Sexual Health Sexual Health Society
Publishing on sexual health from the widest perspective
REVIEW (Open Access)

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among gay and bisexual men: a systematic review

Fengyi Jin A B , Gail V. Matthews A and Andrew E. Grulich A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A The Kirby Institute, Wallace Wurth Building, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: jjin@kirby.unsw.edu.au

Sexual Health 14(1) 28-41 https://doi.org/10.1071/SH16141
Submitted: 12 July 2016  Accepted: 14 August 2016   Published: 7 October 2016

Abstract

A systematic review was performed on the evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Studies conducted in industrialised countries and published in English from 2000 to 2015 with data on HCV in GBM were included. Pooled estimates of prevalence and incidence of HCV infection were stratified by study settings and participants’ HIV status using random effect models. Case-series reports were summarised descriptively. Of the 38 cross-sectional studies, the pooled HCV prevalence was substantially higher in HIV-positive men (8.3%, 95% CI: 6.7–9.9) than in HIV-negative men (1.5%, 95% CI 0.8–2.1), and higher in those who reported injecting drug use (34.8%, 95% CI 26.9–42.7) than in those who did not (3.5%, 95% CI 2.4–4.5). Of the 16 longitudinal studies, the pooled HCV incidence was markedly higher in clinic-based (7.0 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 4.6–9.5) than in community-based (1.4 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 0.7–2.1) studies, and in HIV-positive men (6.4 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 4.6–8.1) than in HIV-negative men (0.4 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI 0–0.9). Since the early 2000s, 15 case-series reports increasingly pointed to the importance of sexual transmission of HCV in mainly HIV-positive men. Injecting drug use remained the major transmission route of HCV in GBM. Receptive condomless intercourse and concurrent ulcerative sexually transmissible infections are likely drivers that facilitated HCV sexual transmission in HIV-positive men. HCV incidence remains very low in HIV-negative GBM.

Additional keywords: homosexuality, male, injecting drug use, pooled estimate, risk factors.


References

[1]  Westbrook RH, Dusheiko G. Natural history of hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2014; 61 S58–68.
Natural history of hepatitis C.CrossRef | 25443346PubMed |

[2]  Klevens RM, Hu DJ, Jiles R, et al Evolving epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55 S3–9.
Evolving epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in the United States.CrossRef | 22715211PubMed |

[3]  World Health Organization. Hepatitis C fact sheet. Geneva: WHO; 2016.

[4]  The Kirby Institute. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: annual surveillance report 2015. Sydney: The Kirby Institute, UNSW; 2015.

[5]  Follett EA, Dow BC, McOmish F, et al HCV confirmatory testing of blood donors. Lancet 1992; 339 928–8.
HCV confirmatory testing of blood donors.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK383ht1Siuw%3D%3D&md5=7de66635f5da556a6681491dd5f14f72CAS | 1348314PubMed |

[6]  Alter MJ, Coleman PJ, Alexander WJ, et al Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA 1989; 262 1201–5.
Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL1Mzkt1Oksw%3D%3D&md5=0e7960ebb587be96cab403f14aed2f97CAS | 2503630PubMed |

[7]  Tibbs CJ. Methods of transmission of hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat 1995; 2 113–9.
Methods of transmission of hepatitis C.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK28%2FptFeiug%3D%3D&md5=5d2a96c780f9a704ce60ab89a739acb9CAS | 7493305PubMed |

[8]  Grulich AE, de Visser RO, Smith AM, et al Sex in Australia: homosexual experience and recent homosexual encounters. Aust N Z J Public Health 2003; 27 155–63.
Sex in Australia: homosexual experience and recent homosexual encounters.CrossRef | 14696706PubMed |

[9]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Zablotska I, et al High rates of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive homosexual men: data from two community based cohorts. Sex Transm Infect 2007; 83 397–9.
High rates of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive homosexual men: data from two community based cohorts.CrossRef | 17556503PubMed |

[10]  Yaphe S, Bozinoff N, Kyle R, et al Incidence of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: a systematic review. Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88 558–64.
Incidence of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection: a systematic review.CrossRef | 22859499PubMed |

[11]  Mao L, Kippax SC, Holt M, et al Rates of condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse practices among homosexually active men in Australia: deliberate HIV risk reduction? Sex Transm Infect 2011; 87 489–93.
Rates of condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse practices among homosexually active men in Australia: deliberate HIV risk reduction?CrossRef | 21764890PubMed |

[12]  Danta M, Rodger AJ. Transmission of HCV in HIV-positive populations. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2011; 6 451–8.
Transmission of HCV in HIV-positive populations.CrossRef | 22001890PubMed |

[13]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preexposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in the United States – 2014 clinical practice guideline. Atlanta: CDC; 2014.

