Reproduction, Fertility and Development Reproduction, Fertility and Development Society
Vertebrate reproductive science and technology


H. Oh A , O. J. Koo A , M. J. Kim A , J. Park A , S. Hong A , J. Ra B , S. Kang B , G. Jang A and B. C. Lee A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea;

B Central Research Center, RNL BIO, Seoul, Korea

Reproduction, Fertility and Development 22(1) 194-194
Published: 8 December 2009


The coordination between the cell cycle stages of nuclear donor cells and host oocytes has a critical effect on the development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we investigated (1) whether roscovitine, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) could arrest canine somatic cells at S/G2 phase of the cell cycle; (2) whether IVM metaphase II (MII) oocyte could be induced to telophase II (TII) after activation. Last, we investigated embryo development ability of nonactivated oocytes (MII) or activated oocytes (TII) fused with somatic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Dog fetal fibroblasts were treated with roscovitine (30 or 60 μg mL-1 at 24, 48, or 72 h) and a control group of donor cells was cultured to reach confluency. The cells were then fixed and stained with 1 mg mL-1 propidium iodide for flow cytometric analysis. For SCNT, IVM dog oocytes were obtained by flushing (approximately 72 h after ovulation) from the oviducts of oocyte donor dog (Canis familiaris) and divided into 2 groups; nonactivated oocytes (MII) and activated oocytes (TII) by 10 μg mL-1 calcium ionophore for 4 min. Following preparation of each donor cell arrested in G0 and G2/M phase, cells of G0 stage were placed into enucleated MII oocytes (MII-G0) and cells of G2/M-phase were placed into enucleated TII oocytes (TII-G2/M). After fusion by electric stimulation, the MII-G0 group was chemically activated and cultured in modified SOF medium (mSOF), and the TII-G2/M group was cultured in mSOF without activation. The embryo developmental competence was estimated by assessing in vitro development under the microscope. Data were analyzed using a statistical analysis system program. Based on flow cytometry, the frequency of cells arrested at G2/M-phase in the 30 and 60 μg mL-1 roscovitine groups was significantly higher than that in control (31.95 and 25.99% v. 19.79%, respectively), but differences were not observed between the 30 and 60 μg mL-1 roscovitine groups (P > 0.05). Also, a significant increase in the proportion of cells at G2/M-phase was observed at 48 and 72 h in both roscovitine groups compared with the group not treated with roscovitine. The proportion of cells at G2/M-phase in the 60 μg mL-1 group at 48 h and the 30 μg mL-1 group at 72 h was the highest among all treatments. For the TII-G2/M group, we injected into enucleated TII oocyte and selected a large cell that arrested at G2/M-phase in cells cultured with 60 μg mL-1 roscovitine for 48 h. For the result of in vitro development of cloned embryo from MII-G0 and TII-G2/M, TII-G2/M group (39.4 and 7.8%) showed an increased cleavage rate and development to 8 cells compared with MII-G0 (23.5 and 2.9%). In the present study, we demonstrated that, in combination with nuclear donor cells at specific cell cycle stages, MII and TII dog oocytes are similarly effective in supporting the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei.

This study was supported by Korean MEST through KOSEF (grant # M10625030005-09N250300510) and BK21 program, RNL BIO, and Natural Balance Korea.

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