Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Euphausiid assemblages of the oceanographically complex north-west marine bioregion of Australia

Alicia L. Sutton A B and Lynnath E. Beckley A

A Environmental & Conservation Sciences, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: alicialouisesutton@gmail.com

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16334
Submitted: 27 September 2016  Accepted: 24 January 2017   Published online: 10 April 2017

Abstract

The north-west marine bioregion of Australia, which includes the waters adjacent to the Kimberley and Ningaloo coasts, is influenced by both the Indian and Pacific oceans and has high tropical biodiversity, some of which is conserved in a suite of Marine Protected Areas. In the present study, the epipelagic euphausiid assemblages of this bioregion were investigated and related to the physical and biogeochemical properties of the water column, as well as food availability. Twenty-five euphausiid species were identified, including three new records for Australian waters. Pseudeuphausia latifrons was the most abundant species, dominating the shelf waters across both study areas. Stylocheiron carinatum replaced P. latifrons in the deeper waters where species richness was greater. Off Ningaloo, there were higher concentrations of euphausiids, and this may be linked to the bathymetry, the narrowness of the shelf and the resultant effects of these features on oceanography and biogeochemistry. Assemblages were primarily structured by depth, but mean seawater density, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence and mesozooplankton abundance also significantly explained some of the variation in euphausiid assemblages. The present study has confirmed that the physical and biogeochemical properties of the water column and food availability are recurrent factors affecting euphausiid assemblage variation in the eastern Indian Ocean.

Additional keywords: Euphausiacea, krill, oceanography, tropical.


References

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26, 32–46. open url image1

Anderson, M. J., Gorley, R. N., and Clarke, K. R. (2008). ‘PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: Guide Software and Statistical Methods’. (PRIMER-E: Plymouth, UK).

Antezana, T. (2009). Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem. Progress in Oceanography 83, 228–236.
Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt Current Ecosystem.CrossRef | open url image1

Ashjian, C. J., Scott, C. S., Gallager, S. M., Wiebe, P. H., and Lawson, G. L. (2008). Distribution of larval krill and zooplankton in association with hydrography in Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, in austral fall and winter 2001 described using the Video Plankton Recorder. Deep-sea Research – II. Topical Studies in Oceanography 55, 455–471.
Distribution of larval krill and zooplankton in association with hydrography in Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, in austral fall and winter 2001 described using the Video Plankton Recorder.CrossRef | open url image1

Baker, A. de C., Boden, P., and Brinton, E. (1990). ‘A Practical Guide to Euphausiids of the World.’ (British Museum (Natural History): London, UK).

Barange, M., and Stuart, V. (1991). Distribution patterns, abundance and population dynamics of the euphausiids Euphausia hanseni and Nyctiphanes capensis in the northern Benguela upwelling system. Marine Biology 109, 93–101.
Distribution patterns, abundance and population dynamics of the euphausiids Euphausia hanseni and Nyctiphanes capensis in the northern Benguela upwelling system.CrossRef | open url image1

Brink, K. H., Bahr, F., and Shearman, R. K. (2007). Alongshore currents and mesoscale variability near the shelf edge off northwestern Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C05013.
Alongshore currents and mesoscale variability near the shelf edge off northwestern Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Brinton, E. (1962). The distribution of Pacific euphausiids. Bulletin of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography 8, 51–269. open url image1

Brinton, E. (1975). ‘Euphausiids of Southeast Asian Waters.’ (University of California, Scripps Institution of Oceanography: La Jolla, CA, USA.)

Brinton, E., and Gopalakrishnan, K. (1973). The distribution of Indian Ocean euphausiids. In ‘Biology of the Indian Ocean’. (Ed. B. Zeitzschell.) pp. 357–382. (Chapman and Hall: London, UK.)

Brinton, E., Ohman, M. D., Townsend, A. W., Knight, M. D., and Bridgeman, A. L. (2000). ‘Euphausiids of the World Ocean’, World Biodiversity Database CD-ROM Series. (CD-ROM) (Springer.)