[14]  Holmes D. FDA paves the way for pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis. Lancet 2012; 380 325-5
FDA paves the way for pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis.CrossRef |

[15]  Scott HM, Klausner JD. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US. AIDS Res Ther 2016; 13 5
Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US.CrossRef | 26793265PubMed |

[16]  Volk JE, Marcus JL, Phengrasamy T, et al Incident hepatitis C virus infections among users of HIV preexposure prophylaxis in a clinical practice setting. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60 1728–9.
Incident hepatitis C virus infections among users of HIV preexposure prophylaxis in a clinical practice setting.CrossRef | 25694649PubMed |

[17]  Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 2009; 6 e1000097
Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.CrossRef | 19621072PubMed |

[18]  Roy KM, Goldberg DJ, Hutchinson S, et al Hepatitis C virus among self declared non-injecting sexual partners of injecting drug users. J Med Virol 2004; 74 62–6.
Hepatitis C virus among self declared non-injecting sexual partners of injecting drug users.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2czlsFClsg%3D%3D&md5=6d8ebf5374cd334a19a07d34df03a187CAS | 15258969PubMed |

[19]  Raymond HF, Hughes A, O’Keefe K, et al Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-positive MSM in San Francisco: 2004 and 2008. Sex Transm Dis 2011; 38 219–20.
Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-positive MSM in San Francisco: 2004 and 2008.CrossRef | 20938373PubMed |

[20]  Apers L, Vanden Berghe W, De Wit S, et al Risk factors for HCV acquisition among HIV-positive MSM in Belgium. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015; 68 585–93.
Risk factors for HCV acquisition among HIV-positive MSM in Belgium.CrossRef | 25763786PubMed |

[21]  Danta M, Brown D, Bhagani S, et al Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours. AIDS 2007; 21 983–91.
Recent epidemic of acute hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive men who have sex with men linked to high-risk sexual behaviours.CrossRef | 17457092PubMed |

[22]  Jin F, Prestage GP, Matthews G, et al Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C in homosexual men: data from two cohorts of HIV-negative and HIV-positive men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Infect 2010; 86 25–8.
Prevalence, incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C in homosexual men: data from two cohorts of HIV-negative and HIV-positive men in Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | 19841001PubMed |

[23]  Matser A, Vanhommerig J, Schim van der Loeff MF, et al HIV-infected men who have sex with men who identify themselves as belonging to subcultures are at increased risk for hepatitis C infection. PLoS One 2013; 8 e57740
HIV-infected men who have sex with men who identify themselves as belonging to subcultures are at increased risk for hepatitis C infection.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXktFClsr8%3D&md5=7f597677393f1b2d804c22110bda748dCAS | 23469226PubMed |

[24]  Price H, Gilson R, Mercey D, et al Hepatitis C in men who have sex with men in London–a community survey. HIV Med 2013; 14 578–80.
Hepatitis C in men who have sex with men in London–a community survey.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3sjjvV2ruw%3D%3D&md5=d85349b70bd445b729d93cd3cff8beb6CAS | 23782450PubMed |

[25]  Urbanus AT, Van De Laar TJ, Geskus R, et al Trends in hepatitis C virus infections among MSM attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic; 1995–2010. AIDS 2014; 28 781–90.
Trends in hepatitis C virus infections among MSM attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic; 1995–2010.CrossRef | 24832014PubMed |

[26]  Wong J, Moore D, Kanters S, et al Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and correlates of seropositivity among men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional survey. Sex Transm Infect 2015; 91 430–3.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and correlates of seropositivity among men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional survey.CrossRef | 25872512PubMed |

[27]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among HIV-infected men who have sex with men — New York City, 2005–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rrp 2011; 60 945–50.

