Pacific Conservation Biology Pacific Conservation Biology Society
A journal dedicated to conservation and wildlife management in the Pacific region.
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Managing dingoes on Fraser Island: culling, conflict, and an alternative

Adam J. O’Neill A E , Kylie M. Cairns B , Gisela Kaplan C and Ernest Healy D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Dingo for Biodiversity Project, PO Box 156, Mount Perry, Qld 4671, Australia.

B Ramaciotti Centre for Genome Analysis, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

C Centre for Neuroscience and Animal Behaviour, S&T, McClymont Building, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.

D Centre for Population and Urban Research, Faculty of Arts, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3168, Australia.

E Corresponding author. Email: adam.oneill@bigpond.com

Pacific Conservation Biology 23(1) 4-14 https://doi.org/10.1071/PC16026
Submitted: 22 June 2016  Accepted: 25 September 2016   Published: 12 December 2016

Abstract

Globally, the role of large predators is increasingly understood as essential for the restoration and maintenance of ecosystems. Consequently, predator conservation represents a paradigm shift in ecological thinking, yet the management of predators sets conflicting goals because of ongoing conflict with humans. This is exemplified on Fraser Island where dingoes come into conflict with tourists, and dingoes perceived to be dangerous are regularly culled. It is argued here that this new conservation paradigm premised on protecting predators in conjunction with conventional wildlife management can result in predator populations being held in a perpetual state of social disorder, exacerbating rather than alleviating conflict. We consider the intensity and frequency of lethal control and how this may impact upon predator social structures, healthy ecological function, stable breeding patterns and stable territoriality. The direct effects of management-induced psychological stress for the survivors of episodic culls are discussed, as well as the indirect flow-on effects of social dysfunction. A final consideration is the cyclical nature of lethal control, whereby conflict with humans results in culling which, in turn, gives rise to further social disruption and conflict. In part, our assessment is derived from official data collected in the course of the management of dingoes on Fraser Island. On this basis, and on the basis of the international literature available, we offer new insights, which may inform predator management more broadly.

Additional keywords: Canis dingo, dingo behaviour, human–wildlife conflict, lethal control, predator, social stability


References

Allen, B. L., Boswell, J., and Higginbottom, K. (2012). Fraser Island dingo management strategy review: report to Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. Ecosure Pty Ltd, West Burleigh. , .

Allen, B. L., Higginbottom, K., Bracks, J. H., Davies, N., and Baxter, G. S. (2015). Balancing dingo conservation with human safety on Fraser Island: the numerical and demographic effects of humane destruction of dingoes. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 22, 197–215.
Balancing dingo conservation with human safety on Fraser Island: the numerical and demographic effects of humane destruction of dingoes.CrossRef |

Allen, L. R. (2014). Wild dog control impacts on calf wastage in extensive beef cattle enterprises. Animal Production Science 54, 214–220.
Wild dog control impacts on calf wastage in extensive beef cattle enterprises.CrossRef |

Allen, L. R. (2015). Demographic and functional responses of wild dogs to poison baiting. Ecological Management & Restoration 16, 58–66.
Demographic and functional responses of wild dogs to poison baiting.CrossRef |

Angel, D. C. (2006). Dingo diet and prey availability on Fraser Island. Masters thesis, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs.

Allen, B. L., Higginbottom, K., Bracks, J. H., Davies, N., and Baxter, G. S. (2015). Balancing dingo conservation with human safety on Fraser Island: the numerical and demographic effects of humane destruction of dingoes. Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 22, 197–215.
Balancing dingo conservation with human safety on Fraser Island: the numerical and demographic effects of humane destruction of dingoes.CrossRef |

Appleby, R., and Jones, D. (2011). Analysis of preliminary dingo capture–mark–recapture experiment on Fraser Island. Final Report to Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Griffith University, Brisbane.

Ballou, J.D., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Rohner, C., Breitenmoser, U. (1998). General problems of small (carnivore) populations: minimum viable population size and inbreeding. Council of Europe Publishing, Environmental Encounters 38, 27–40.

Bartholomew, K., and Gaffney, A. (2016). Fraser Island dingo deaths confirms baiting suspicion says animal protection group. ABC Sunshine Coast. Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-22/fraser-island-dingo-deaths-confirms-baiting-suspicion-says-group/7533714 [accessed 24 August 2016].

