400 KARYOTYPIC ANALYSIS AND EPIGENETIC MODIFICATIONS OF CULTURED PORCINE ADIPOSE TISSUE-DERIVED STEM CELLSK. J. Williams A , K. R. Bondioli A and R. A. Godke A
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 22(1) 356-356 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RDv22n1Ab400
Published: 8 December 2009
The introduction of genetic modifications in donor cells for NT requires a significant number of population doublings (PD), and the deleterious effects, which may be attributed to aneuploidy or changes in DNA methylation and histone acetylation, are difficult at this time to circumvent. We hypothesize that the identification of a donor cell that is genetically stable for a long period of time in vitro such as somatic stem cells or those cells that demonstrate stem-like characteristics may be reprogrammed more completely, thus providing the key to increasing the efficiency of NT. Regulators of development in undifferentiated cells are suggested to be silenced by the presence of a bivalent domain modification pattern in which a large region of repressive histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) contains smaller regions of activating histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3).The dual marks work to silence developmental genes in embryonic stem cells while simultaneously keeping them receptive to activation. The objectives of the current study were to determine the chromosomal stability of porcine adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (pASC) through in vitro culture, to analyze pASC alongside fetal porcine fibroblasts (FPF) for gene expression profiles of chromatin remodeling proteins and global methylation and acetylation patterns, and to determine the presence of a co-enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 within the promoter regions of developmentally important transcription factors. Metaphase spreads were prepared, and the presence of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 was investigated in each of 3 individual pASC primary cultures for each analysis; whereas, gene expression and global methylation and acetylation were analyzed in each of 4 individual pASC and FPF primary cultures. Of 714 metaphases analyzed, 509 (71.3%) were aneuploid and only 205 (28.7%) were normal diploid porcine cells. For each cell population, we found a remarkable percentage of aneuploidies (43.7, 48.9, and 47.3, with a 46.6 ± 1.5 average) present immediately after the cultures were established. Chi-square analysis indicated that the percent of aneuploid cells during PD 1-10 was significantly less than that for PD 11-20 and PD 21-30. Also, porcine ASC demonstrated a consistently lower level of DNA methylation and histone acetylation through passages 2 through 7; whereas, the patterns for FPF varied. The expression levels of chromatin remodeling transcripts remained lower in pASC throughout culture when compared with FPF. Finally, porcine ASC possess a co-enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 on the promoter region of the developmentally important transcription factor OCT-4. In vitro-cultured porcine ASC used as donor cells for NT should be chosen from early PD because of increased levels of aneuploidy at later PD. With a more complete characterization of porcine ASC, a donor cell population that can be more efficiently reprogrammed following fusion with the oocyte might be identified.