[28]  Schmidt AJ, Rockstroh JK, Vogel M, et al Trouble with bleeding: risk factors for acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive gay men from Germany – a case-control study. PLoS One 2011; 6 e17781
Trouble with bleeding: risk factors for acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive gay men from Germany – a case-control study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXjsFGrs70%3D&md5=f07bde11136e6923a4041743f1f8fdb9CAS | 21408083PubMed |

[29]  Urbanus AT, van de Laar TJ, Stolte IG, et al Hepatitis C virus infections among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an expanding epidemic. AIDS 2009; 23 F1–7.
Hepatitis C virus infections among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: an expanding epidemic.CrossRef | 19542864PubMed |

[30]  Garg S, Taylor LE, Grasso C, et al Prevalent and incident hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men engaged in primary care in a Boston community health center. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56 1480–7.
Prevalent and incident hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men engaged in primary care in a Boston community health center.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXntFWmsr8%3D&md5=09f1a537afa0fb3818bc475afafb8a6fCAS | 23386630PubMed |

[31]  Nishijima T, Shimbo T, Komatsu H, et al Incidence and risk factors for incident hepatitis C infection among men who have sex with men with HIV-1 infection in a large urban HIV clinic in Tokyo. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2014; 65 213–7.
Incidence and risk factors for incident hepatitis C infection among men who have sex with men with HIV-1 infection in a large urban HIV clinic in Tokyo.CrossRef | 24185533PubMed |

[32]  Witt MD, Seaberg EC, Darilay A, et al Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis, 1984–2011. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57 77–84.
Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis, 1984–2011.CrossRef | 23532480PubMed |

[33]  Gamage DG, Read TR, Bradshaw CS, et al Incidence of hepatitis-C among HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health service: a cohort study. BMC Infect Dis 2011; 11 39
Incidence of hepatitis-C among HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health service: a cohort study.CrossRef | 21291565PubMed |

[34]  Giraudon I, Ruf M, Maguire H, et al Increase in diagnosed newly acquired hepatitis C in HIV-positive men who have sex with men across London and Brighton, 2002–2006: is this an outbreak? Sex Transm Infect 2008; 84 111–5.
Increase in diagnosed newly acquired hepatitis C in HIV-positive men who have sex with men across London and Brighton, 2002–2006: is this an outbreak?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1c3htVSksg%3D%3D&md5=2cd54bef49049057bbbda1631538471dCAS | 17932125PubMed |

[35]  Richardson D, Fisher M, Sabin CA. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C in MSM may not be confined to those with HIV infection. J Infect Dis 2008; 197 1213–4, author reply 1214–5.
Sexual transmission of hepatitis C in MSM may not be confined to those with HIV infection.CrossRef | 18462168PubMed |

[36]  Vanhommerig JW, Stolte IG, Lambers FA, et al Stabilizing incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2014; 66 e111–5.
Stabilizing incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam.CrossRef | 24853305PubMed |

[37]  Wandeler G, Gsponer T, Bregenzer A, et al Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: a rapidly evolving epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55 1408–16.
Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: a rapidly evolving epidemic.CrossRef | 22893583PubMed |

[38]  Jansen K, Thamm M, Bock CT, et al High prevalence and high incidence of coinfection with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis and low rate of effective vaccination against hepatitis B in HIV-positive men who have sex with men with known date of HIV seroconversion in Germany. PLoS One 2015; 10 e0142515
High prevalence and high incidence of coinfection with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis and low rate of effective vaccination against hepatitis B in HIV-positive men who have sex with men with known date of HIV seroconversion in Germany.CrossRef | 26555244PubMed |

[39]  Rauch A, Rickenbach M, Weber R, et al Unsafe sex and increased incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41 395–402.
Unsafe sex and increased incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.CrossRef | 16007539PubMed |

[40]  Ghosn J, Pierre-Francois S, Thibault V, et al Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. HIV Med 2004; 5 303–6.
Acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2czmtlCqsQ%3D%3D&md5=cb5e74e9f8c0607f1fd60d5c3c730de1CAS | 15236621PubMed |

[41]  Barfod TS, Omland LH, Katzenstein TL. Incidence and characteristics of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Copenhagen, Denmark during four years (2006–2009): a retrospective cohort study. Scand J Infect Dis 2011; 43 145–8.
Incidence and characteristics of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Copenhagen, Denmark during four years (2006–2009): a retrospective cohort study.CrossRef | 20923257PubMed |

[42]  Bottieau E, Apers L, Van Esbroeck M, et al Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: sustained rising incidence in Antwerp, Belgium, 2001–2009. Euro Surveill 2010; 15 19673
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cfnvFGqug%3D%3D&md5=0b14417b0055785d4ad353658fa75490CAS | 20929655PubMed |

