Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Successful mangrove establishment along an artificially created tidal creek at Port Hedland, Western Australia

Paul L. A. Erftemeijer A D , Nicole Wylie B and Garnet J. Hooper C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Biological Sciences and Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

B Pilbara Ports Authority, The Esplanade, Port Hedland, WA 6721, Australia.

C Marine Ecological Services (MES), 2/59 Tamar Street, Palmyra Perth, WA 6157, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: paul.erftemeijer@uwa.edu.au

Marine and Freshwater Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17139
Submitted: 16 May 17  Accepted: 2 August 17   Published online: 12 September 2017

Abstract

There is growing interest in innovative ways to minimise the environmental footprint of port developments. Herein we present results of a mangrove planting trial along an artificial tidal creek at Port Hedland, Western Australia. A 75 m-long tidal creek with exposed sloping and terraced banks was constructed, creating ~1000 m2 of intertidal area in which 800 nursery-raised seedlings of four mangrove species (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora stylosa, Ceriops australis and Aegiceras corniculatum) were transplanted. Planting followed a randomised block design to test seedling performance against tidal elevation, bank design and erosion protection. After 3 years, 142 seedlings (18%) had survived. Another 1171 mangrove seedlings, dominated by A. corniculatum (75%) and Aegitialis annulata (15%), had recruited naturally into the site. Performance and survival of planted and recruited seedlings was significantly affected by tidal elevation (P = 0.002), but not by bank design or erosion protection. A. marina showed highest survival (46%), followed by R. stylosa (18%). These results demonstrate that by creating appropriate environmental conditions conducive to mangrove growth, seedlings will recruit and establish naturally. Owing to the slow growth typical of semi-arid mangroves, it may take well over a decade before vegetation at this site is comparable to adjacent natural creeks.

Additional keywords: monitoring, natural recruitment, seedling performance, tidal hydrology.


References

Alongi, D. M., Clough, B. F., and Robertson, A. I. (2005). Nutrient-use efficiency in arid-zone forests of the mangroves Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina. Aquatic Botany 82, 121–131.
Nutrient-use efficiency in arid-zone forests of the mangroves Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina.CrossRef |

Balke, T., Bouma, T. J., Horstman, E. M., Webb, E. L., Erftemeijer, P. L. A., and Herman, P. M. J. (2011). Windows of opportunity: thresholds to mangrove seedling establishment on tidal flats. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440, 1–9.
Windows of opportunity: thresholds to mangrove seedling establishment on tidal flats.CrossRef |

Bompy, F., Lequeue, G., Imbert, D., and Dulormne, M. (2014). Increasing fluctuations of soil salinity affect seedling growth performances and physiology in three Neotropical mangrove species. Plant and Soil 380, 399–413.
Increasing fluctuations of soil salinity affect seedling growth performances and physiology in three Neotropical mangrove species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXmtlWqs7w%3D&md5=e6f537be14f31e97a21bd9edbd83f0c2CAS |

Borsje, B. A., van Weesenbeeck, B. K., Dekker, F., Paalvast, P., Bouma, T. J., van Katwijk, M. M., and de Vries, M. B. (2011). How ecological engineering can serve in coastal protection. Ecological Engineering 37, 113–122.
How ecological engineering can serve in coastal protection.CrossRef |

Bosire, J. O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Kairo, J. G., and Koedam, N. (2003). Colonization of non-planted mangrove species into restored mangrove stands in Gazi Bay, Kenya. Aquatic Botany 76, 267–279.
Colonization of non-planted mangrove species into restored mangrove stands in Gazi Bay, Kenya.CrossRef |

Chapman, M. G., and Blockley, D. J. (2009). Engineering novel habitats on urban infrastructure to increase intertidal biodiversity. Oecologia 161, 625–635.
Engineering novel habitats on urban infrastructure to increase intertidal biodiversity.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MrlsF2htA%3D%3D&md5=ba7b355e67fe5473d8feeae4964117e7CAS |

Chapman, M. G., and Underwood, A. J. (1999). Ecological patterns in multivariate assemblages: information and interpretation of negative values in ANOSIM tests. Marine Ecology Progress Series 180, 257–265.
Ecological patterns in multivariate assemblages: information and interpretation of negative values in ANOSIM tests.CrossRef |

Clarke, K. R. (1993). Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18, 117–143.
Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure.CrossRef |

Clarke, P. G., and Allaway, W. G. (1993). The regeneration niche of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): effects of salinity, light and sediment factors on establishment, growth and survival in the field. Oecologia 93, 548–556.
The regeneration niche of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): effects of salinity, light and sediment factors on establishment, growth and survival in the field.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC1czot1egsQ%3D%3D&md5=df7c956ed15d7c825e190590c951a71bCAS |

Douglas Partners (2011). Report on geotechnical investigation – proposed channel for mangrove relocation trial. Report to Port Hedland Port Authority, Douglas Partners Pty, Perth, WA, Australia.

