Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Food resource partitioning between two sympatric temperate wrasses

Mauro Sinopoli A C , Renato Chemello B , Antonino Vaccaro B and Marco Milazzo B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Palermo, Italy, c/o Residence Marbela, Via Salvatore Puglisi 9, I-98143 Palermo, Italy.

B Department of Earth and Marine Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 28, I-90123 Palermo, Italy.

C Corresponding author. Email: mauro.sinopoli@isprambiente.it

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16363
Submitted: 27 January 2017  Accepted: 26 April 2017   Published online: 27 July 2017

Abstract

The present study analysed two sympatric wrasses, Thalassoma pavo and Coris julis, with similar sizes and morphologies, that are widespread in the reef habitats of the Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic coast. Ocean warming has induced the northward movement of T. pavo, whereas C. julis has been moving to deeper habitats. In addition, under conditions of high slope of the sea bottom, T. pavo occupies shallow habitats and C. julis is in greater abundance in deeper habitats. By investigating stomach contents and prey availability in the benthos, we assessed whether the two wrasses exploit food resources by choosing different prey within the same habitat both under co-existence and segregation conditions. The results showed that T. pavo mainly feeds on gammarids and sipunculids, whereas C. julis mainly feeds on Alvania spp. and Paguroidea. The two wrasses also showed an intrinsic partitioning of food resources, independently of the condition of co-existence or segregation and benthic prey availability in the environment. The two wrasses fall in the ‘over dispersion of resource use’ model, in which species share numerous niche dimensions in a variable manner. Our findings may contribute to exclude a greater trophic competition between these labrid species in a projected warming scenario.

Additional keywords: benthic prey, diet, Labridae, trophic overlap and niche.


References

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology 26, 32–46.

Armstrong, R. A., and McGehee, R. (1980). Competitive exclusion. American Naturalist 115, 151–170.
Competitive exclusion.CrossRef |

Bianchi, C. N., Pronzato, R., Cattaneo-Vietti, R., Benedetti-Cecchi, L., Morri, C., Pansini, M., and Bavestrello, G. (2004). Hard bottoms. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 11, 185–215.

Castriota, L., Scarabello, M. P., Finoia, M. G., Sinopoli, M., and Andaloro, F. (2005). Food and feeding habits of pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea: variation by sex and size. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72, 123–133.
Food and feeding habits of pearly razorfish, Xyrichtys novacula (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea: variation by sex and size.CrossRef |

Chesson, P. (1985). Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: a look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability. Theoretical Population Biology 28, 263–287.
Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: a look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability.CrossRef |

Chipps, S. R., and Garvey, J. E. (2007). Assessment of food habits and feeding patterns. In ‘Analysis and Interpretation of Freshwater Fisheries Data’. (Eds C. Guy and M. Brown). pp. 473–514. (American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD, USA.)

Clarke, K. R. (1993). Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18, 117–143.
Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure.CrossRef |

De Pirro, M., Marchetti, G. M., and Chelazzi, G. (1999). Foraging interactions among three benthic fish in a Posidonia oceanica reef lagoon along the Tyrrhenian Coast. Journal of Fish Biology 54, 1300–1309.
Foraging interactions among three benthic fish in a Posidonia oceanica reef lagoon along the Tyrrhenian Coast.CrossRef |

Ebeling, A., and Hixon, M. (1991). Tropical and temperate reef fishes: comparison of community structure. In ‘The Ecology of Fishes on Coral Reefs’. (Ed P. F. Sale.) pp. 509–563. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.)

Ebeling, A. W., and Laur, D. R. (1986). Foraging in surfperches: resource partitioning or individualistic responses? Environmental Biology of Fishes 16, 123–133.
Foraging in surfperches: resource partitioning or individualistic responses?CrossRef |

Fasola, M., Canova, L., Foschi, F., Novelli, O., and Bressan, M. (1997). Resource use by a Mediterranean rocky slope fish assemblage. Marine Ecology 18, 51–66.
Resource use by a Mediterranean rocky slope fish assemblage.CrossRef |