Baxter, G., and Davies, N. (2013). Tracking dingoes on Fraser Island: final report on Stage 2 of the Dingo Population Study. The University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Behrendorff, L., Leung, L. K. P., McKinnon, A., Hanger, J., Belonje, G., Tapply, J., Jones, D., and Allen, B. L. (2016). Insects for breakfast and whales for dinner: the diet and body condition of dingoes on Fraser Island (K’gari). Scientific Reports 6, 23469.
Insects for breakfast and whales for dinner: the diet and body condition of dingoes on Fraser Island (K’gari).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XkvVCgtL4%3D&md5=14a561a125264ec28abb94b1d42347c7CAS |

Bekoff, M. (2007). ‘The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy – and Why They Matter.’ (New World Library: California.)

Bradshaw, G. A., Schore, A. N., Brown, J. L., Poole, J. H., and Moss, C. J. (2005). Elephant breakdown. Nature 433, 807–807.
Elephant breakdown.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhsFOrt78%3D&md5=32a23481351b0a1a169a3531799f16bdCAS |

Brainerd, S. M., Andrén, H., Bangs, E. E., Bradley, E. H., Fontaine, J. A., Hall, W., Iliopoulos, Y.,, Jimenez, M. D., Jozwiak, E. A., Liberg, O., Mack, C. M., Meier, T. J., Niemeyer, C. C., Pedersen, H. C., Sand, H., Schultz, R. N., Smith, D. W., Wabakken, P., and Wydeven, A. P. (2008). The effects of breeder loss on wolves. Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 89–98.
The effects of breeder loss on wolves.CrossRef |

Brait, E. (2015). Canine PTSD: how the US military’s use of dogs affects their mental wellbeing. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/11/canine-ptsd-us-military-working-dogs [accessed September 2015].

Brendgen, M., Boivin, M., and Vitaro, F. (2008). Linkages between children’s and their friends’ social and physical aggression: evidence for a gene–environment interaction? Child Development 79, 13–29.
Linkages between children’s and their friends’ social and physical aggression: evidence for a gene–environment interaction?CrossRef |

Bryan, H. M., Smits, J. E., Koren, L., Paquet, P. C., Wynne-Edwards, K. E., and Musiani, M. (2015). Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure. Functional Ecology 29, 347–356.
Heavily hunted wolves have higher stress and reproductive steroids than wolves with lower hunting pressure.CrossRef |

Cai, N., Chang, S., and Li, Y. (2015). Molecular signatures of major depression. Current Biology 25, 1146–1156.
Molecular signatures of major depression.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXntFKjsbk%3D&md5=7bf909ec9befbd8910b37542cfa479feCAS |

Cairns, K. M. (2015). Population differentiation in the dingo: biogeography and molecular ecology of the Australian native dog using maternal, paternal and autosomal genetic markers. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.

Cairns, K. M., and Wilton, A. N. (2016). New insights on the history of canids in oceania based on mitochondrial and nuclear data. Genetica 144, 553–565.
New insights on the history of canids in oceania based on mitochondrial and nuclear data.CrossRef |

Carbyn, L. N. (1989). Coyote attacks on children in western North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 17, 444–446.

Cariappa, C. A., Oakleaf, J. K., Ballard, W. B., and Breck, S. W. (2011). A reappraisal of the evidence for regulation of wolf populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 75, 726–730.
A reappraisal of the evidence for regulation of wolf populations.CrossRef |

Catling, P. C., Corbett, L. K., and Newsome, A. E. (1992). Reproduction in captive and wild dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) in temperate and arid environments of Australia. Wildlife Research 19, 195–209.
Reproduction in captive and wild dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) in temperate and arid environments of Australia.CrossRef |

Conner, M. M., Jacger, M. M., Weller, T. J., and McCullough, D. R. (1998). Effect of coyote removal on sheep depredation in northern California. Journal of Wildlife Management 62, 690–699.
Effect of coyote removal on sheep depredation in northern California.CrossRef |

Cooley, H. S., Wielgus, R. B., Koehler, G., Robinson, H. S., and Maletzke, B. (2009). Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis. Ecology 90, 2913–2921.
Does hunting regulate cougar populations? A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis.CrossRef |

Corbett, L. K. (1988). Social dynamics of a captive dingo pack: population regulation by dominant female infanticide. Ethology 78, 177–198.
Social dynamics of a captive dingo pack: population regulation by dominant female infanticide.CrossRef |

Corbett, L. K. (1998). Management of dingoes on Fraser Island. Consultancy report for the Queensland Government. ERA Environmental Services.

