Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effects of high pCO2 on early life development of pelagic spawning marine fish

Ana M. Faria A E 1 , Soraia Filipe B 1 , Ana F. Lopes A , Ana P. Oliveira C , Emanuel J. Gonçalves A and Laura Ribeiro D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE), ISPA – Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, PT-1149-041 Lisboa, Portugal.

B Superior School of Tourism and Sea Technology, Santuário de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, PT-2520-641 Peniche, Portugal.

C Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA, IP), Division of Oceanography and Environmental Bioprospecting, Avenida Brasília, 6, PT-1200 Lisboa, Portugal.

D Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA, IP), Aquaculture Research Station, Avenida 5 de Outubro, PT-8700-305 Olhão, Portugal.

E Corresponding author. Email address: afaria@ispa.pt

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF16385
Submitted: 17 August 2016  Accepted: 21 March 2017   Published online: 2 June 2017

Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of elevated pCO2 on the development of early stages of the pelagic spawning marine fish Solea senegalensis, Diplodus sargus and Argyrosomus regius. Eggs and larvae were reared under control (pH 8.0, ~570 μatm) and two elevated pCO2 conditions (pH 7.8, ~1100 μatm; pH 7.6, ~1900 μatm) until mouth opening (3 days post-hatching). Egg size did not change with exposure to elevated pCO2, but hatching rate was significantly reduced under high pCO2 for all three species. Survival rate was not affected by exposure to increased pCO2, but growth rate was differently affected across species, with A. regius growing faster in the mid-level pCO2 treatment compared with control conditions. S. senegalensis and A. regius hatched with smaller yolk sacs under increased pCO2 but endogenous reserves of D. sargus were not affected. Otoliths were consistently larger under elevated pCO2 conditions for all the three species. Differences among egg batches and a significant interaction between batch and pCO2 suggest that other factors, such as egg quality, can influence the response to increased pCO2. Overall, the results support the occurrence of a species-specific response to pCO2, but highlight the need for cautious analysis of potential sensitivity of species from unreplicated observations.

Additional keywords: carbon dioxide, growth rate, hatching rate, larval development, otoliths, survival rate.


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