Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Emerging role of extracellular vesicles in communication of preimplantation embryos in vitro

Krishna C. Pavani A * , Carmen Alminana B * , Eline Wydooghe A , Maaike Catteeuw A , Miguel A. Ramírez C , Pascal Mermillod B , Dimitrios Rizos C and Ann Van Soom A D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ghent, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

B INRA, Reproductive Physiology and Behavior, UMR085, INRA, CNRS, Université de Tours, IFCE, 37380 Nouzilly, France.

C Departamento de Reproduccion Animal, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040, Spain.

D Corresponding author. Email: ann.vansoom@ugent.be

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 29(1) 66-83 https://doi.org/10.1071/RD16318
Published: 2 December 2016

Abstract

In vitro, efficient communication between mammalian embryos in groups or between embryos and cocultured somatic cells implies that there is a sender, a message and a receiver that is able to decode the message. Embryos secrete a variety of autocrine and paracrine factors and, of these, extracellular vesicles have recently been implicated as putative messengers in embryo–embryo communication, as well as in communication of the embryo with the maternal tract. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles that are found in biofluids and in culture media conditioned by the presence of embryos or cells. EVs carry and transfer regulatory molecules, such as microRNAs, mRNAs, lipids and proteins. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to review and present the currently available evidence regarding the possible roles of EVs in in vitro embryo communication and embryo development. It is important to note that there is limited information available on the molecular mechanisms and many of the biologically plausible functions of EVs in embryo communication have not yet been substantiated by conclusive experimental evidence. However, indirect evidence, such as the use of media conditioned by embryos or by somatic cells with improved embryo development as a result, may indicate that EVs can be an important asset for the development of tailor-made media, allowing better embryo development in vitro, even for single embryo culture.

Additional keywords: embryo culture, embryo–maternal communication.


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