Chittleborough, R. G. (1965). Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 16, 33–128.
Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski).CrossRef | open url image1

Church, J. A., and Craig, P. D. (1998). Australia’s shelf seas: diversity and complexity coastal segment (30,W-S). In ‘The Sea: Ideas and Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas’. (Eds A. R. Robinson and K. H. Brink.). pp. 933–964. (Wiley: New York, NY, USA.)

Clarke, K. R., and Gorley, R. N. (2015). ‘PRIMER v7: User Manual/Tutorial.’ (PRIMER-E: Plymouth, UK.)

Clarke, K. R., and Warwick, R. M. (2001). ‘Changes in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation.’ 2nd edn. (PRIMER-E: Plymouth, UK.)

Clarke, K. R., Tweedley, J. T., and Valesini, F. J. (2014). Simple shade plots aid better long-term choices of data pre-treatment in multivariate assemblage studies. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94, 1–16.
Simple shade plots aid better long-term choices of data pre-treatment in multivariate assemblage studies.CrossRef | open url image1

Condie, S. A., and Andrewartha, J. R. (2008). Circulation and connectivity on the Australian North West Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 28, 1724–1739.
Circulation and connectivity on the Australian North West Shelf.CrossRef | open url image1

Condie, S. A., and Dunn, J. R. (2006). Seasonal characteristics of the surface mixed layer in the Australasian region: implications for primary production regimes and biogeography. Marine and Freshwater Research 57, 569–590.
Seasonal characteristics of the surface mixed layer in the Australasian region: implications for primary production regimes and biogeography.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XovVeksr8%3D&md5=819ffc304649e658ea2a0b039a04c8f5CAS | open url image1

Cresswell, G. R., and Peterson, J. L. (1993). The Leeuwin Current south of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44, 285–303. open url image1

D’Adamo, N. D., Fandry, C., Buchan, S., and Domingues, C. (2009). Northern sources of the Leeuwin Current and the ‘Holloway Current’ on the North West Shelf. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 92, 53–63. open url image1

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2012). ‘Marine Bioregional Plan for the North-west Marine Region.’ (Australian Government: Canberra, ACT, Australia.)

Domingues, C. M., Maltrud, M. E., Wijffels, S. E., Church, J. A., and Tomczak, M. (2007). Simulated Lagrangian pathways between the Leeuwin Current System and the upper-ocean circulation of the southeast Indian Ocean. Deep-sea Research – II. Topical Studies in Oceanography 54, 797–817.
Simulated Lagrangian pathways between the Leeuwin Current System and the upper-ocean circulation of the southeast Indian Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Feng, M., and Wijffels, S. (2002). Intraseasonal variability in the South Equatorial Current of the East Indian Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography 32, 265–277.
Intraseasonal variability in the South Equatorial Current of the East Indian Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Feng, M., Meyers, G., and Wijffels, S. (2001). Interannual upper ocean variability in the tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 28, 4151–4154.
Interannual upper ocean variability in the tropical Indian Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Feng, M., Meyers, G., Pearce, A., and Wijffels, S. (2003). Annual and interannual variations of the Leeuwin Current at 32°S. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, 3355.
Annual and interannual variations of the Leeuwin Current at 32°S.CrossRef | open url image1

Fox, N. J., and Beckley, L. E. (2005). Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: a comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches. Biological Conservation 125, 399–410.
Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: a comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches.CrossRef | open url image1

Gibbons, M. (1997). Pelagic biogeography of the South Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology 129, 757–768.
Pelagic biogeography of the South Atlantic Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Gibbons, M. (1999). ‘An Introduction to the Zooplankton of the Benguela Current Region.’ (University of Western Cape: Bellville, South Africa.)

