Sexual Health Sexual Health Society
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Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 13 Number 4 2016


Cultural and linguistic diversity in Australia is increasing, with more than one in four (26%) Australians being born overseas and an additional 20 percent were having either one or both parents born outside of Australia. Although culturally and linguistically diverse women in Australia have the opportunity to obtain necessary health services, they experience numerous barriers in accessing and utilising sexual and reproductive health care at individual, health professional and system levels. Therefore, multiple strategies are required to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of these women.


A systematic review of individual-level protective factors and sexual health outcomes among sexual minority youth was conducted to summarise the current state of science. Among young men who have sex with men, subjective peer norms and attitudes about condom use were repeatedly shown to be protective and may be a promising area of focus for intervention development. However, more longitudinal research is needed, including among sexual minority women, to examine additional protective factors such as skills and competencies, and identity-related constructs.


The New South Wales Government’s NSW HIV Strategy 20122015: A New Era represented a punctuated shift of policy direction, and was remarkable for its ground-breaking declaration that HIV transmission could be brought to an end by 2020. This significant policy shift occurred after a long period of stability and only incremental change, some of it represented by policy decline as political and public interest in HIV waned. This article uses punctuated equilibrium theory to explore the conditions that allowed for change, and the roles played by new and long-standing actors in the HIV policy subsystem. It explains the importance of challenges to the policy image and the policy venue as key mechanisms that allowed new possibilities, created by advances in the scientific understanding of HIV, to be incorporated rapidly into government policy.

SH15210Treatment durability and virological response in treatment-experienced HIV-positive patients on an integrase inhibitor-based regimen: an Australian cohort study

Nicole L. De La Mata, David A. Cooper, Darren Russell, Don Smith, Ian Woolley, Maree O. Sullivan, Stephen Wright and Matthew Law
pp. 335-344

Our study evaluated treatment durability and virological outcomes in treatment-experienced HIV-positive patients using integrase inhibitor (INSTI) based regimens. Our findings suggest that the time to viral suppression and regimen switch from INSTI initiation was similar for second-line and highly experienced patients. The estimated probability of achieving viral suppression at 6 months was 77.7% for second-line patients and 68.4% for highly experienced patients. In addition, patient treatment experience was not a significant factor for regimen switch according to multivariate analysis, adjusting for relevant covariates.

SH15143Views of HIV-negative partners in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: a qualitative study

Joana R. S. P. Falcão, Catriona C. Bradshaw, Cameryn C. Garrett, Jade E. Bilardi, Marcus Y. Chen, Iryna Zablotska, Christopher K. Fairley and Henrietta Williams
pp. 345-352

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective option for HIV prevention among heterosexual serodiscordant couples. However, there are knowledge gaps in social research about PrEP in heterosexual serodiscordant relationships, including motivations and barriers to its use. This study explores the views of HIV-negative men and women in stable serodiscordant heterosexual relationships about the possible use of PrEP.


This retrospective cross-sectional study describes the process, outcomes and examines the cost of implementing a community-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening model co-located in a sex-on-premises venue. The paper highlights that offering STI screening in a community-based setting was an effective and low-cost alternative to traditional testing services.

SH15243Awareness and knowledge of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Australian gay and bisexual men: results of a national, online survey

Martin Holt, Toby Lea, Susan Kippax, Johann Kolstee, Jeanne Ellard, Marlene Velecky, Dean Murphy and John de Wit
pp. 359-365

Awareness and knowledge of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) were assessed in a national, online survey of Australian gay and bisexual men, conducted in 2015. Among 1251 participants, 77% were aware of PrEP. Knowledge of PrEP was inconsistent, suggesting that gay and bisexual men need to be educated about current Australian prescribing guidelines.


The experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to decrease condom negotiation efficacy among women; however, studies of this association among gay and bisexual men (GBM) are lacking. This study uses survey and multivariate regression analysis to examine the association between low condom negotiation efficacy and recent experience of IPV. GBM who reported recent IPV experience were significantly less likely to report having felt able to negotiate condom use. These findings suggest that IPV may be a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition and transmission among GBM.


This study is the latest comprehensive literature review of HIV incidence of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mainland China. The pooled HIV incidence of Chinese MSM is 5.61/100 person years (PY), and it showed a significantly increasing trend with the change of time (3.24/100PY in 2005–2008, 5.29/100PY in 2009–2011, 5.50/100PY in 2012–2014), which reflects the severe situation of HIV incidence of Chinese MSM. HIV prevention strategies targeted at MSM should be urgently strengthened. Innovative and comprehensive intervention strategies should also be adopted, in particular for young, less educated and syphilis infected MSM subgroups.


This study indicated a high prevalence of HIV-related sexual risk behaviours (HSRB) among the sexually active youth in China. The most common HSRB was lack of condom use during the first sexual experience. Non-heterosexual youth are at a higher risk of partaking in HSRB.

SH15236Feasibility of using GrindrTM to distribute HIV self-test kits to men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California

A. Lina Rosengren, Emily Huang, Joseph Daniels, Sean D. Young, Robert W. Marlin and Jeffrey D. Klausner
pp. 389-392

In Los Angeles, Black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rate of HIV infection, and Black MSM in LA are four times more likely than white MSM to not know they are infected with HIV. In our study, we found that it was feasible to use Grindr™, a social networking mobile phone app, to distribute HIV self-test kits, and that Grindr™ users are willing to provide personal information in exchange for HIV tests. Grindr™ users also found self-tests acceptable and easy to use. We found that social networking apps has a high potential to reach untested high-risk populations


The uptake of an opt-in system for integrating the health information of HIV-infected patients of an Australian sexual health clinic into the regional shared electronic health record (EHR) is described. A medical record audit was performed to determine the number and demographic characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the study’s sexual health clinic opting in and out of inclusion in the regional shared EHR


This study explored the assortative sexual mixing by country of birth among heterosexuals in Melbourne, Australia. Results showed that about 47% of men who are living in Australia whose female partner (Australian-born and aged under 21 years) had been eligible for the human papillomavirus vaccine, suggesting these men would also have received herd protection from their female partners.


The main objective of this study is to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the oral cavity of men who have sex with men (MSM) from Beirut, Lebanon. Among 42 participants, HPV prevalence in the oral cavity was 10% (95% CI 0.93–19.07); there was no statistical difference according to HIV status. The HPV type was exclusively HPV-6. Our findings did not find an urgent need for routine HPV prevalence and screening for cancers in the oral cavity in MSM group in Lebanon; however, they confirm previous findings about geographic variations in HPV prevalences.

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