Corbett, L. K. (2001). ‘The Dingo in Australia and Asia.’ (University of NSW Press: Sydney.)

Corbett, L. K. (2009). Audit of Fraser Island Dingo Management Strategy for Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Job No: 0809-3.

Creel, S., and Rotella, J. J. (2010). Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of grey wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS One 5, e12918.
Meta-analysis of relationships between human offtake, total mortality and population dynamics of grey wolves (Canis lupus).CrossRef |

Crooks, K. R., and Soulé, M. E. (1999). Mesopredator release and avi-faunal extinctions in a fragmented system. Nature 400, 563–566.
Mesopredator release and avi-faunal extinctions in a fragmented system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXltFKrsrw%3D&md5=377d6c2cd3878ef0c34b1d28dc8bba9eCAS |

Crowther, M. S., Fillios, M., Colman, N., and Letnic, M. (2014). An updated description of the Australian dingo (Canis dingo Meyer, 1793). Journal of Zoology 293, 192–203.
An updated description of the Australian dingo (Canis dingo Meyer, 1793).CrossRef |

Darimont, C. T., Carlson, S. M., Kinnison, M. T., Paquet, P. C., Reimchen, T. E., and Wilmers, C. C. (2009). Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 952–954.
Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXht12htrw%3D&md5=ac8f194ab94c02c48ff978841c6e53d3CAS |

Dasgupta, S. (2015). Many animals can become mentally ill. BBC Earth. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20150909-many-animals-can-become-mentally-ill [accessed September 2015].

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2001). Fraser Island dingo management strategy. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (2013). Fraser Island dingo conservation and risk management strategy. Ecosystem Services, Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Brisbane.

Estes, J. A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J. S., Power, M. E., Berger, J., Bond, W. J., Carpenter, S. R., Essington, T. E., Holt, R. D., Jackson, J. B., and Marquis, R. J. (2011). Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science 333, 301–306.
Trophic downgrading of planet Earth.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXos1ylur0%3D&md5=7b59fe3f4e27f18a39a9a0b502fe8640CAS |

Fedriani, J. M., Fuller, T. K., and Sauvajot, R. M. (2001). Does availability of anthropogenic food enhance densities of omnivorous mammals? An example with coyotes in southern California. Ecography 24, 325–331.
Does availability of anthropogenic food enhance densities of omnivorous mammals? An example with coyotes in southern California.CrossRef |

Ferdowsian, H. R., Durham, D. L., Kimwele, C., Kranendonk, G., Otali, E., Akugizibwe, T., Mulcahy, J. B., Ajarova, L., and Johnson, C. M. (2011). Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees. PLoS One 6, e19855.
Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXotVWhsr0%3D&md5=5abbcacb69dcdf00e2e106f5ec53081fCAS |

Fernández-Gil, A., Naves, J., Ordiz, A., Quevedo, M., Revilla, E., and Delibes, M. (2016). Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain. PLoS One 11, e0151541.
Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: brown bears and wolves in Spain.CrossRef |

Fleming, P., Corbett, L. K., Harden, R., and Thomson, P. (2001). ‘Managing the Impacts of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs.’ (Bureau of Rural Sciences: Canberra.)

Franklin, T. B., Russig, H., Weiss, I. C., Gräff, J., Linder, N., Michalon, A., Vizi, S., and Mansuy, I. M. (2010). Epigenetic transmission of the impact of early stress across generations. Biological Psychiatry 68, 408–415.
Epigenetic transmission of the impact of early stress across generations.CrossRef |

Glen, A. S., Dickman, C. R., Soule, M. E., and Mackey, B. G. (2007). Evaluating the role of the dingo as a trophic regulator in Australian ecosystems. Austral Ecology 32, 492–501.

Gross, L. (2008). No place for predators? PLoS Biology 6, e40.
No place for predators?CrossRef |

Haber, G. C. (1996). Biological, conservation, and ethical implications of exploiting and controlling wolves. Conservation Biology 10, 1068–1081.
Biological, conservation, and ethical implications of exploiting and controlling wolves.CrossRef |

Hayes, R. D., Baer, A. M., and Larsen, D. G. (1991). Population dynamics and prey relationships of an exploited and recovering wolf population in the southern Yukon. Yukon Fish and Wildlife Branch.