[43]  Browne R, Asboe D, Gilleece Y, et al Increased numbers of acute hepatitis C infections in HIV positive homosexual men; is sexual transmission feeding the increase? Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80 326–7.
Increased numbers of acute hepatitis C infections in HIV positive homosexual men; is sexual transmission feeding the increase?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2czptFyjsw%3D%3D&md5=ad1bb785d2d9024e7f984da1d5fd8e78CAS | 15295139PubMed |

[44]  Gambotti L, Batisse D, Colin-de-Verdiere N, et al Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV positive men who have sex with men in Paris, France, 2001–2004. Euro Surveill 2005; 10 115–7.
| 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2MvmsVKiug%3D%3D&md5=2fb454d11ba25ed59068367334d1040fCAS | 16077209PubMed |

[45]  Ghosn J, Thibault V, Delaugerre C, et al Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus superinfection in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS 2008; 22 658–61.
Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus superinfection in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 18317011PubMed |

[46]  Gotz HM, van Doornum G, Niesters HG, et al A cluster of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men–results from contact tracing and public health implications. AIDS 2005; 19 969–74.
A cluster of acute hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men–results from contact tracing and public health implications.CrossRef | 15905679PubMed |

[47]  McFaul K, Maghlaoui A, Nzuruba M, et al Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Viral Hepat 2015; 22 535–8.
Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-negative men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2M3pvVKnsA%3D%3D&md5=2f1184b9f7257fcd49eb565a7f0577b3CAS | 25412826PubMed |

[48]  Montoya-Ferrer A, Fierer DS, Alvarez-Alvarez B, et al Acute hepatitis C outbreak among HIV-infected men, Madrid, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 2011; 17 1560–2.
| 21801652PubMed |

[49]  Sanchez C, Plaza Z, Vispo E, et al Scaling up epidemics of acute hepatitis C and syphilis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Spain. Liver Int 2013; 33 1357–62.
Scaling up epidemics of acute hepatitis C and syphilis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Spain.CrossRef | 23730876PubMed |

[50]  van de Laar TJ, van der Bij AK, Prins M, et al Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission. J Infect Dis 2007; 196 230–8.
Increase in HCV incidence among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam most likely caused by sexual transmission.CrossRef | 17570110PubMed |

[51]  Mahony AA, Donnan EJ, Lester RA, et al Beyond injecting drug use: investigation of a Victorian cluster of hepatitis C among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Med J Aust 2013; 198 210–4.
Beyond injecting drug use: investigation of a Victorian cluster of hepatitis C among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 23451966PubMed |

[52]  Matthews GV, Hellard M, Kaldor J, et al Further evidence of HCV sexual transmission among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: response to Danta et al. AIDS 2007; 21 2112–3.
Further evidence of HCV sexual transmission among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: response to Danta et al.CrossRef | 17885306PubMed |

[53]  Myers T, Allman D, Xu K, et al The prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-HIV co-infection in a community sample of gay and bisexual men. Int J Infect Dis 2009; 13 730–9.
The prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-HIV co-infection in a community sample of gay and bisexual men.CrossRef | 19186090PubMed |

[54]  Raymond HF, Chu P, Nieves-Rivera I, et al Hepatitis C infection among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2011. Sex Transm Dis 2012; 39 985–6.
Hepatitis C infection among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2011.CrossRef | 23191955PubMed |

[55]  Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, et al Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol 2014; 61 S45–57.
Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection.CrossRef | 25086286PubMed |

[56]  Seaberg EC, Witt MD, Jacobson LP, et al Differences in hepatitis C virus prevalence and clearance by mode of acquisition among men who have sex with men. J Viral Hepat 2014; 21 696–705.
Differences in hepatitis C virus prevalence and clearance by mode of acquisition among men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsVegsLrE&md5=13b5211c3add0e380c73bc55ab7166e4CAS | 25280229PubMed |

[57]  Vandelli C, Renzo F, Romano L, et al Lack of evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C among monogamous couples: results of a 10-year prospective follow-up study. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99 855–9.
Lack of evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C among monogamous couples: results of a 10-year prospective follow-up study.CrossRef | 15128350PubMed |

[58]  Terrault NA, Dodge JL, Murphy EL, et al Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: the HCV partners study. Hepatology 2013; 57 881–9.
Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among monogamous heterosexual couples: the HCV partners study.CrossRef | 23175457PubMed |

[59]  Alary M, Joly JR, Vincelette J, et al Lack of evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in a prospective cohort study of men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health 2005; 95 502–5.
Lack of evidence of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in a prospective cohort study of men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 15727984PubMed |

