The Rangeland Journal The Rangeland Journal Society
Rangeland ecology and management
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Improving vegetation quality for the restoration of pollinators – the relevance of co-flowering species in space and time

C. L. Gross
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

Ecosystem Management, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia. Email: cgross@une.edu.au

The Rangeland Journal - https://doi.org/10.1071/RJ17066
Submitted: 13 June 2017  Accepted: 30 August 2017   Published online: 23 October 2017

Abstract

Pollination is a key ecosystem function that directly and indirectly provides food for all organisms – regardless of the trophic level. In degraded ecosystems, installing plant and habitat resources for pollinators starts with an understanding of the temporal and spatial habitat needs of pollinators, and the augmentations, the co-factors and conditions required for pollinator populations. These co-factors, not immediately recognised as linked to the provision of pollination services, are critical for complexity and include a diverse array of resources such as food plants for larvae, shelter and temporal legacies of earlier flowering species. Practical steps for restoration include the installation of an array of plant species that provide a staggered supply of flowers and this can be refined to include specific floral types that are the mega supermarkets for nectar and pollen resources in them.

Additional keywords: buzz pollination, flower types, flowering phenology, nectar resources, pollinator conservation, spatial overlap, temporal overlap.


References

Altermatt, F., and Pearse, I. S. (2011). Similarity and specialization of the larval versus adult diet of European butterflies and moths. American Naturalist 178, 372–382.
Similarity and specialization of the larval versus adult diet of European butterflies and moths.CrossRef |

Archer, S., and Pyke, D. A. (1991). Plant-animal interactions affecting plant establishment and persistence on revegetated rangeland. Journal of Range Management 44, 558–565.
Plant-animal interactions affecting plant establishment and persistence on revegetated rangeland.CrossRef |

Armstrong, J. A. (1979). Biotic pollination mechanisms in the Australian flora – a review. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17, 467–508.
Biotic pollination mechanisms in the Australian flora – a review.CrossRef |

Armstrong, J. A., Powell, J. M., and Richards, A. J. (1982). ‘Pollination and Evolution.’ (Royal Botanic Gardens: Sydney.)

Aussie Bee (2017). Available at: www.aussiebee.com.au/ (accessed 1 August 2017).

AVH (2017). Available at: http://avh.chah.org.au/ (accessed 1 June 2017).

Batley, M., and Hogendoorn, K. (2009). Diversity and conservation status of native Australian bees. Apidologie 40, 347–354.
Diversity and conservation status of native Australian bees.CrossRef |

Beardsell, D., Clements, M., Hutchinson, J., and Williams, E. (1986). Pollination of Diuris maculata R.Br. (Orchidaceae) by floral mimicry of the native legumes Daviesia spp. and Pultenaea scabra R. Br. Australian Journal of Botany 34, 165–173.
Pollination of Diuris maculata R.Br. (Orchidaceae) by floral mimicry of the native legumes Daviesia spp. and Pultenaea scabra R. Br.CrossRef |

Black, S. H., Shepherd, M., and Vaughan, M. (2011). Rangeland management for pollinators. Rangelands 33, 9–13.
Rangeland management for pollinators.CrossRef |

Boulter, S. L., Kitching, R. L., Gross, C. L., Goodall, K. L., and Howell, B. G. (2009). Floral morphology, phenology and pollination in the Wet Tropics. In: ‘Living in a Dynamic Tropical Forest Landscape’. (Eds N. Stork and S. M. Turton.) pp. 224–239. (Blackwell Publishing: Malden, MA.)

Bowerbird (2017). Available at: www.bowerbird.org.au/ (accessed 1 August 2017).

Braby, M. F. (2004). ‘The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.)

Chapman, A. D. (2009). ‘Numbers of Living Species in Australia and the World.’ 2nd edn. Report for the Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, ACT.

Common, I. F. B. (1990). ‘Moths of Australia.’ (Melbourne University Press: Carlton, Vic.)

CSIRO (2015a). Flies. Available at: www.csiro.au/en/Research/Collections/ANIC/Insect-research/Flies-Research (accessed 2 June 2017).

CSIRO (2015b). Beetles. Available at: www.csiro.au/en/Research/Collections/ANIC/Insect-research/Beetle-Research (accessed 2 June 2017).

