url image1

Mumby, P., and Harborne, A. R. (2010). Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs. PLoS One 5, e8657.
Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.CrossRef | open url image1

Murray, S. N., Ambrose, R. F., Bohnsack, J. A., Botsford, L. W., Carr, M. H., Davis, G. E., Dayton, P. K., Gotshall, D., Gunderson, D. R., Hixon, M. A., Lubchenco, J., Mangel, M., Maccall, A., Mcardle, D. A., Ogden, J. C., Roughgarden, J., Starr, R. M., Tenger, M. J., and Yoklavich, M. M. (1999). No-take reserve networks: sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems. Fisheries 24, 11–25.
No-take reserve networks: sustaining fishery populations and marine ecosystems.CrossRef | open url image1

Myers, R. A., and Ottensmeyer, C. A. (2005). Extinction risk in marine species. In ‘Marine Conservation Biology: the Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity’. (Eds E. A. Norse and L. B. Crowder.) pp. 126–174. (Island Press: Washington, DC, USA.)

Nagelkerken, I., Dorenbosch, M., Verberk, W., de la Moriniere, E. C., and van der Velde, G. (2000a). Importance of shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay for juvenile coral reef fishes: patterns in biotope association, community structure and spatial distribution. Marine Ecology Progress Series 202, 175–192.
Importance of shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay for juvenile coral reef fishes: patterns in biotope association, community structure and spatial distribution.CrossRef | open url image1

Nagelkerken, I., van der Velde, G., Gorissen, M. W., Meijer, G. J., Van’t Hof, T., and den Hartog, C. (2000b). Importance of mangroves, seagrass beds and the shallow coral reef as a nursery for important coral reef fishes, using a visual census technique. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 51, 31–44.
Importance of mangroves, seagrass beds and the shallow coral reef as a nursery for important coral reef fishes, using a visual census technique.CrossRef | open url image1

Newton, K., Côté, I. M., Pilling, G. M., Jennings, S., and Dulvy, N. K. (2007). Current and future sustainability of island coral reef fisheries. Current Biology 17, 655–658.
Current and future sustainability of island coral reef fisheries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjslGmsr8%3D&md5=286071e693f1ebbc08404cbf13d7d7b6CAS | open url image1

Nielsen, L. A. (1999). History of inland fisheries management in North America. In ‘Inland Fisheries Management in North America’, 2nd edn. (Eds C. C. Kohler and W. A. Hubert.) pp. 3–30. (American Fisheries Society. University of California: Berkeley, CA, USA.)

Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Guenette, S., Pitcher, T. J., Sumaila, R., Walters, C. J., Watson, R. A., and Zeller, D. (2002). Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418, 689–695.
Towards sustainability in world fisheries.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XlvVyltbg%3D&md5=88e9b976f5369576db0630869ad87513CAS | open url image1

Pet-Soede, C., and Erdmann, M. (2003). Rapid ecological assessment Wakatobi National Park. (WWF/TNC Joint Publication, Denpasar, Indonesia.

Pet-Soede, C., van Densen, W. L. T., Pet, J. S., and Machiels, M. A. M. (2001). Impact of Indonesian coral reef fisheries on fish community structure and the resultant catch composition. Fisheries Research 51, 35–51.
Impact of Indonesian coral reef fisheries on fish community structure and the resultant catch composition.CrossRef | open url image1

Purcell, S. W., and Bellwood, D. R. (2001). Spatial patterns of epilithic algal and detrital resources on a windward coral reef. Coral Reefs 20, 117–125.
Spatial patterns of epilithic algal and detrital resources on a windward coral reef.CrossRef | open url image1

Resosudarmo, B. (2005). ‘The Politics and Economics of Indonesia’s Natural Resources.’ (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISEAS Publications: Singapore.)

Roberts, C. M. (1997). Ecological advice for the global fisheries crisis. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12, 35–38.
Ecological advice for the global fisheries crisis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7itFGrug%3D%3D&md5=b6ca4badd230102dbc7aff9e9927366aCAS | open url image1

Robichaud, D., Hunte, W., and Oxenford, H. A. (1999). Effects of increased mesh size on catch and fishing power of coral reef fish traps. Fisheries Research 39, 275–294.
Effects of increased mesh size on catch and fishing power of coral reef fish traps.CrossRef | open url image1

Russ, G. R., Alcala, A. C., Maypa, A. P., Calumpong, H. P., and White, A. T. (2004). Marine reserve benefits local fisheries. Ecological Applications 14, 597–606.
Marine reserve benefits local fisheries.CrossRef | open url image1

Sandin, S. A., Smith, J. E., DeMartini, E. E., Dinsdale, E. A., Donner, S. D., Friedlander, A. M., Konotchick, T., Malay, M., Maragos, J., Obura, D., Pantos, O., Paulay, G., Richie, M., Rohwer, F., Schroeder, R., Walsh, S., Jackson, J., Knowlton, N., and Sala, E. (2008). Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the northern Line Islands. PLoS One 3, e1548.
Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the northern Line Islands.CrossRef | open url image1

