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Table of Contents
Sexual Health

Sexual Health

Volume 13 Number 6 2016

SH16037Is sexual content in new media linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Lucy Watchirs Smith, Bette Liu, Louisa Degenhardt, Juliet Richters, George Patton, Handan Wand, Donna Cross, Jane S. Hocking, S. Rachel Skinner, Spring Cooper, Catharine Lumby, John M. Kaldor and Rebecca Guy
pp. 501-515

This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of sexting and sexually explicit websites and young people’s sexual practices and attitudes. The meta-analysis suggests that sexual content in new media is linked to sexual risk behaviour in young people and that further longitudinal research in this area is warranted.

This is a systematic review of empirical studies on the effects of stigma on HIV disclosure to sex partners. The review indicates that studies should use precisely defined measurements in their matching context. Particular types of stigma, types of sex partners, and demographic characteristics are factors that may influence HIV disclosure.

SH15132Opportunities to increase rates of human papillomavirus vaccination in the New South Wales school program through enhanced catch-up

Christine Staples, Michelle Butler, Jennifer Nguyen, David N. Durrheim, Patrick Cashman and Julia M. L. Brotherton
pp. 536-539

Australia’s school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program provides an ideal opportunity to reach the traditionally ‘hard to reach’ adolescent cohort. Maximising uptake of this program is important for the health of Australian adolescents into the future. This paper identifies that logistical issues with program delivery are the main reasons why HPV vaccine courses remain incomplete.

SH16061Predisposing, enabling and need-for-care predictors of adolescents’ intention to use sexual health services

Nancy F. Berglas, Katherine Hucles, Norman A. Constantine, Petra Jerman and Louise A. Rohrbach
pp. 540-548

This study examined the influence of various factors on adolescents’ intention to use sexual health services among a sample in Los Angeles (n = 600). In hierarchical regression models, predisposing and enabling factors (e.g., knowledge and beliefs, awareness of services, perceived accessibility) predicted intention to use services, but sexual experience did not. These findings underscore the need for interventions that provide information, encourage positive beliefs about health care, and promote access to sexual health services for all adolescents.

Geosocial-networking smartphone applications (apps) have been used increasingly by men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet new sexual partners. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between contexts of app use (e.g. using apps when drinking) and condomless anal intercourse among a sample of MSM who use these apps. Given that 57.5% of respondents had engaged in condomless anal intercourse in the preceding 3 months and the associations of using apps when using alcohol and other drugs with condomless sexual behaviours, these findings suggest that reductions in substance use may lead to safer sexual practices among MSM who use apps to meet sexual partners.

SH16092Characteristics, sexual practices and sexually transmissible infections diagnoses of men who have sex with men and use non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in Victoria, Australia

Jason J. Ong, Andre Landika, Christopher K. Fairley, Catriona Bradshaw, Marcus Chen, Tim R. H. Read and Eric P. F. Chow
pp. 555-559

A retrospective analysis of 40 395 consultations with men who have sex with men (MSM) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre showed that men who received non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) were more likely to report ever having injected drugs, more than three male partners in the past 3 months and inconsistent condom use with these partners within the past 3 months, and were more likely to test positive for any sexually transmissible infection. This reinforces that MSM receiving NPEP generally had a higher risk profile than MSM not requesting NPEP. Therefore, we conclude that NPEP is currently being used by MSM at higher risk for HIV and that consultations for NPEP is an opportune time for discussing other effective biomedical interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV.

SH16027Characteristics of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men testing and retesting at Australia’s first shop-front rapid point-of-care HIV testing service

Kathleen E. Ryan, Anna L. Wilkinson, David Leitinger, Carol El-Hayek, Claire Ryan, Alisa Pedrana, Margaret Hellard and Mark Stoové
pp. 560-567

A summary of the first 12 months of testing at PRONTO!; Australia’s first community-based, shop-front, peer-led rapid point-of-care HIV testing service. The service attracted gay bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) with no previous testing history, and GBM reporting high risk for HIV transmission. Retesting within 6 months was observed among 23% of GBM. Service refinements are needed to increase repeat testing.

