Quantitative changes of extravillous trophoblast cells in heavy smoker mothers compared with healthy controlsZahra Heidari A B , Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb A B and Nadia Sheibak B C
A Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, 9816743175, Iran.
B Department of Histology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, 9816743175, Iran.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Reproduction, Fertility and Development - https://doi.org/10.1071/RD17041
Submitted: 1 November 2016 Accepted: 2 July 2017 Published online: 20 July 2017
Maternal smoking during pregnancy can induce structural and functional changes in the placenta. Placentas from heavy smoker (>20 cigarettes per day) mothers and non-smoker healthy controls (n = 10 in each group) were enrolled in the present case-control study. Sample selection and sectioning were performed by systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Selected sections were stained using Masson’s trichrome to estimate quantitative parameters of placental extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs) and the number of EVTs. Differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U-test, with significance set at P < 0.05. There was a significant difference in placental weight and the total volume of the placenta between the heavy smoker and control groups (P < 0.05). The total volume of EVTs, nucleus diameter, cytoplasm diameter, the volume of the nucleus and cytoplasm and the nucleus to cytoplasm ratio of EVTs were significantly greater in the heavy smoker compared with control group (P < 0.05 for all). In placentas from heavy smokers, the total number of EVTs per unit volume of placental bed were significantly greater than in the control group (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, the findings suggest that maternal smoking could affect fetal health by changing the quantitative parameters of the placenta, and likely the invasive properties of EVTs.
Additional keywords: placenta, pregnancy, smoking, stereology.
ReferencesBush, P. G., Mayhew, T. M., Abramovich, D., Aggett, P., Burke, M., and Page, K. (2000). A quantitative study on the effects of maternal smoking on placental morphology and cadmium concentration. Placenta 21, 247–256.
| A quantitative study on the effects of maternal smoking on placental morphology and cadmium concentration.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3c3gt1GgsA%3D%3D&md5=d2bc9ecc7b7ed4a14ec7eb4a70a197b7CAS |
DaSilva-Arnold, S., James, J. L., Al-Khan, A., Zamudio, S., and Illsley, N. P. (2015). Differentiation of first trimester cytotrophoblast to extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Placenta 36, 1412–1418.
| Differentiation of first trimester cytotrophoblast to extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial–mesenchymal transition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhslKktb7J&md5=c0f1f6c161124c9402dd4e1dcba1db2fCAS |
Erbil, N., Toprak, N., Açıkgöz, Ö., Gelen, S., and Arık, N. (2015). The relationship between maternal, placental and newborn parameters. Middle Black Sea Journal of Health Science 1, 11–18.
| The relationship between maternal, placental and newborn parameters.CrossRef |
Gruslin, A., Qiu, Q., and Tsang, B. K. (2001). Influence of maternal smoking on trophoblast apoptosis throughout development: possible involvement of Xiap regulation. Biol. Reprod. 65, 1164–1169.
| Influence of maternal smoking on trophoblast apoptosis throughout development: possible involvement of Xiap regulation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXnt1Cms7Y%3D&md5=a8434551d100b9ba026e0512e8f53468CAS |
Heidari, Z., and Sheibak, N. (2016). Trophoblast giant cells, the prime suspects of deficient placentation associated with pregnancy complications. Gene, Cell and Tissue 3, e38516.
| Trophoblast giant cells, the prime suspects of deficient placentation associated with pregnancy complications.CrossRef |
Heidari, Z., Zahra, M.-S. H., Zakeri, Z., and Nourzaei, N. (2013). Stereological changes of human placenta in lupus erythematosus compared with healthy controls. Zahedan J. Res. Med. Sci. 15, 50–54.
Heidari, Z., Sakhavar, N., Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H., and Ezazi-Bojnourdi, T. (2015). Stereological analysis of human placenta in cases of placenta previa in comparison with normally implanted controls. J. Reprod. Infertil. 16, 90–95.
Heidari, Z., Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H., and Sheibak, N. (2016). Immunohistochemical expression of myeloperoxidase in placental samples of systematic lupus erythematosus pregnancies. J. Family Reprod. Health 10, 64–70.