Cunningham, S. A. (2000). Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of four plant species in mallee woodland. Conservation Biology 14, 758–768.
Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of four plant species in mallee woodland.CrossRef |

Davila, Y. C., and Wardle, G. M. (2002). Reproductive ecology of the Australian herb Trachymene incisa subsp. incisa (Apiaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 50, 619–626.
Reproductive ecology of the Australian herb Trachymene incisa subsp. incisa (Apiaceae).CrossRef |

Dixon, K. W. (2009). Pollination and restoration. Science 325, 571–573.
Pollination and restoration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXptFOjsbw%3D&md5=43b236c818f38943cded7725970aea59CAS |

Ford, H. A., and Paton, D. C. (1982). Partitioning of nectar sources in an Australian honeyeater community. Australian Journal of Ecology 7, 149–159.
Partitioning of nectar sources in an Australian honeyeater community.CrossRef |

Ford, H. A., Paton, D. C., and Forde, N. (1979). Birds as pollinators of Australian plants. New Zealand Journal of Botany 17, 509–519.
Birds as pollinators of Australian plants.CrossRef |

Forup, M. L., Henson, K. S., Craze, P. G., and Memmott, J. (2008). The restoration of ecological interactions: plant–pollinator networks on ancient and restored heathlands. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 742–752.
The restoration of ecological interactions: plant–pollinator networks on ancient and restored heathlands.CrossRef |

Galil, J., and Eisikowitch, D. (1968). On the pollination ecology of Ficus sycomorus in East Africa. Ecology 49, 259–269.
On the pollination ecology of Ficus sycomorus in East Africa.CrossRef |

Garibaldi, L. A., Carvalheiro, L. G., Vaissière, B. E., Gemmill-Herren, B., Hipólito, J., Freitas, B. M., Ngo, H. T., Azzu, N., Sáez, A., Åström, J., and An, J. (2016). Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms. Science 351, 388–391.
Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XhtValsLw%3D&md5=fd0a98ec0dece39a57e46e96a79b4fc4CAS |

Goldingay, R., Carthew, S., and Whelan, R. (1991). The importance of non-flying mammals in pollination. Oikos 61, 79–87.
The importance of non-flying mammals in pollination.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (1990). The breeding systems of three co-occurring legumes – Dillwynia hispida, Dillwynia uncinata and Pultenaea densifolia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae). Australian Journal of Botany 38, 207–215.
The breeding systems of three co-occurring legumes – Dillwynia hispida, Dillwynia uncinata and Pultenaea densifolia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae).CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (1992). Floral traits and pollinator constancy – foraging by native bees among 3 sympatric legumes. Australian Journal of Ecology 17, 67–74.
Floral traits and pollinator constancy – foraging by native bees among 3 sympatric legumes.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (1993a). The breeding system and pollinators of Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae) – a pioneer shrub in tropical Australia. Biotropica 25, 468–474.
The breeding system and pollinators of Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae) – a pioneer shrub in tropical Australia.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (1993b). The reproductive ecology of Canavalia rosea (Fabaceae) on Anak Krakatau, Indonesia. Australian Journal of Botany 41, 591–599.
The reproductive ecology of Canavalia rosea (Fabaceae) on Anak Krakatau, Indonesia.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (1996). Is resource overlap disadvantageous to three sympatric legumes? Australian Journal of Ecology 21, 133–143.
Is resource overlap disadvantageous to three sympatric legumes?CrossRef |

Gross, C. L. (2005a). A comparison of the sexual systems in the trees from the Australian tropics with other tropical biomes – more monoecy but why? American Journal of Botany 92, 907–919.
A comparison of the sexual systems in the trees from the Australian tropics with other tropical biomes – more monoecy but why?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MroslWrsw%3D%3D&md5=62568cb3e9f0ea0b87ec112d723e55f4CAS |

Gross, C. L. (2005b). Pollination efficiency and pollinator effectiveness. In: ‘Practical Pollination Biology’. (Eds P. G. Kevan, B. C. Husband and A. Dafni.) pp. 354–363. (Enviroquest Ltd.: Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.)

Gross, C. L., and Caddy, H. (2006). Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)? American Journal of Botany 93, 1791–1799.
Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3MrnsleqsQ%3D%3D&md5=da727ec2214b83df98a08638890488e5CAS |

Gross, C. L., and Kukuk, P. F. (2001). Foraging strategies of Amegilla anomola at flowers of Melastoma affine – no evidence for separate feeding and pollinating anthers. Acta Horticulturae 561, 171–178.
Foraging strategies of Amegilla anomola at flowers of Melastoma affine – no evidence for separate feeding and pollinating anthers.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L., and Mackay, D. (1998). Honeybees reduce fitness in the pioneer shrub Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae). Biological Conservation 86, 169–178.
Honeybees reduce fitness in the pioneer shrub Melastoma affine (Melastomataceae).CrossRef |