[60]  Marincovich B, Castilla J, del Romero J, et al Absence of hepatitis C virus transmission in a prospective cohort of heterosexual serodiscordant couples. Sex Transm Infect 2003; 79 160–2.
Absence of hepatitis C virus transmission in a prospective cohort of heterosexual serodiscordant couples.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3s7ntFyksw%3D%3D&md5=fef8821bcf79ba8420b4add9afacef5bCAS | 12690143PubMed |

[61]  Bradshaw D, Lamoury F, Catlett B, et al A comparison of seminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels during recent and chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals. J Infect Dis 2015; 211 736–43.
A comparison of seminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels during recent and chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals.CrossRef | 25293369PubMed |

[62]  Turner SS, Gianella S, Yip MJ, et al Shedding of hepatitis C virus in semen of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. Open Forum Infect Dis 2016; 3 ofw057
Shedding of hepatitis C virus in semen of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.CrossRef | 27186582PubMed |

[63]  van der Helm JJ, Prins M, del Amo J, et al The hepatitis C epidemic among HIV-positive MSM: incidence estimates from 1990 to 2007. AIDS 2011; 25 1083–91.
The hepatitis C epidemic among HIV-positive MSM: incidence estimates from 1990 to 2007.CrossRef | 21537114PubMed |

[64]  Weber JN, McCreaner A, Berrie E, et al Factors affecting seropositivity to human T cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) or lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) and progression of disease in sexual partners of patients with AIDS. Genitourin Med 1986; 62 177–80.
| 1:STN:280:DyaL283ns1Ghug%3D%3D&md5=a87cec1ffc32d83239eee02122a80c97CAS | 3015772PubMed |

[65]  Suarez T, Miller J. Negotiating risks in context: a perspective on unprotected anal intercourse and barebacking among men who have sex with men–where do we go from here? Arch Sex Behav 2001; 30 287–300.
Negotiating risks in context: a perspective on unprotected anal intercourse and barebacking among men who have sex with men–where do we go from here?CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MvntlKlsw%3D%3D&md5=76ae797d6a62b855e02f794db6376a46CAS | 11330118PubMed |

[66]  Suarez TP, Kelly JA, Pinkerton SD, et al Influence of a partner’s HIV serostatus, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and viral load on perceptions of sexual risk behavior in a community sample of men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 28 471–7.
Influence of a partner’s HIV serostatus, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and viral load on perceptions of sexual risk behavior in a community sample of men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MnpvVWgsg%3D%3D&md5=b22d13200365a1b9c575affca57ce383CAS | 11744837PubMed |

[67]  Dougan S, Evans BG, Elford J. Sexually transmitted infections in Western Europe among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis 2007; 34 783–90.
| 17495592PubMed |

[68]  NSW Ministry of Health . Pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV with antiretroviral medications. North Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health; 2016.

[69]  Hammer GP, Kellogg TA, McFarland WC, et al Low incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among sexually active non-intravenous drug-using adults, San Francisco, 1997–2000. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30 919–24.
Low incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among sexually active non-intravenous drug-using adults, San Francisco, 1997–2000.CrossRef | 14646642PubMed |

[70]  Diamond C, Thiede H, Perdue T, et al Viral hepatitis among young men who have sex with men: prevalence of infection, risk behaviors, and vaccination. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30 425–32.
Viral hepatitis among young men who have sex with men: prevalence of infection, risk behaviors, and vaccination.CrossRef | 12916134PubMed |

[71]  Amin J, Kaye M, Skidmore S, et al HIV and hepatitis C coinfection within the CAESAR study. HIV Med 2004; 5 174–9.
HIV and hepatitis C coinfection within the CAESAR study.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2c3ntVaktA%3D%3D&md5=e62f40a5ad6a01910d52f1cf66f4fd51CAS | 15139984PubMed |

[72]  Cohen DE, Russell CJ, Golub SA, et al Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men at a Boston community health center and its association with markers of high-risk behavior. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2006; 20 557–64.
Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men at a Boston community health center and its association with markers of high-risk behavior.CrossRef | 16893325PubMed |

[73]  Bollepalli S, Mathieson K, Jasiurkowski B, et al A comparison of risk factors for HCV-mono-infection, HIV-mono-infection, and HCV/HIV-co-infection in a community setting. Dig Dis Sci 2008; 53 517–21.
A comparison of risk factors for HCV-mono-infection, HIV-mono-infection, and HCV/HIV-co-infection in a community setting.CrossRef | 17562178PubMed |