Shepherd, S., Brook, J., and Xiao, Y. (2010). Environmental and fishing effects on the abundance, size and sex ratio of the blue-throated wrasse, Notolabrus tetricus, on South Australian coastal reefs. Fisheries Management and Ecology 17, 209–220.
Environmental and fishing effects on the abundance, size and sex ratio of the blue-throated wrasse, Notolabrus tetricus, on South Australian coastal reefs.CrossRef | open url image1

Smith, D. J. (2009). Summary report on changes to reef habitat quality and in the abundance and assemblage of coral reef fish. Coral Reef Research Unit. University of Essex, Colchester, UK.

Smith, D. J., Pilgrim, S., and Cullen, L. C. (2007). Coral reefs and people. Chapter 35. In ‘SAGE Handbook on Environment and Society’. (Eds J .Pretty, A. Ball, T. Benton, J. Guivant, D. Lee, D. Orr, M. Pfeffer, and H. Ward.) pp. 500–517. (Sage Publications: London, UK.)

Spalding, M. D., Taylor, M. L., Ravilious, C., Short, F. T., and Green, E. P. (2003). Global Overview: the distribution and status of seagrasses. In ‘World Atlas of Seagrasses.’ (Eds E. P. Green and F. T. Short.) pp. 21–42. (University of California Press: Berkley, CA, USA.)

Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., and Collins, L. (Eds) (2010). ‘World Atlas of Mangroves.’ (Earthscan: London, UK.)

Stanford, R. (2008). Kaledupa fisheries report: May 2008. Darwin Initiative Technical Report, Operation Wallacea, Spilsby, UK.

Stevenson, D. G., and Stuart-Starkey, P. (1980). Performance of wire fish traps on the western coast of Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 32, 173–193. open url image1

Stuart-Smith, R. D., Barrett, N. S., Crawford, C. M., Frusher, S. D., Stevenson, D. G., and Edgar, G. J. (2008). Spatial patterns in impacts of fishing on temperate rocky reefs: are fish abundance and mean size related to proximity to fisher access points? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 365, 116–125.
Spatial patterns in impacts of fishing on temperate rocky reefs: are fish abundance and mean size related to proximity to fisher access points?CrossRef | open url image1

Turak, E. (2003). Coral diversity and distribution. In ‘Rapid Ecological Assessment Wakatobi National Park’. (Eds L. Pet-Soede and M. Erdmann.) pp. 33–52. (WWF/TNC Joint Publication: Denpasar, Indonesia.)

Tyus, H. M. (2012). ‘Ecology and Conservation of Fishes.’ (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA.)

Unsworth, R. K. F. (2010). Seagrass meadows of the Wakatobi National Park. In ‘Marine Research and Conservation in the Coral Triangle: The Wakatobi National Park’. (Eds J. Clifton, R. K. F. Unsworth, and D. J. Smith.) pp. 49–66. (Nova Science Publishers, Inc.: Hauppage, NY, USA.)

Unsworth, R. K. F., Salinas De Leon, P., Garrard, S. L., Jompa, J., Smith, D. J., and Bell, J. J. (2008). High connectivity of Indo-Pacific seagrass fish assemblages with mangrove and coral reef habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 353, 213–224.
High connectivity of Indo-Pacific seagrass fish assemblages with mangrove and coral reef habitats.CrossRef | open url image1

Unsworth, R. K. F., Hinder, S. L., Bodger, O. G., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2014). Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle. Environmental Research Letters 9, 094005.
Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle.CrossRef | open url image1

Veron, J. E. N. (2000). ‘Corals of the World.’ (Australian Institute of Marine Science: Townsville, Qld, Australia.)

Watson, R. A., Cheung, W. W., Anticamara, J. A., Sumaila, R. U., Zeller, D., and Pauly, D. (2013). Global marine yield halved as fishing intensity redoubles. Fish and Fisheries 14, 493–503.
Global marine yield halved as fishing intensity redoubles.CrossRef | open url image1

Wilkinson, C. (2004). Status of Coral Reefs of the World. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Townsville, Qld, Australia.

Wilkinson, C. (2008). Status of Coral Reefs of the World. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Qld, Australia.

Wilson, S. K., Bellwood, D. R., Choat, J. H., and Furnas, M. (2003). Detritus in coral reef ecosystems and its use by coral reef fishes. Oceanography and Marine Biology – an Annual Review 41, 279–309. open url image1

Woodland, D. J. (1990). Revision of the fish family Siganidae with descriptions of two new species and comments on distribution and biology. Indo-Pacific Fishes 19, 136. open url image1


Retraction (691 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)