Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Importance of free-living and particle-associated bacteria for the growth of the harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum: evidence in culture stages

Bum Soo Park A C , Ruoyu Guo A , Weol-Ae Lim B and Jang-Seu Ki A D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Biotechnology, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, South Korea.

B Ocean Climate and Ecology Research Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science, Busan 46083, South Korea.

C Present address: Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas, TX 78373, USA.

D Corresponding author. Email: kijs@smu.ac.kr

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17102
Submitted: 14 April 2017  Accepted: 8 August 2017   Published online: 3 October 2017

Abstract

The marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is the cause of harmful algal blooms and may grow in association with co-occurring bacteria as ectosymbiotic, endosymbiotic and free-living forms. In the present study we investigated the bacterial community composition of both free-living bacteria (FLB) and particle-associated bacteria (PAB) in the lag, exponential and stationary growth stages of P. minimum using pyrosequencing. Metagenomics, hierarchical cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses revealed that FLB and PAB had significantly different bacterial community compositions. The PAB community had greater taxonomic richness and diversity than the FLB community. In addition, the shared bacteria identified were clearly dominant in both the FLB (≥98.2%) and PAB (≥89.9%) communities. Among shared bacteria, the genera Seohaeicola (P. minimum operational taxonomic unit (OTU) #1) and Roseovarius (P. minimum OTU #6), belonging to the Roseobacter clade, were predominant in FLB (42–57%) and PAB (11–14%) communities respectively. In the PAB community, the Marinobacter clade (P. minimum OTU #13 and #15) was also a dominant taxon. Interestingly, in response to the growth of P. minimum, the proportion of the Roseobacter clade increased gradually, whereas the genus Marinobacter decreased in both the FLB and PAB communities. These results suggest that Roseobacter and Marinobacter clades are intimately associated with host dinoflagellate.

Additional keywords: associated bacterial community composition, Roseobacter.


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