Heidari, Z., Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, H., Sheibak, N., and Nourzaei, N. (2017). Quantitative changes of extravillous trophoblast cells in placentas of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 37, 746–751.
| Quantitative changes of extravillous trophoblast cells in placentas of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.CrossRef |
Jauniaux, E., and Burton, G. J. (2007). Morphological and biological effects of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke on the feto-placental unit. Early Hum. Dev. 83, 699–706.
| Morphological and biological effects of maternal exposure to tobacco smoke on the feto-placental unit.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1aktbbJ&md5=1714e92f7e37831b7a94b74d82310a0aCAS |
Kaplan, S., Odaci, E., Canan, S., Onger, M. E., Aslan, H., and Unal, B. (2012). The disector counting technique. Neuroquantology 10, 44–53.
Kawashima, A., Koide, K., Ventura, W., Hori, K., Takenaka, S., Maruyama, D., Matsuoka, R., Ichizuka, K., and Sekizawa, A. (2014). Effects of maternal smoking on the placental expression of genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis during the first trimester. PLoS One 9, e106140.
| Effects of maternal smoking on the placental expression of genes related to angiogenesis and apoptosis during the first trimester.CrossRef |
Kayemba-Kay’s, S., Geary, M. P. P., Pringle, J., Rodeck, C. H., Kingdom, J. C. P., and Hindmarsh, P. C. (2008). Gender, smoking during pregnancy and gestational age influence cord leptin concentrations in newborn infants. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 159, 217–224.
| Gender, smoking during pregnancy and gestational age influence cord leptin concentrations in newborn infants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXht1ChsrbL&md5=8258601b09f3dcea06a0a3d93f2a8269CAS |
Larsen, L. G., Clausen, H. V., and Jønsson, L. (2002). Stereologic examination of placentas from mothers who smoke during pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186, 531–537.
| Stereologic examination of placentas from mothers who smoke during pregnancy.CrossRef |
Mattsson, K. (2015) ‘Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy: Long-term Health Effects in the Offspring.’ (Lund University: Sweden.)
Pringle, P. J., Geary, M. P., Rodeck, C. H., Kingdom, J. C., Kayamba-Kay’s, S., and Hindmarsh, P. C. (2005). The influence of cigarette smoking on antenatal growth, birth size, and the insulin-like growth factor axis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 90, 2556–2562.
| The influence of cigarette smoking on antenatal growth, birth size, and the insulin-like growth factor axis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXkt1Wgs7w%3D&md5=6f03780bb0a7465a802698c36e9ce7bbCAS |
Ramić, S., Žigić, Z., and Alečković, M. (2006). Stereological analysis of mature human placenta of pregnant women of different age. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 6, 7–10.
Rocha, J. E. S., Matheus, M., and Sala, M. A. (1998). Effect of cigarette smoke on human placenta morphometry. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 62, 237–242.
| Effect of cigarette smoke on human placenta morphometry.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmsF2lurw%3D&md5=258168fb13f9dc49dd8f096d6e1ebbedCAS |
Virupaxi, R., Potturi, B., and Shirol, V. (2011). Morphology of placenta and its relation with small for date babies in 950 live births. Recent Res. Sci. Technol. 3, 123–126.
Wang, X., Zuckerman, B., Pearson, C., Kaufman, G., Chen, C., Wang, G., Niu, T., Wise, P. H., Bauchner, H., and Xu, X. (2002). Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. JAMA 287, 195–202.
| Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisVSmsQ%3D%3D&md5=ffc4b6df51454277b550698f8080a4a0CAS |
Zdravkovic, T., Genbacev, O., McMaster, M., and Fisher, S. (2005). The adverse effects of maternal smoking on the human placenta: a review. Placenta 26, S81–S86.
| The adverse effects of maternal smoking on the human placenta: a review.CrossRef |
Zhang, S., Regnault, T. R., Barker, P. L., Botting, K. J., McMillen, I. C., McMillan, C. M., Roberts, C. T., and Morrison, J. L. (2015). Placental adaptations in growth restriction. Nutrients 7, 360–389.
| Placental adaptations in growth restriction.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXntFGlsL8%3D&md5=aa071873927a281f80615bd07e785e54CAS |