Duke, N. (2008). ‘Australia’s Mangroves. The Authoritative Guide to Australia’s Mangrove Plants.’ (University of Queensland: Brisbane, Qld, Australia.)

Environmental Protection Authority (2009). ‘Protection of Benthic Primary Producer Habitats in Western Australia’s Marine Environment. Environmental Assessment Guidelines Number 3.’ (EPA: Perth, WA, Australia.)

Environmental Protection Authority (2016). ‘Protection of Benthic Communities and Habitats. Technical Guidance.’ (EPA: Perth, WA, Australia.)

Fredette, T. J., Foran, C. M., Brasfield, S. M., and Suedel, B. C. (2012). Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 8, 175–182.
Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.CrossRef |

Hanley, J. R. (2011). Review of marine EIA for port expansion projects in the Pilbara: how to improve the outcomes. In ‘Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference 2011 and the 13th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference 2011 (Coasts and Ports 2011)’, 28–30 September 2011, Perth, WA, Australia. pp. 644–649. (Engineers Australia: Barton, ACT, Australia.)

Hubbard, P. A. (1994). Seedling recruitment of the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Port Hedland area. B.Sc.(Hons) Thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia.

Kamali, B., and Hashim, R. (2011). Mangrove restoration without planting. Ecological Engineering 37, 387–391.
Mangrove restoration without planting.CrossRef |

Koch, M. S. (1997). Rhizophora mangle L. seedling development into the sapling stage across resource and stress gradients in subtropical Florida. Biotropica 29, 427–439.
Rhizophora mangle L. seedling development into the sapling stage across resource and stress gradients in subtropical Florida.CrossRef |

Le, H. D., Smith, C., Herbohn, J., and Harrison, S. (2012). More than just trees: assessing reforestation success in tropical developing countries. Journal of Rural Studies 28, 5–19.
More than just trees: assessing reforestation success in tropical developing countries.CrossRef |

LeProvost Dames & Moore (1997). Cargill Salt – environmental management programme. Mangrove monitoring programme and rehabilitation plan – 1996 annual report. Report number R630, LDM, Perth, WA, Australia.

Lewis, R. R. (2005). Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecological Engineering 24, 403–418.
Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests.CrossRef |

Lewis, R. R. III, (2009). Methods and criteria for successful mangrove forest restoration. In: ‘Coastal Wetlands: An Integrated Ecosystem Approach’, 1st edn. (Eds G. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D. Cahoon, and M. Brinson.) pp. 787–800. (Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, Netherlands.)

Lewis, R. R. (2010). Mangrove field of dreams: if we build it, will they come? Bulletin – Society of Wetland Scientists 27, 15–18.

Lewis, R. R., and Gilmore, R. G. (2007). Important considerations to achieve successful mangrove forest restoration with optimum fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 80, 823–837.

Lewis, R. R. III, and Streever, W. (2000). Restoration of mangrove habitat. WRP Technical Notes Collection (ERDC TN-WRP-VN-RS-3.2), US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.

Lewis, R. R., Hodgson, A. B., and Mauseth, G. S. (2005). Project facilitates the natural reseeding of mangrove forests (Florida). Ecological Restoration 23, 276–277.

Li, W., Cui, L., Zhang, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Lei, Y., and Zhao, X. (2015). Effect of mangrove restoration on crab burrow density in Luoyangjiang Estuary, China. Forest Ecosystems 2, 21.
Effect of mangrove restoration on crab burrow density in Luoyangjiang Estuary, China.CrossRef |

López-Hoffman, L., Anten, N. P. R., Martinez-Ramos, M., and Ackerly, D. (2007). Salinity and light interactively affect Neotropical mangrove seedlings at the leaf and whole plant levels. Oecologia 150, 545–556.
Salinity and light interactively affect Neotropical mangrove seedlings at the leaf and whole plant levels.CrossRef |

Padilla, C., Fortes, M. D., Duarte, C. M., Terrados, J., and Kamp-Nielsen, L. (2004). Recruitment, mortality and growth of mangrove (Rhizophora sp.) seedlings in Ulugan Bay, Palawan, Philippines. Trees 18, 589–595.
Recruitment, mortality and growth of mangrove (Rhizophora sp.) seedlings in Ulugan Bay, Palawan, Philippines.CrossRef |

Paling, E. I., Humphries, G., McCardle, I., and Thomson, G. (2001). The effects of iron ore dust on mangroves in Western Australia: lack of evidence for stomatal damage. Wetlands Ecology and Management 9, 363–370.
The effects of iron ore dust on mangroves in Western Australia: lack of evidence for stomatal damage.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXptlGjsrg%3D&md5=b8424bc8154a6aa53d18f50449079b11CAS |

Paling, E. I., Humphreys, G., and McCardle, I. (2003). The effect of a harbour development on mangroves in northwestern Australia. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11, 281–290.
The effect of a harbour development on mangroves in northwestern Australia.CrossRef |

Pannier, F., and Pannier, R. F. (1989). A project of mangrove restoration on the northeastern coast of the Island of Margarita (Venezuela). In ‘Proceedings of the 16th Annual Conference on Wetland Restoration and Creation’, 25–26 May 1989, Tampa, FL, USA. (Ed. F. J. Webb Jr.) pp. 133–142. (Hillsborough Community College: Plant City, FL, USA.)