Gross, C. L., and Vary, L. B. (2014). Arrested recovery in a sandy woodland correlates with a lack of heavy and long seeds in the seed bank. Ecosphere 5, art. 70.
Arrested recovery in a sandy woodland correlates with a lack of heavy and long seeds in the seed bank.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L., Mackay, D. A., and Whalen, M. A. (2000). Aggregated flowering phenologies among three sympatric legumes – the degree of non-randomness and the effect of overlap on fruit set. Plant Ecology 148, 13–21.
Aggregated flowering phenologies among three sympatric legumes – the degree of non-randomness and the effect of overlap on fruit set.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L., Bartier, F. V., and Mulligan, D. R. (2003). Floral structure, breeding system and fruit-set in the threatened sub-shrub Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae). Annals of Botany 92, 771–777.
Floral structure, breeding system and fruit-set in the threatened sub-shrub Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3srjtlWmtQ%3D%3D&md5=9eb7a5da3cb9281199d2f79b7f69aaf5CAS |

Gross, C. L., Gorrell, L., Macdonald, M., and Fatemi, M. (2010). Honeybees facilitate the invasion of Phyla canescens (Verbenaceae) in Australia – no bees, no seed! Weed Research 50, 364–372.

Gross, C. L., Nelson, P. A., Haddadchi, A., and Fatemi, M. (2012). Somatic mutations contribute to genotypic diversity in sterile and fertile populations of the threatened shrub, Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae). Annals of Botany 109, 331–342.
Somatic mutations contribute to genotypic diversity in sterile and fertile populations of the threatened shrub, Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC387oslOntQ%3D%3D&md5=3f8ed7b845d330bb6866a38f8c9dd283CAS |

Gross, C. L., Fatemi, M., and Simpson, I. H. (2017a). Seed provenance for changing climates: early growth traits of nonlocal seed are better adapted to future climatic scenarios, but not to current field conditions. Restoration Ecology 25, 577–586.
Seed provenance for changing climates: early growth traits of nonlocal seed are better adapted to future climatic scenarios, but not to current field conditions.CrossRef |

Gross, C. L., Whitehead, J. D., Silveira de Souza, C. S., and Mackay, D. (2017b). Unsuccessful introduced biocontrol agents can act as pollinators of invasive weeds: Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) as an example. Ecology and Evolution , .

Hamilton, A. G. (1898). Notes on the fertilisation of some Australian and other plants. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 4, 759–767.

Hardy, A. (1910). Mixed pollen collected by bees. Victorian Naturalist 27, 71–73.

Harris, J. A. (1905). The dehiscence of anthers by apical pores. Missouri Botanical Garden Annual Report 1905, 167–257.
The dehiscence of anthers by apical pores.CrossRef |

Heard, T. A. (1994). Behaviour and pollinator efficiency of stingless bees and honey bees on macadamia flowers. Journal of Apicultural Research 33, 191–198.
Behaviour and pollinator efficiency of stingless bees and honey bees on macadamia flowers.CrossRef |

Hingston, A. B., Potts, B. M., and McQuillan, P. B. (2004). The swift parrot Lathamus discolor (Psittacidae), social bees (Apidae), and native insects as pollinators of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 52, 371–379.
The swift parrot Lathamus discolor (Psittacidae), social bees (Apidae), and native insects as pollinators of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus (Myrtaceae).CrossRef |

Hoebee, S. E., and Young, A. G. (2001). Low neighbourhood size and high interpopulation differentiation in the endangered shrub Grevillea iaspicula McGill (Proteaceae). Heredity 86, 489–496.
Low neighbourhood size and high interpopulation differentiation in the endangered shrub Grevillea iaspicula McGill (Proteaceae).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3Mvns1WgsQ%3D%3D&md5=83852d9f992db061c408fb307d76ed4cCAS |

Hogendoorn, K., Gross, C. L., Sedgley, M., and Keller, M. A. (2006). Increased tomato yield through pollination by native Australian Amegilla chlorocyanea (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Journal of Economic Entomology 99, 828–833.
Increased tomato yield through pollination by native Australian Amegilla chlorocyanea (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae).CrossRef |

Hopper, S. D., and Burbidge, A. H. (1978). Assortative pollination by red wattlebirds in a hybrid population of Anigozanthos Labill. (Haemodoraceae). Australian Journal of Botany 26, 335–350.
Assortative pollination by red wattlebirds in a hybrid population of Anigozanthos Labill. (Haemodoraceae).CrossRef |

Houston, T., Lamont, B., Radford, S., and Errington, S. (1993). Apparent mutualism between Verticordia nitens and V. aurea (Myrtaceae) and their oil-ingesting bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Colletidae). Australian Journal of Botany 41, 369–380.
Apparent mutualism between Verticordia nitens and V. aurea (Myrtaceae) and their oil-ingesting bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Colletidae).CrossRef |