Healy, S. (2007). Deadly dingoes; wild or simply requiring due process? Social Studies of Science 37, 443–471.
Deadly dingoes; wild or simply requiring due process?CrossRef |

Hervieux, D., Hebblewhite, M., Stepnisky, D., Bacon, M., and Boutin, S. (2014). Managing wolves (Canis lupus) to recover threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92, 1029–1037.
Managing wolves (Canis lupus) to recover threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta.CrossRef |

Hone, J., Duncan, R. P., and Forsyth, D. M. (2010). Estimates of maximum annual population growth rates (rm) of mammals and their application in wildlife management. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 507–514.
Estimates of maximum annual population growth rates (rm) of mammals and their application in wildlife management.CrossRef |

Jablonka, E., and Raz, G. (2009). Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution. The Quarterly Review of Biology 84, 131–176.
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: prevalence, mechanisms, and implications for the study of heredity and evolution.CrossRef |

Johnson, C. N., and Wallach, A. D. (2016). The virtuous circle: predator-friendly farming and ecological restoration in Australia. Restoration Ecology , .
The virtuous circle: predator-friendly farming and ecological restoration in Australia.CrossRef |

Johnson, C. N., Isaac, J. L., and Fisher, D. O. (2007). Rarity of a top predator triggers continent-wide collapse of mammal prey: dingoes and marsupials in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 274, 341–346.
Rarity of a top predator triggers continent-wide collapse of mammal prey: dingoes and marsupials in Australia.CrossRef |

Johnson, L. E. (1991). ‘A Morally Deep World; An Essay on Moral significance and Environmental Ethics.’ (Cambridge University Press.)

Jones, E., and Stevens, P. L. (1988). Reproduction in wild canids Canis familiaris from the eastern highlands of Victoria, Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 15, 385–394.
Reproduction in wild canids Canis familiaris from the eastern highlands of Victoria, Australia.CrossRef |

Keller, L. F., and Waller, D. M. (2002). Inbreeding effects in wild populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17, 230–241.
Inbreeding effects in wild populations.CrossRef |

Knowlton, F. F., Gese, E. M., and Jaeger, M. M. (1999). Coyote depredation control: an interface between biology and management. Journal of Range Management 52, 398–412.
Coyote depredation control: an interface between biology and management.CrossRef |

Letnic, M., Koch, F., Gordon, C., Crowther, M. S., and Dickman, C. R. (2009). Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 276, 3249–3256.
Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals.CrossRef |

McManus, J. S., Dickman, A. J., Gaynorm, D., Smuts, B. H., and MacDonald, D. W. (2015). Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human–wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49, 687–695.
Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human–wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms.CrossRef |

McMillan, F. D., Duffy, D. L., Zawistowski, S. L., and Serpell, J. A. (2015). Behavioral and psychological characteristics of canine victims of abuse. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 18, 92–111.
Behavioral and psychological characteristics of canine victims of abuse.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhs1ehs7%2FP&md5=4a134efe7533cc059dc3f6c24ec23edaCAS |

Moussalli, A. (1994). ‘A preliminary study of dingoes inhabiting the Waddy Point region, north-east Fraser Island: diet, social organisation and behaviour.’ BSc Thesis. Griffith University, Brisbane.

Newsome, T. M., Ballard, G.-A., Crowther, M. S., Dellinger, J. A., Fleming, P. J. S., Glen, A. S., Greenville, A. C., Johnson, C. N., Letnic, M., Moseby, K. E., Nimmo, D. G., Nelson, M. P., Read, J. L., Ripple, W. J., Ritchie, E. G., Shores, C. R., Wallach, A. D., Wirsing, A. J., and Dickman, C. R. (2015). Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology 23, 201–208.
Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration.CrossRef |

O’Neill, A. (2002). ‘Living with the Dingo.’ (Envirobook: Sydney.)

Ordiz, A., Bischof, R., and Swenson, J. E. (2013). Saving large carnivores, but losing the apex predator? Biological Conservation 168, 128–133.
Saving large carnivores, but losing the apex predator?CrossRef |

Packer, C., Kosmala, M., Cooley, H. S., Brink, H., Pintea, L., Garshelis, D., Purchase, G., Strauss, M., Swanson, A., Balme, G., Hunter, L., and Nowell, K. (2009). Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores. PLoS One 4, e5941.
Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores.CrossRef |

Parkhurst, J. (2010). ‘Vanishing Icon; The Fraser Island Dingo.’ (Grey Thrush Publishing: Melbourne.)