[74]  Buffington J, Murray PJ, Schlanger K, et al Low prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in men who have sex with men who do not inject drugs. Public Health Rep 2007; 122 63–7.
| 17542456PubMed |

[75]  Dougan S, Balogun MA, Elford J, et al Can current national surveillance systems in England and Wales monitor sexual transmission of hepatitis C among HIV-infected men who have sex with men? BMC Public Health 2007; 7 7
Can current national surveillance systems in England and Wales monitor sexual transmission of hepatitis C among HIV-infected men who have sex with men?CrossRef | 17233919PubMed |

[76]  Kim JH, Psevdos G, Suh J, et al Co-infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in New York City, United States. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14 6689–93.
Co-infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in New York City, United States.CrossRef | 19034972PubMed |

[77]  Larsen C, Pialoux G, Salmon D, et al Prevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection in the HIV-infected population of France, 2004. Euro Surveill 2008; 13 pii=18888

[78]  Palacios R, Mata R, Aguilar I, et al High seroprevalence but low incidence of HCV infection in a cohort of patients with sexually transmitted HIV in Andalusia, Spain. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2009; 8 100–5.
High seroprevalence but low incidence of HCV infection in a cohort of patients with sexually transmitted HIV in Andalusia, Spain.CrossRef |

[79]  Scott C, Day S, Low E, et al Unselected hepatitis C screening of men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics. J Infect 2010; 60 351–3.
Unselected hepatitis C screening of men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics.CrossRef | 20153770PubMed |

[80]  Marongiu A, Hope VD, Parry JV, et al Male IDUs who have sex with men in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: are they at greater risk of bloodborne virus infection and harm than those who only have sex with women? Sex Transm Infect 2012; 88 456–61.
Male IDUs who have sex with men in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: are they at greater risk of bloodborne virus infection and harm than those who only have sex with women?CrossRef | 22628667PubMed |

[81]  Mayer KH, Ducharme R, Zaller ND, et al Unprotected sex, underestimated risk, undiagnosed HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men accessing testing services in a New England bathhouse. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012; 59 194–8.
Unprotected sex, underestimated risk, undiagnosed HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men accessing testing services in a New England bathhouse.CrossRef | 22027871PubMed |

[82]  Kouyos RD, Rauch A, Boni J, et al Clustering of HCV coinfections on HIV phylogeny indicates domestic and sexual transmission of HCV. Int J Epidemiol 2014; 43 887–96.
Clustering of HCV coinfections on HIV phylogeny indicates domestic and sexual transmission of HCV.CrossRef | 24453237PubMed |

[83]  Oster AM, Sternberg M, Nebenzahl S, et al Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis by Urbanicity, among men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and heterosexuals in the United States. Sex Transm Dis 2014; 41 272–9.
Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis by Urbanicity, among men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and heterosexuals in the United States.CrossRef | 24622641PubMed |

[84]  Schmidt AJ, Falcato L, Zahno B, et al Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection? BMC Public Health 2014; 14 3
Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection?CrossRef | 24393532PubMed |

[85]  Marcellin F, Lorente N, Demoulin B, et al Comparison of risk factors in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, coinfected or not with hepatitis C virus (ANRS VESPA2 French cross-sectional national survey). Sex Transm Infect 2015; 91 21–3.
Comparison of risk factors in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, coinfected or not with hepatitis C virus (ANRS VESPA2 French cross-sectional national survey).CrossRef | 25096920PubMed |

[86]  Turner JM, Rider AT, Imrie J, et al Behavioural predictors of subsequent hepatitis C diagnosis in a UK clinic sample of HIV positive men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect 2006; 82 298–300.
Behavioural predictors of subsequent hepatitis C diagnosis in a UK clinic sample of HIV positive men who have sex with men.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD28vlsVaqtw%3D%3D&md5=04a677e9d80a918291a54843f3e0a440CAS | 16877578PubMed |

[87]  Kouyos RD, Rauch A, Braun DL, et al Higher risk of incident hepatitis C virus coinfection among men who have sex with men, in whom the HIV genetic bottleneck at transmission was wide. J Infect Dis 2014; 210 1555–61.
Higher risk of incident hepatitis C virus coinfection among men who have sex with men, in whom the HIV genetic bottleneck at transmission was wide.CrossRef | 24943723PubMed |


Full Text PDF (485 KB) Export Citation Cited By (2)

View Altmetrics