Inouye, D. W., and Pyke, G. H. (1988). Pollination biology in the Snowy Mountains of Australia: comparisons with montane Colorado, USA. Australian Journal of Ecology 13, 191–205.
Pollination biology in the Snowy Mountains of Australia: comparisons with montane Colorado, USA.CrossRef |

Irvine, A. K., and Armstrong, J. E. (1990). Beetle pollination in tropical forests of Australia. In: ‘Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Forest Plants’. Vol. 7. (Eds K. S. Bawa and M. Hadley.) pp. 135–149. (UNESCO and Parthenon Publishing Group: Paris, France.)

Kearns, C. A., Inouye, D. W., and Waser, N. M. (1998). Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29, 83–112.
Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions.CrossRef |

King, C. E., Gallaher, E. E., and Levin, D. A. (1975). Equilibrium diversity in plant-pollinator systems. Journal of Theoretical Biology 53, 263–275.
Equilibrium diversity in plant-pollinator systems.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE28%2Fntlyguw%3D%3D&md5=a561652bb36b9c8d3009c7a6bb912443CAS |

Landsberg, J., and Crowley, G. (2004). Monitoring rangeland biodiversity: plants as indicators. Austral Ecology 29, 59–77.
Monitoring rangeland biodiversity: plants as indicators.CrossRef |

Memmott, J., Waser, N. M., and Price, M. V. (2004). Tolerance of pollination networks to species extinctions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 271, 2605–2611.
Tolerance of pollination networks to species extinctions.CrossRef |

Menz, M. H., Phillips, R. D., Winfree, R., Kremen, C., Aizen, M. A., Johnson, S. D., and Dixon, K. W. (2011). Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the restoration of pollination mutualisms. Trends in Plant Science 16, 4–12.
Reconnecting plants and pollinators: challenges in the restoration of pollination mutualisms.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXjvFOgsw%3D%3D&md5=a55d8d2094637642189ab573c8560ccbCAS |

Neal, P. R. (1998). Pollinator restoration. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13, 132–133.
Pollinator restoration.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3M7itFymtg%3D%3D&md5=4cd3d16e1d69ff9b0f0330a943c8365bCAS |

Ollerton, J., Winfree, R., and Tarrant, S. (2011). How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120, 321–326.
How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals?CrossRef |

PaDIL (2017). Available at: www.padil.gov.au/pollinators (accessed 1 August 2017).

Peakall, R., and Handel, S. N. (1993). Pollinators discriminate among floral heights of a sexually deceptive orchid: implications for selection. Evolution 47, 1681–1687.
Pollinators discriminate among floral heights of a sexually deceptive orchid: implications for selection.CrossRef |

Peh, K. S. H., Balmford, A., Field, R. H., Lamb, A., Birch, J. C., Bradbury, R. B., Brown, C., Butchart, S. H., Lester, M., and Morrison, R. (2014). Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland. Ecology and Evolution 4, 3875–3886.
Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland.CrossRef |

Pickup, M., and Young, A. G. (2008). Population size, self-incompatibility and genetic rescue in diploid and tetraploid races of Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae). Heredity 100, 268–274.
Population size, self-incompatibility and genetic rescue in diploid and tetraploid races of Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXitlGnsbc%3D&md5=d89780587ae0ebd857618a5612bc0292CAS |

Pisanu, P. C., Gross, C. L., and Flood, L. (2009). Reproduction in wild populations of the threatened tree Macadamia tetraphylla: interpopulation pollen enriches fecundity in a declining species. Biotropica 41, 391–398.
Reproduction in wild populations of the threatened tree Macadamia tetraphylla: interpopulation pollen enriches fecundity in a declining species.CrossRef |

Popic, T. J., Wardle, G. M., and Davila, Y. C. (2013). Flower‐visitor networks only partially predict the function of pollen transport by bees. Austral Ecology 38, 76–86.
Flower‐visitor networks only partially predict the function of pollen transport by bees.CrossRef |

Rayment, T. (1935). ‘A Cluster of Bees.’ (The Endeavour Press: Sydney, NSW.)