SH16025High chlamydia and gonorrhoea repeat positivity in remote Aboriginal communities 2009–2011: longitudinal analysis of testing for re-infection at 3 months suggests the need for more frequent screening

Linda Garton, Amalie Dyda, Rebecca Guy, Bronwyn Silver, Skye McGregor, Belinda Hengel, Alice Rumbold, Debbie Taylor-Thomson, Janet Knox, Lisa Maher, John Kaldor, James Ward and on behalf of the STRIVE Investigators
pp. 568-574

Extremely high rates of diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been recorded in remote communities across northern and central Australia. A key strategy recommended for reducing rates of CT and NG is testing for reinfection at 3 months post treatment (re-testing). Using longitudinal laboratory testing data from 65 remote communities, we assess patterns in re-testing and levels of repeat CT and NG positivity in this priority setting.

SH16051Sexually transmissible infection and HIV prevention and treatment for young male sex workers in Vietnam: findings from the SHEATH intervention

Michael C. Clatts, Lloyd A. Goldsamt, Lê Minh Giang, Lê Quôc Báo, Gary Yu and Donn Colby
pp. 575-581

Young male sex workers (YMSW) in Vietnam have low levels of HIV and sexually transmissible infection knowledge, and limited engagement with health services. The SHEATH Intervention, derived from Harm Reduction and Sexual Health Promotion, was delivered to 919 out-of-treatment YMSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Results indicate that the intervention was well-received and that participants expressed high levels of intentions to visit healthcare providers in the next 6 months and disclose to these providers that they engaged in sex with other men.

Despite the remarkable advances in HIV treatment in the past two decades, people living with HIV (PLHIV) have continued to experience HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare workers worldwide. We used a questionnaire to explore the prevalence and nature of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV in the healthcare setting in New Zealand. A total of 100 out of the 213 PLHIV (47%) who answered the questionnaire reported that they had ever experienced HIV-related discrimination by a healthcare worker. The findings of this study show that there is a need to continue to normalise the care of HIV and increase HIV education for healthcare workers.

SH16122Seasonal variation in gonorrhoea incidence among men who have sex with men

Bin Li, Peng Bi, Eric P. F. Chow, Basil Donovan, Anna McNulty, Alison Ward, Charlotte Bell and Christopher K. Fairley
pp. 589-592

A retrospective analysis of urethral gonorrhoea diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending the three Australian sexual health services showed that more peaks of gonorrhoea cases were observed in the first quarter of the year in Adelaide and Sydney and in the second and fourth quarter in Melbourne. The findings suggest that gonorrhoea among MSM occurs in a seasonal pattern, particularly late summer into early autumn. This has implications for the provision of health services over the year and for the timing of health promotion activities.

SH16124Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from an unexpected site

Stella Pendle and Timothy Barnes
pp. 593-594

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from a nipple piercing wound in a homosexual man with pharyngeal gonoccocal carriage. Transmission to the wound may have been by direct oral contact or auto-inoculation via saliva. Wounds can readily harbour gonorrhoea and should be considered for testing in high risk groups.

People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. A retrospective review of MSM patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic showed that 107 of 929 MSM received more than one PEP prescription. Patients need to be offered and encouraged to take up behavioural risk reduction interventions at the time of each PEP prescription.

SH16155Prevalence of oral human papillomavirus in men attending an Italian sexual health clinic

Francesco Drago, Astrid Herzum, Giulia Ciccarese and Roberto Bandelloni
pp. 597-598

In this study, a high-risk population who did not have any overt signs of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were examined. Oral HPV prevalence found in our study (37%) was much higher than previously reported. Considering this high prevalence of oral HPV, it is important to further investigate the burden of oral HPV not only in men who have sex with men, but also in heterosexual men and in women.

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