Pavlov, K., Chistiakov, D., and Chekhonin, V. (2012). Genetic determinants of aggression and impulsivity in humans. Journal of Applied Genetics 53, 61–82.
Genetic determinants of aggression and impulsivity in humans.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsVKnsbo%3D&md5=a8c097eeb8e1eb8c7dd911f637e7c585CAS |

Peace, A. (2001). Dingo discourse: constructions of nature and contradictions of capital in an Australian eco-tourist location. Anthropological Forum 11, 175–194.
Dingo discourse: constructions of nature and contradictions of capital in an Australian eco-tourist location.CrossRef |

Peebles, K. A., Wielgus, R. B., Maletzke, B. T., and Swanson, M. E. (2013). Effects of remedial sport hunting on cougar complaints and livestock depredations. PLoS One 8, e79713.
Effects of remedial sport hunting on cougar complaints and livestock depredations.CrossRef |

Popova, N. K. (2006). From genes to aggressive behavior: the role of serotonergic system. BioEssays 28, 495–503.
From genes to aggressive behavior: the role of serotonergic system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XkvVyjs7Y%3D&md5=89aef690aaac637019d2116e866f17adCAS |

Promislow, D. E. L., and Harvey, P. H. (1990). Living fast and dying young: a comparative analysis of life history variation among mammals. Journal of Zoology 220, 417–437.
Living fast and dying young: a comparative analysis of life history variation among mammals.CrossRef |

Purcell, B. (2010). ‘Dingo.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Ripple, W. J., Wirsing, A. J., Wilmers, C. C., and Letnic, M. (2013). Widespread mesopredator effects after wolf extirpation. Biological Conservation 160, 70–79.
Widespread mesopredator effects after wolf extirpation.CrossRef |

Ripple, W. J., Estes, J. A., Beschta, R. L., Wilmers, C. C., Ritchie, E. G., Hebblewhite, M., Berger, J., Elmhagen, B., Letnic, M., Nelson, M. P., Schmitz, O. J., Smith, D. W., Wallach, A. D., and Wirsing, A. J. (2014). Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science 343, .
Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXktVyrsQ%3D%3D&md5=19af5eca5da31f7a8dd59a2c9a02a5e0CAS |

Rogers, L. J., and Kaplan, G. (2003). ‘Spirit of the Wild Dog: the World of Wolves, Coyotes, Foxes, Jackals and Dingoes.’ (Allen and Unwin: Australia.)

Rose, D. B. (2000). ‘Dingo Makes Us Human; Life and Land in an Australian Aboriginal Culture.’ (Cambridge University Press: United Kingdom.)

Rutledge, L. Y., Patterson, B. R., Mills, K. J., Loveless, K. M., Murray, D. L., and White, B. N. (2010). Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biological Conservation 143, 332–339.
Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs.CrossRef |

Schmidt, R. H., and Timm, R. M. (2007). Bad dogs: why do coyotes and other canids become unruly? In ‘Proceedings of the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference’. (Eds D. L. Nolte, W. M. Arjo, and D. H. Stalman.) pp. 287–302. (University of Nebraska.)

Slotow, R., and van Dyk, G. (2001). Role of delinquent young “orphan” male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Koedoe 44, 85–94.
Role of delinquent young “orphan” male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa.CrossRef |

Smith, B. (2015). ‘The Dingo Debate, Origins, Behaviour and Conservation.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Stephens, D., Wilton, A. N., Fleming, P. J. S., and Berry, O. (2015). Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs. Molecular Ecology 24, 5643–5656.
Death by sex in an Australian icon: a continent-wide survey reveals extensive hybridization between dingoes and domestic dogs.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvVyitbbN&md5=d4d719a93c79f975b2adaae7060ecbcbCAS |

Swartz, J. R., Hariri, A. R., and Williamson, D. E. (2016). An epigenetic mechanism links socioeconomic status to changes in depression-related brain function in high-risk adolescents. Molecular Psychiatry , .
An epigenetic mechanism links socioeconomic status to changes in depression-related brain function in high-risk adolescents.CrossRef |

Thomson, P. C. (1986). The effectiveness of aerial baiting for the control of dingoes in north-western Australia. Wildlife Research 13, 165–176.
The effectiveness of aerial baiting for the control of dingoes in north-western Australia.CrossRef |

Thomson, P. C. (1992). The behavioural ecology of dingoes in north-western Australia. IV. Social and special organization, and movements. Wildlife Research 19, 519–530.
The behavioural ecology of dingoes in north-western Australia. IV. Social and special organization, and movements.CrossRef |

Timm, R. M. (2006). Coyotes nipping at our heels: a new suburban dilemma. In ‘Proceedings of the 11th Triennial National Wildlife and Fisheries Extension Specialists Conference’. pp. 139–145. (Big Sky: Montana.)