Gibbons, M. J., Barange, M., and Hutchings, L. (1995). Zoogeography and diversity of euphausiids around southern Africa. Marine Biology 123, 257–268.
Zoogeography and diversity of euphausiids around southern Africa.CrossRef | open url image1

Godfrey, J. S., and Ridgway, K. R. (1985). The large-scale environment of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, Western Australia: longshore steric height gradients, wind stresses and geostrophic flow. Journal of Physical Oceanography 15, 481–495.
The large-scale environment of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, Western Australia: longshore steric height gradients, wind stresses and geostrophic flow.CrossRef | open url image1

Gómez-Gutiérrez, J., and Robinson, C. J. (2006). Tidal current transport of epibenthic swarms of the euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex in a shallow, subtropical bay on Baja California peninsula, México. Marine Ecology Progress Series 320, 215–231.
Tidal current transport of epibenthic swarms of the euphausiid Nyctiphanes simplex in a shallow, subtropical bay on Baja California peninsula, México.CrossRef | open url image1

Gómez-Gutiérrez, J., Palomares-Garcia, R., and Gendron, D. (1995). Community structure of the euphausiid populations along the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, during the weak ENSO 1986–1987. Marine Ecology Progress Series 120, 41–51.
Community structure of the euphausiid populations along the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, during the weak ENSO 1986–1987.CrossRef | open url image1

Hirota, Y. (1987). Vertical distribution of euphausiids in the Western Pacific Ocean and the Eastern Indian Ocean. Bulletin of the Japan Sea Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory 37, 175–224. open url image1

Holliday, D., Beckley, L. E., Weller, E., and Sutton, A. L. (2011). Natural variability of macro-zooplankton and larval fishes off the Kimberley, north-western Australia: Preliminary findings. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94, 85–99. open url image1

Holloway, P. E. (1983). Tides on the Australian North West Shelf. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34, 213–230.
Tides on the Australian North West Shelf.CrossRef | open url image1

Holloway, P. E., and Nye, H. C. (1985). Leeuwin Current and wind distributions on the southern part of the Australian North West Shelf between January 1982 and July 1983. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36, 123–137.
Leeuwin Current and wind distributions on the southern part of the Australian North West Shelf between January 1982 and July 1983.CrossRef | open url image1

Itoh, T., Kemps, H., and Totterdell, J. (2011). Diet of young southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii in the southwestern coastal waters of Australia in summer. Fisheries Science 77, 337–344.
Diet of young southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii in the southwestern coastal waters of Australia in summer.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXltlGgur0%3D&md5=9bceb68d9fa0650f6c2e75ce822ac540CAS | open url image1

Jarman, S. N., and Wilson, S. G. (2004). DNA-based species identification of krill consumed by whale sharks. Journal of Fish Biology 65, 586–591.
DNA-based species identification of krill consumed by whale sharks.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnslOnsr0%3D&md5=81de8a386c0def3e77a649c4da34a2c1CAS | open url image1

Legendre, P., and Anderson, M. J. (1999). Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments. Ecological Monographs 69, 1–24.
Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments.CrossRef | open url image1

Liu, Q., Feng, M., Wang, D., and Wijffels, S. (2015). Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport: a revisit based on 30 year expendable bathythermograph data. Journal of Geophysical Research 120, 8270–8282. open url image1

Lough, J. M. (1998). Coastal climate of northwest Australia and comparisons with the Great Barrier Reef: 1960 to 1992. Coral Reefs 17, 351–367.
Coastal climate of northwest Australia and comparisons with the Great Barrier Reef: 1960 to 1992.CrossRef | open url image1

Lowe, R. J., Ivey, G. N., Brinkman, R. M., and Jones, N. J. (2012). Seasonal circulation and temperature variability near the North West Cape of Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans 117, C04010. open url image1

Mauchline, J., and Fisher, L. R. (1969). The biology of euphausiids. In ‘Advances in Marine Biology’. Vol. 7. (Eds F. S. Russell and M. Young.) pp. 1–454. (Academic Press: London, UK.)

McKinnon, A. D., Duggan, S., Carleton, J. H., and Bottger–Schnack, R. (2008). Summer planktonic copepod communities of Australia’s NorthWest Cape (Indian Ocean) during the 1997–99 El Niño/La Niña. Journal of Plankton Research 30, 839–855.
Summer planktonic copepod communities of Australia’s NorthWest Cape (Indian Ocean) during the 1997–99 El Niño/La Niña.CrossRef | open url image1

McKinnon, A. D., Doyle, J., Duggan, S., Logan, M., Lonborg, C., and Brinkman, R. (2015a). Zooplankton growth, respiration and grazing on the Australian margins of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. PLoS One 10, e0140012.
Zooplankton growth, respiration and grazing on the Australian margins of the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans.CrossRef | open url image1