Pannier, R. F., and Pannier, F. (2008). Mangrove restoration in a tropical semiarid environment: a case study in landscape design. In ‘Tasks for Vegetation Sciences. Vol. 43. Mangroves and Halophytes: Restoration and Utilisation’. (Eds H. Lieth, M.G. Sucre and B. Herzog.) pp. 97–107. (Springer Science: Dordrecht, Netherlands.)

Pilbara Ports Authority (2017). Mangrove rehabilitation guidelines. Publication A242767, PPA, Port Hedland, WA, Australia.

Port Hedland Port Authority (2006). ‘Port Hedland Harbour Environmental Management Plan.’ (PHPA: Port Hedland, WA, Australia.)

Saenger, P. (1996). Mangrove restoration in Australia. A case study of Brisbane International Airport. In ‘Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems’. (Ed. C. D. Field.) pp. 36–51. (International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems: Okinawa, Japan.)

Schmitt, K., and Duke, N. C. (2015). Mangrove management, assessment and monitoring. In ‘Tropical Forestry Handbook’. (Eds L. Pancel and M. Köhl.) pp. 1– 29 (Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany.) 10.1007/978-3-642-41554-8_126-1

Semeniuk, V. (1983). Mangrove distribution in northwestern Australia in relationship to regional and local freshwater seepage. Vegetatio 53, 11–31.
Mangrove distribution in northwestern Australia in relationship to regional and local freshwater seepage.CrossRef |

Semeniuk, V. (1994). Predicting the effect of sea-level rise on mangroves in northwestern Australia. Journal of Coastal Research 10, 1050–1076.

Smith, T. J., Boto, K. G., Frusher, S. D., and Giddins, R. L. (1991). Keystone species and mangrove forest dynamics: the influence of burrowing by crabs on soil nutrient and forest productivity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 33, 419–432.
Keystone species and mangrove forest dynamics: the influence of burrowing by crabs on soil nutrient and forest productivity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XktVensg%3D%3D&md5=a6986d0f48486d9e5a02cb25bc32f5f7CAS |

Susilo, A., and Ridd, P. V. (2005). The bulk hydraulic conductivity of mangrove soil perforated with animal burrows. Wetlands Ecology and Management 13, 123–133.
The bulk hydraulic conductivity of mangrove soil perforated with animal burrows.CrossRef |

Tamai, S., and Iampa, P. (1988). Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand. Ecological Research 3, 227–238.
Establishment and growth of mangrove seedlings in mangrove forests of southern Thailand.CrossRef |

Thampanya, U., Vermaat, J. E., and Terrados, J. (2002). The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species. Aquatic Botany 74, 315–325.
The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species.CrossRef |

Toledo, G., Rojas, A., and Bashan, Y. (2001). Monitoring of black mangrove restoration with nursery-reared seedlings on an arid coastal lagoon. Hydrobiologia 444, 101–109.
Monitoring of black mangrove restoration with nursery-reared seedlings on an arid coastal lagoon.CrossRef |

Turner, R. E., and Lewis, R. R. (1996). Hydrologic restoration of coastal wetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4, 65–72.
Hydrologic restoration of coastal wetlands.CrossRef |

Upadhyay, V. P., and Mishra, P. K. (2012). Ecology of seedlings of mangroves species on estuarine east coast of India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 38, 101–107.

van Loon, A. F., Dijksma, R., and van Mensvoort, M. E. F. (2007). Hydrological classification in mangrove areas: a case study in Can Gio, Vietnam. Aquatic Botany 87, 80–82.
Hydrological classification in mangrove areas: a case study in Can Gio, Vietnam.CrossRef |

van Loon, A. F., Te Brake, B., Van Huijgevoort, M. H. J., and Dijksma, R. (2016). Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration. PLoS One 11, e0150302.
Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration.CrossRef |

Wolanski, E., Mazda, Y., Furukawa, K., Ridd, P., Kitheka, J., Spagnol, S., and Stieglitz, T. (2001). Water circulation in mangroves, and its implications for biodiversity. In ‘Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs: Physical and Biological Links in the Great Barrier Reef’. (Ed. E. Wolanski.) pp. 53–76. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA.)

Woodroffe, C. D. (1992). Mangrove sediments and geomorphology. In ‘Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems’. (Eds A. I. Robertson and D. M. Alongi.) pp. 7–41. (American Geophysical Union: Washington DC, USA.)

Zedler, J. B., and Callaway, J. C. (2000). Evaluating the progress of engineered tidal wetlands. Ecological Engineering 15, 211–225.
Evaluating the progress of engineered tidal wetlands.CrossRef |



Export Citation