Rossetto, M., Gross, C. L., Jones, R., and Hunter, J. (2004). The impact of clonality on an endangered tree (Elaeocarpus williamsianus) in a fragmented rainforest. Biological Conservation 117, 33–39.
The impact of clonality on an endangered tree (Elaeocarpus williamsianus) in a fragmented rainforest.CrossRef |

Schwarz, M. P., and O’Keefe, K. J. (1991). Cooperative nesting and ovarian development in females of the predominantly social bee Exoneura bicolor Smith (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) after forced solitary eclosion. Australian Entomologist 30, 251–255.
Cooperative nesting and ovarian development in females of the predominantly social bee Exoneura bicolor Smith (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) after forced solitary eclosion.CrossRef |

Scott, B., and Gross, C. L. (2004). Recovery directions for monoecious and endangered Bertya ingramii using autecology and comparisons with common B. rosmarinifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Biodiversity and Conservation 13, 885–899.
Recovery directions for monoecious and endangered Bertya ingramii using autecology and comparisons with common B. rosmarinifolia (Euphorbiaceae).CrossRef |

SER (2004). Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group, 2004. The SER international primer on ecological restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration International. Available at: www.ser.org (accessed 14 August 2017).

Seymour, R. S., White, C. R., and Gibernau, M. (2003). Environmental biology: heat reward for insect pollinators. Nature 426, 243–244.
Environmental biology: heat reward for insect pollinators.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptVOisr0%3D&md5=4eb3e47c2022f7ef3a5d905039344634CAS |

Shepherd, M. D., Buchmann, S. L., Vaughan, M., and Black, S. H. (2003). ‘Pollinator Conservation Handbook: A Guide to Understanding, Protecting, and Providing Habitat for Native Pollinator Insects.’ (The Xerces Society: Portland, OR.)

Simpson, S. R., Gross, C. L., and Silberbauer, L. X. (2005). Broom and honeybees in Australia: an alien liaison. Plant Biology 7, 541–548.
Broom and honeybees in Australia: an alien liaison.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2Mvpt1Gqsg%3D%3D&md5=f37375b3ab84ee7012eb9a267baad43bCAS |

Sjöström, A., and Gross, C. L. (2006). Life‐history characters and phylogeny are correlated with extinction risk in the Australian angiosperms. Journal of Biogeography 33, 271–290.
Life‐history characters and phylogeny are correlated with extinction risk in the Australian angiosperms.CrossRef |

Smith, J. A., and Gross, C. L. (2002). The pollination ecology of Grevillea beadleana McGillivray, an endangered shrub from northern New South Wales, Australia. Annals of Botany 89, 97–108.
The pollination ecology of Grevillea beadleana McGillivray, an endangered shrub from northern New South Wales, Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD38zltlKlug%3D%3D&md5=ffb2b7b316a9678d4da6de6f29be0786CAS |

Stafford Smith, D. M., McKeon, G. M., Watson, I. W., Henry, B. K., Stone, G. S., Hall, W. B., and Howden, S. M. (2007). Learning from episodes of degradation and recovery in variable Australian rangelands. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 20690–20695.
Learning from episodes of degradation and recovery in variable Australian rangelands.CrossRef |

Stoutamire, W. P. (1983). Wasp-pollinated species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae) in south-western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 31, 383–394.
Wasp-pollinated species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae) in south-western Australia.CrossRef |

Tierney, D. A., and Gross, C. L. (2001). Prostanthera junonis Conn (Lamiaceae); is recovery possible? Pacific Conservation Biology 7, 118–123.
Prostanthera junonis Conn (Lamiaceae); is recovery possible?CrossRef |

Tierney, D. A., and Wardle, G. M. (2008). The relative fitness of parental and hybrid Kunzea (Myrtaceae): the interaction of reproductive traits and ecological selection. American Journal of Botany 95, 146–155.
The relative fitness of parental and hybrid Kunzea (Myrtaceae): the interaction of reproductive traits and ecological selection.CrossRef |

Tierney, D. A., Sommerville, K. D., Tierney, K. E., Fatemi, M., and Gross, C. L. (2017). Trading populations – can biodiversity offsets effectively compensate for population losses? Biodiversity and Conservation 26, 2115–2131.
Trading populations – can biodiversity offsets effectively compensate for population losses?CrossRef |

Waltz, A. E., and Wallace Covington, W. (2004). Ecological restoration treatments increase butterfly richness and abundance: mechanisms of response. Restoration Ecology 12, 85–96.
Ecological restoration treatments increase butterfly richness and abundance: mechanisms of response.CrossRef |

Williams, G., and Adam, P. (2010). ‘The Flowering of Australia’s Rainforests: A Plant and Pollination Miscellany.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne, Vic.)

Willmer, P. (2011). ‘Pollination and Floral Ecology.’ (Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ.)

Woinarski, J. C. Z., and Fisher, A. (2003). Conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity in the rangelands. The Rangeland Journal 25, 157–171.
Conservation and the maintenance of biodiversity in the rangelands.CrossRef |



Export Citation