McKinnon, A. D., Duggan, S., Holliday, D., and Brinkman, R. (2015b). Plankton community structure and connectivity in the Kimberley–Browse region of NW Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 153, 156–167.
Plankton community structure and connectivity in the Kimberley–Browse region of NW Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

McWilliam, P. S. (1977). Further studies of plankton ecosystems in the Eastern Indian Ocean VI. Ecology of the Euphausiacea. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 28, 627–644.
Further studies of plankton ecosystems in the Eastern Indian Ocean VI. Ecology of the Euphausiacea.CrossRef | open url image1

Menezes, V. V., Phillips, H. E., Schiller, A., Domingues, C. M., and Bindoff, N. L. (2013). Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral Current. Geophysical Research Letters 40, 5716–5721.
Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral Current.CrossRef | open url image1

Menezes, V. V., Phillips, H. E., Schiller, A., Bindoff, N. L., Domingues, C. M., and Vianna, M. L. (2014). South Indian Countercurrent and associated fronts. Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans 119, 6763–6791.
South Indian Countercurrent and associated fronts.CrossRef | open url image1

Meyers, G. (1996). Variation of Indonesian Throughflow and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans 101, 12255–12263.
Variation of Indonesian Throughflow and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.CrossRef | open url image1

Meyers, G., Bailey, R. J., and Worby, A. P. (1995). Geostrophic transport of Indonesian Throughflow. Deep-sea Research – I. Oceanographic Research Papers 42, 1163–1174.
Geostrophic transport of Indonesian Throughflow.CrossRef | open url image1

Ridgway, K. R., and Condie, S. A. (2004). The 5500-km-long boundary flow off western and southern Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, C04017.
The 5500-km-long boundary flow off western and southern Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Riquelme-Bugueño, R., Núñez, S., Jorquera, E., Valenzuela, L., Escribano, R., and Hormazábal, S. (2012). The influence of upwelling variation on the spatially structured euphausiid community off central-southern Chile in 2007–2008. Progress in Oceanography 92–95, 146–165.
The influence of upwelling variation on the spatially structured euphausiid community off central-southern Chile in 2007–2008.CrossRef | open url image1

Ross, R., and Quetin, L. (2000). Reproduction in Euphausiacea. In ‘Krill: Biology, Ecology and Fisheries’. (Eds I. Everson.) pp. 150–181. (Blackwell: Oxford, UK.)

Rossi, V., Feng, M., Pattiaratchi, C., Roughan, M., and Waite, A. M. (2013a). Linking synoptic forcing and local mesoscale processes with biological dynamics off Ningaloo Reef. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 118, 1211–1225.
Linking synoptic forcing and local mesoscale processes with biological dynamics off Ningaloo Reef.CrossRef | open url image1

Rossi, V., Feng, M., Pattiaratchi, C., Roughan, M., and Waite, A. M. (2013b). On the factors influencing the development of sporadic upwelling in the Leeuwin Current system. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 118, 3608–3621.
On the factors influencing the development of sporadic upwelling in the Leeuwin Current system.CrossRef | open url image1

Rousseaux, C. S. G., Lowe, R., Feng, M., Waite, A. M., and Thompson, P. A. (2012). The role of the Leeuwin Current and mixed layer depth on the autumn phytoplankton bloom off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Continental Shelf Research 32, 22–35.
The role of the Leeuwin Current and mixed layer depth on the autumn phytoplankton bloom off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Susanto, R. D., and Song, Y. T. (2015). Indonesian Throughflow proxy from satellite altimeters and gravimeters. Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans 120, 2844–2855.
Indonesian Throughflow proxy from satellite altimeters and gravimeters.CrossRef | open url image1

Susanto, R. D., Ffield, A., Gordon, A. L., and Adi, T. R. (2012). Variability of Indonesian Throughflow within Makassar Straight, 2004–2009. Journal of Geophysical Research 117, C09013.
Variability of Indonesian Throughflow within Makassar Straight, 2004–2009.CrossRef | open url image1

Suthers, I. M., and Rissik, D. (2009). ‘Plankton: a Guide to Their Ecology and Monitoring for Water Quality’. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Vic., Australia.)