Galván, D. E., Botto, F., Parma, A. M., Bandieri, L., Mohamed, N., and Iribarne, O. O. (2009). Food partitioning and spatial subsidy in shelter-limited fishes inhabiting patchy reefs of Patagonia. Journal of Fish Biology 75, 2585–2605.
Food partitioning and spatial subsidy in shelter-limited fishes inhabiting patchy reefs of Patagonia.CrossRef |

Gibson, R. N., and Ezzi, I. V. (1987). Feeding relationships of a demersal fish assemblage on the west coast of Scotland. Journalof Fish Biolology 31, 55–69.
Feeding relationships of a demersal fish assemblage on the west coast of Scotland.CrossRef |

Gillanders, B. M. (1995). Feeding ecology of the temperate marine fish Achoerodus viridus 724 (Labridae), size, seasonal and site-specific differences. Marine and Freshwater Research 46, 1009–1020.
Feeding ecology of the temperate marine fish Achoerodus viridus 724 (Labridae), size, seasonal and site-specific differences.CrossRef |

Giller, P. S. (1984) ‘Community Structure and the Niche.’ (Chapman Hall: New York, NY, USA.)

Hacunda, J. S. (1981). Trophic relationships among demersal fishes in a coastal area of the Gulf of Maine. Fishery Bulletin 79, 775–788.

Hanson, K. M., Schnarr, E. L., and Leichter, J. J. (2016). Non-random feeding enhances the contribution of oceanic zooplankton to the diet of the planktivorous coral reef fish Dascyllus flavicaudus. Marine Biology 163, 77.
Non-random feeding enhances the contribution of oceanic zooplankton to the diet of the planktivorous coral reef fish Dascyllus flavicaudus.CrossRef |

Harmelin, J. G. (1987). Structure et variabilité de i’ichtyofaune d’une zone rocheuse protégée en Méditerranée (Pare National de Port-Cros, France). Marine Ecology 8, 263–284.
Structure et variabilité de i’ichtyofaune d’une zone rocheuse protégée en Méditerranée (Pare National de Port-Cros, France).CrossRef |

Harmelin-Vivien, M. L., Kaim-Malka, R. A., Ledoyer, M., and Jacob-Abraham, S. S. (1989). Food partitioning among scorpaenid fishes in Mediterranean seagrass beds. Journal of Fish Biology 34, 715–734.
Food partitioning among scorpaenid fishes in Mediterranean seagrass beds.CrossRef |

Hinz, H., Kröncke, I., and Ehrich, S. (2005). The feeding strategy of dab Limanda limanda in the southern North Sea: linking stomach contents to prey availability in the environment. Journal of Fish Biology 67, 125–145.
The feeding strategy of dab Limanda limanda in the southern North Sea: linking stomach contents to prey availability in the environment.CrossRef |

Hixon, M., A. (1980). Competitive interactions between California reef fishes of the genus Embiotoca. Ecology 61, 918–931.
Competitive interactions between California reef fishes of the genus Embiotoca.CrossRef |

Holbrook, S. J., and Schmitt, R. J. (1986). Food acquisition by competing surfperch on a patchy environmental gradient. Environmental Biology of Fishes 16, 135–146.
Food acquisition by competing surfperch on a patchy environmental gradient.CrossRef |

Hüne, M., and Vega, R. (2016). Feeding habits in two sympatric species of Notothenioidei, Patagonotothen cornucola and Harpagifer bispinis, in the Chilean Patagonian channels and fjords. Polar Biology 39, 2253–2262.
Feeding habits in two sympatric species of Notothenioidei, Patagonotothen cornucola and Harpagifer bispinis, in the Chilean Patagonian channels and fjords.CrossRef |

Hurlbert, S. H. (1978). The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives. Ecology 59, 67–77.
The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives.CrossRef |

Hyndes, G. A., Platell, M. E., and Potter, I. C. (1997). Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning. Marine Biology 128, 585–598.
Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning.CrossRef |

Hyslop, E. J. (1980). Stomach contents analysis: a review of methods and their application. Journal of Fish Biology 17, 411–429.
Stomach contents analysis: a review of methods and their application.CrossRef |

Kabasakal, H. (2001). Description of the feeding morphology and the food habits of four sympatric labrids (Perciformes, Labridae) from south-eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 51, 439–455.
Description of the feeding morphology and the food habits of four sympatric labrids (Perciformes, Labridae) from south-eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey.CrossRef |

Krebs, C. J. (1998). ‘Ecological Methodology’, 2nd edn. (Addison-Welsey Publishers Inc.: Menlo Park, CA, USA.)