Treves, A., and Karanth, K. U. (2003). Human–carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17, 1491–1499.
Human–carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide.CrossRef |

Treves, A., Kapp, K. J., and MacFarland, D. M. (2010). American black bear nuisance complaints and hunter take. Ursus 21, 30–42.
American black bear nuisance complaints and hunter take.CrossRef |

Twyford, K. (1995). ‘Investigations into the dietary ecology of dingoes on Fraser Island: third interim report.’ Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.

Tyrka, A. R., Parade, S. H., Price, L. H., Kao, H.-T., Porton, B., Philip, N. S., Welch, E. S., and Carpenter, L. L. (2016). Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length with early adversity and psychopathology. Biological Psychiatry 79, 78–86.
Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number and telomere length with early adversity and psychopathology.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjvFCju7c%3D&md5=e2735af47a0b0ae65435585457951c93CAS |

Van Meter, P. E., French, J. A., Dloniak, S. M., Watts, H. E., Kolowski, J. M., and Holekamp, K. E. (2009). Fecal glucocorticoids reflect socio-ecological and anthropogenic stressors in the lives of wild spotted hyenas. Hormones and Behavior 55, 329–337.
Fecal glucocorticoids reflect socio-ecological and anthropogenic stressors in the lives of wild spotted hyenas.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtlSluro%3D&md5=e26c2d168c216cd8853135f4cf07443dCAS |

vonHoldt, B., Pollinger, J. P., Lohmueller, K. E., Han, E., Parker, H. G., Quignon, P., Degenhardt, J. D., Boyko, A. R., Earl, D. A., Auton, A., Reynolds, A., Bryc, K., Brisbin, A., Knowles, J. C., Mosher, D. S., Spady, T. C., Elkahloun, A., Geffen, E., Pilot, M., Jedrzejewski, W., Greco, C., Randi, E., Bannasch, D., Wilton, A., Shearman, J., Musiani, M., Cargill, M., Jones, P. G., Qian, Z., Huang, W., Ding, Z. L., Zhang, Y. P., Bustamante, C. D., Ostrander, E. A., Novembre, J., and Wayne, R. K. (2010). Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication. Nature 464, 898–902.
Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXjsFSqu70%3D&md5=7fa1a34b540b1ddfb53d68130b97f62fCAS |

Wallach, A. D., Ritchie, E. G., Read, J., and O’Neill, A. J. (2009). More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator. PLoS One 4, e6861.
More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator.CrossRef |

Wallach, A. D., Johnson, C. N., Ritchie, E. G., and O’Neill, A. J. (2010). Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states. Ecology Letters 13, 1008–1018.

Wallach, A. D., Izhaki, I., Toms, J. D., Ripple, W. J., and Shanas, U. (2015). What is an apex predator? Oikos , .
What is an apex predator?CrossRef |

White, L. A., and Gehrt, S. D. (2009). Coyote attacks on humans in the United States and Canada. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14, 419–432.

Wielgus, R. B., Sarrazin, F., Ferriere, R., and Clobert, J. (2001). Estimating effects of adult male mortality on grizzly bear population growth and persistence using matrix models. Biological Conservation 98, 293–303.
Estimating effects of adult male mortality on grizzly bear population growth and persistence using matrix models.CrossRef |

Williams, F. (2002). ‘Princess K’Gari’s Fraser Island.’ (Self-published: Brisbane.)

Woodall, P. F., Pavlov, P., and Twyford, K. L. (1996). Dingoes in Queensland, Australia: skull dimensions and the identity of wild canids. Wildlife Research 23, 581–587.
Dingoes in Queensland, Australia: skull dimensions and the identity of wild canids.CrossRef |


Full Text PDF (596 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)

View Altmetrics