Sutton, A. L., and Beckley, L. E. (2016). Influence of the Leeuwin Current on the epipelagic euphausiid assemblages of the south-east Indian Ocean. Hydrobiologia 779, 193.
Influence of the Leeuwin Current on the epipelagic euphausiid assemblages of the south-east Indian Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Sutton, A. L., Beckley, L. E., and Holliday, D. (2015). Euphausiid assemblages in and around a developing anticyclonic Leeuwin Current eddy in the south-east Indian Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 98, 9–18. open url image1

Taniguchi, A. (1974). Mysids and euphausiids in the eastern Indian Ocean with particular reference to invasion of species from the Banda Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 16, 349–357. open url image1

Thompson, P. A., and Bonham, P. (2011). New insights into the Kimberley phytoplankton and their ecology. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94, 161–169. open url image1

Tranter, D. J. (1962). Zooplankton abundance in Australasian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 13, 106–142.
Zooplankton abundance in Australasian waters.CrossRef | open url image1

Van Gastel, P., Ivey, G. N., Meuleners, M., Antenucci, J. P., and Fringer, O. (2009). The variability of the large-amplitude internal wave field on the Australian North West Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 29, 1373–1383.
The variability of the large-amplitude internal wave field on the Australian North West Shelf.CrossRef | open url image1

Wells, F. E. (1980). The distribution of shallow-water marine prosobranch gastropod molluscs along the coastline of Western Australia. The Veliger 22, 232–247. open url image1

Wilson, B. (2013). ‘The Biogeography of the Australian North West Shelf: Environmental Change and Life’s Response’. (Elsevier: Burlington, MA, USA.)

Wilson, S. G., Pauly, T., and Meekan, M. G. (2001). Daytime surface swarming by Pseudeuphausia latifrons (Crustacea, Euphausiacea) off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Bulletin of Marine Science 68, 157–162. open url image1

Wilson, S. G., Meekan, M. G., Carleton, J. H., and Knott, B. (2003a). Distribution, abundance and reproductive biology of Pseudeuphausia latifrons and other euphausiids on the southern North West Shelf, Western Australia. Marine Biology 142, 369–379.
Distribution, abundance and reproductive biology of Pseudeuphausia latifrons and other euphausiids on the southern North West Shelf, Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Wilson, S. G., Carleton, J. H., and Meekan, M. G. (2003b). Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of macrozooplankton on the southern North West Shelf, Western Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56, 897–908.
Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of macrozooplankton on the southern North West Shelf, Western Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXlslGrtbw%3D&md5=2d30bc09fead92a4fc0738f59c3e4b38CAS | open url image1

Woo, M., Pattiaratchi, C., and Schroeder, W. (2006). Summer surface circulation long the Gascoyne continental shelf, Western Australia. Continental Shelf Research 26, 132–152.
Summer surface circulation long the Gascoyne continental shelf, Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Wyatt, A. S., Lowe, R. J., Humphries, S., and Waite, A. M. (2010). Particulate nutrient fluxes over a fringing coral reef: relevant scales of phytoplankton production and mechanisms of supply. Marine Ecology Progress Series 405, 113–130.
Particulate nutrient fluxes over a fringing coral reef: relevant scales of phytoplankton production and mechanisms of supply.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXnvFKhsbk%3D&md5=8feaed35a5fca97618419fd17b6bfbfcCAS | open url image1

Xu, J., Lowe, R. J., Ivey, G. N., Pattiaratchi, C., Jones, N. L., and Brinkman, R. (2013). Dynamics of the summer shelf circulation and transient upwelling off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 118, 1099–1125.
Dynamics of the summer shelf circulation and transient upwelling off Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Yit Sen Bull, C., and van Sebille, E. (2016). Sources, fate, and pathways of Leeuwin Current water in the Indian Ocean and Great Australian Bight: a Lagrangian study in an eddy-resolving ocean model. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans 121, 1626–1639.
Sources, fate, and pathways of Leeuwin Current water in the Indian Ocean and Great Australian Bight: a Lagrangian study in an eddy-resolving ocean model.CrossRef | open url image1



Export Citation