Larson, R. J. (1980). Competition, habitat selection, and the bathymetric segregation of two rockfish (Sebastes) species. Ecological Monographs 50, 221–239.
Competition, habitat selection, and the bathymetric segregation of two rockfish (Sebastes) species.CrossRef |

Lejeune, P. (1985). Le comportement social des labrideés meéditerraneéns. Cahiers d’Ethologie Appliquee 5, 1–208.

Lek, E., Fairclough, D. V., Platell, M. E., Clarke, K. R., Tweedley, J. R., and Potter, I. C. (2011). To what extent are the dietary compositions of three abundant, co-occurring labrid species different and related to latitude, habitat, body size and season? Journal of Fish Biology 78, 1913–1943.
To what extent are the dietary compositions of three abundant, co-occurring labrid species different and related to latitude, habitat, body size and season?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3Mros12htg%3D%3D&md5=ae2fd9412f414fb6cc12a93fdba6fa5aCAS |

Love, M. S., and Ebeling, A. W. (1978). Food and habitat of three switch-feeding fishes in the kelp forests off Santa Barbara, California. Fishery Bulletin 76, 257–271.

Macarthur, R. H., and Levins, R. (1967). The limiting similarity, convergence and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist 101, 377–385.
The limiting similarity, convergence and divergence of coexisting species.CrossRef |

Manly, B. F. J., McDonald, L. L., Thomas, D. L., McDonald, T. L., and Erickson, W. P. (2002). ‘Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies’, 2nd edn. (Springer: Berlin, Germany.)

Milazzo, M., Chemello, R., Badalamenti, F., and Riggio, S. (2000). Molluscan assemblages associated with photophilic algae in the marine reserve of Ustica Island (Lower Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Italian Journal of Zoology 67, 287–295.
Molluscan assemblages associated with photophilic algae in the marine reserve of Ustica Island (Lower Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).CrossRef |

Milazzo, M., Palmeri, A., Falcón, J. M., Badalamenti, F., Garcìa-Charton, J. A., Sinopoli, M., Chemello, R., and Brito, A. (2011). Vertical distribution of two sympatric labrid fishes in the western Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic rocky subtidal: local shore topography does matter. Marine Ecology 32, 521–531.
Vertical distribution of two sympatric labrid fishes in the western Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic rocky subtidal: local shore topography does matter.CrossRef |

Milazzo, M., Mirto, S., Domenici, P., and Gristina, M. (2013). Climate change exacerbates interspecific interactions in sympatric coastal fishes. Journal of Animal Ecology 82, 468–477.
Climate change exacerbates interspecific interactions in sympatric coastal fishes.CrossRef |

Milazzo, M., Quattrocchi, F., Azzurro, E., Palmeri, A., Chemello, R., Di Franco, A., Guidetti, P., Sala, E., Sciandra, M., Badalamenti, F., and García-Charton, J. A. (2016). Warming-related shifts in the distribution of two competing coastal wrasses. Marine Environmental Research 120, 55–67.
Warming-related shifts in the distribution of two competing coastal wrasses.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xht1ClurnI&md5=94b7b8ecb17b4580e8a10dddc5f328f5CAS |

Morris, D. W. (1987). Ecological scale and habitat use. Ecology 68, 362–369.
Ecological scale and habitat use.CrossRef |

Morton, J. K., Platell, M. E., and Gladstone, W. (2008). Differences in feeding ecology among three co-occurring species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae) on rocky reefs of temperate Australia. Marine Biology 154, 577–592.
Differences in feeding ecology among three co-occurring species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae) on rocky reefs of temperate Australia.CrossRef |

Parmesan, C., and Yohe, G. (2003). A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421, 37–42.
A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXoslM%3D&md5=4b44cc041c1577a69f260b0e12e65f2bCAS |

Pereira, P. H. C., Barros, B., Zemoi, R., and Ferreira, B. P. (2015). Ontogenetic diet changes and food partitioning of Haemulon spp. coral reef fishes, with a review of the genus diet. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 25, 245–260.
Ontogenetic diet changes and food partitioning of Haemulon spp. coral reef fishes, with a review of the genus diet.CrossRef |

Pianka, E. R. (1973). The structure of lizard communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21, 213–220.

Platell, M. E., Hesp, S. A., Cossington, S. M., Lek, E., Moore, S. E., and Potter, I. C. (2010). Influence of selected factors on the dietary compositions of three targeted and co-occurring temperate species of reef fishes: implications for food partitioning. Journal of Fish Biology 76, 1255–1276.
Influence of selected factors on the dietary compositions of three targeted and co-occurring temperate species of reef fishes: implications for food partitioning.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvpsFSgtw%3D%3D&md5=05503ac5000642db80548a695cdd6062CAS |

Quignard, J. P., and Pras, A. (1986). Labridae. In ‘Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Vol. 2’, pp. 919–942. (UNESCO: Paris, France.)

Riggio, S., and Milazzo, M. (2004). Ricchezza specifica e biodiversità marina nell’isola di Ustica. Naturalista Siciliano 28, 559–586.

Root, R. B. (1967). The niche exploitation pattern of the blue-gray gnatcatcher. Ecological Monographs 37, 317–350.
The niche exploitation pattern of the blue-gray gnatcatcher.CrossRef |

Ross, S. T. (1986). Resource partitioning in fish assemblages: a review of field studies. Copeia 1986, 352–388.
Resource partitioning in fish assemblages: a review of field studies.CrossRef |

Sala, E., and Ballesteros, E. (1997). Partitioning of space and food resources by three fishes of the genus Diplodus (Sparidae) in a Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 152, 273–283.
Partitioning of space and food resources by three fishes of the genus Diplodus (Sparidae) in a Mediterranean rocky infralittoral ecosystem.CrossRef |

Schoener, T. W. (1974). Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185, 27–39.
Resource partitioning in ecological communities.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvgslehtQ%3D%3D&md5=52c6ee3b56c7f1f85ac22e526f8cb26cCAS |

Sinopoli, M., Fanelli, E., D’Anna, G., Badalamenti, F., and Pipitone, C. (2012). Assessing the effects of a trawling ban on diet and trophic level of hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Scientia Marina 76, 677–690.

Strauss, R. E. (1979). Reliability estimates for Ivlev’s electivity index, the forage ratio, and a proposed linear index of food selection. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108, 344–352.
Reliability estimates for Ivlev’s electivity index, the forage ratio, and a proposed linear index of food selection.CrossRef |

Terlizzi, A., Anderson, M. J., Bevilacqua, S., Fraschetti, S., Włodarska-Kowalczuk, M., and Ellingsen, K. E. (2009). Beta diversity and taxonomic sufficiency: do higher-level taxa reflect heterogeneity in species composition? Diversity & Distributions 15, 450–458.
Beta diversity and taxonomic sufficiency: do higher-level taxa reflect heterogeneity in species composition?CrossRef |

Tilghman, G. C., Klinger-Bowen, R., and Francis-Floyd, R. (2001). Feeding electivity indices in surgeonfish (Acanthuridae) of the Florida Keys. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3, 215–223.
Feeding electivity indices in surgeonfish (Acanthuridae) of the Florida Keys.CrossRef |

Vázquez-Luis, M., Sanchez-Jerez, P., and Bayle-Sempere, J. T. (2010). Effects of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea on prey availability: an experimental approach to predation of amphipods by Thalassoma pavo (Labridae). Hydrobiologia 654, 147–154.
Effects of Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea on prey availability: an experimental approach to predation of amphipods by Thalassoma pavo (Labridae).CrossRef |

Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M. L., Hureau, J. C., Nielsen, J., and Tortonese, E. (1986). ‘Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean.’ (UNESCO: Paris, France.)

Yoshiyama, R. M. (1980). Food habits of three species of rocky intertidal sculpins (Cottidae) in central California. Copeia , 515–525.
Food habits of three species of rocky intertidal sculpins (Cottidae) in central California.CrossRef |



Export Citation

View Altmetrics