Soil Research Soil Research Society
Soil, land care and environmental research
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Influence of organic matter, clay mineralogy, and pH on the effects of CROSS on soil structure is related to the zeta potential of the dispersed clay

Alla Marchuk A B , Pichu Rengasamy A and Ann McNeill A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: alla.marchuk@adelaide.edu.au

Soil Research 51(1) 34-40 https://doi.org/10.1071/SR13012
Submitted: 9 January 2013  Accepted: 20 February 2013   Published: 6 March 2013

Abstract

The high proportion of adsorbed monovalent cations in soils in relation to divalent cations affects soil structural stability in salt-affected soils. Cationic effects on soil structure depend on the ionic strength of the soil solution. The relationships between CROSS (cation ratio of soil structural stability) and the threshold electrolyte concentration (TEC) required for the prevention of soil structural problems vary widely for individual soils even within a soil class, usually attributed to variations in clay mineralogy, organic matter, and pH. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that clay dispersion influenced by CROSS values depends on the unique association of soil components, including clay and organic matter, in each soil affecting the net charge available for clay–water interactions.

Experiments using four soils differing in clay mineralogy and organic carbon showed that clay dispersion at comparable CROSS values depended on the net charge (measured as negative zeta potential) of dispersed clays rather than the charge attributed to the clay mineralogy and/or organic matter. The effect of pH on clay dispersion was also dependent on its influence on the net charge. Treating the soils with NaOH dissolved the organic carbon and increased the pH, thereby increasing the negative zeta potential and, hence, clay dispersion. Treatment with calgon (sodium hexametaphosphate) did not dissolve organic carbon significantly or increase the pH. However, the attachment of hexametaphosphate with six charges on each molecule greatly increased the negative zeta potential and clay dispersion. A high correlation (R2 = 0.72) was obtained between the relative clay content and relative zeta potential of all soils with different treatments, confirming the hypothesis that clay dispersion due to adsorbed cations depends on the net charge available for clay–water interactions. The distinctive way in which clay minerals and organic matter are associated and the changes in soil chemistry affecting the net charge cause the CROSS–TEC relationship to be unique for each soil.

Additional keywords: cation ratio of soil structural stability, SAR, turbidity.


References

Arienzo M, Christen EW, Quayle W, Kumar A (2009) A review of the fate of potassium in the soil–plant system after land application of wastewaters. Journal of Hazardous Materials 164, 415–422.
A review of the fate of potassium in the soil–plant system after land application of wastewaters.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjsVCks7c%3D&md5=531efe90dd5be6ae9896d83edf7e6b02CAS |

Arora HS, Coleman NT (1979) The influence of electrolyte concentration on flocculation of clay suspensions. Soil Science 127, 134–139.
The influence of electrolyte concentration on flocculation of clay suspensions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXhvVGlsbg%3D&md5=2f7dcca73cda515adc0151b8f497a5ecCAS |

Chorom M, Rengasamy P (1995) Dispersion and zeta potential of pure clays as related to net particle charge under varying pH, electrolyte concentration and cation type. European Journal of Soil Science 46, 657–665.
Dispersion and zeta potential of pure clays as related to net particle charge under varying pH, electrolyte concentration and cation type.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xhslyrt7c%3D&md5=e4bc05332dc18b009e1c4497c81587bfCAS |

Chorom M, Rengasamy P, Murray RS (1994) Clay dispersion as influenced by pH and net particle charge of sodic soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32, 1243–1252.
Clay dispersion as influenced by pH and net particle charge of sodic soils.CrossRef |

Churchman GJ (2002) Formation of complexes between bentonite and different cationic polyelectrolytes and their use as sorbents for non-ionic and anionic pollutants. Applied Clay Science 21, 177–189.
Formation of complexes between bentonite and different cationic polyelectrolytes and their use as sorbents for non-ionic and anionic pollutants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XktVWmuro%3D&md5=775f1cf425524abe9eecece4c2f42fb3CAS |

Deflandre B, Gagne JP (2001) Estimation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in nanoliter samples using UV spectroscopy. Water Research 35, 3057–3062.
Estimation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in nanoliter samples using UV spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXltFOisrw%3D&md5=517276dfb515a36548dba19641d5f07bCAS |

Emerson W, Smith BH (1970) Magnesium, Organic Matter and Soil structure. Nature 228, 453–454.
Magnesium, Organic Matter and Soil structure.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXit1WlsQ%3D%3D&md5=c2aa1dff48384b6ede5dc34bb79b5807CAS |

Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In ‘Methods of soil analysis: Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods’. Vol. 9. 2nd edn (Ed. A Klute) pp. 383– 411. (ASA, SSSA: Madison, WI)

Helling CS, Chesters G, Corey RB (1964) Contribution of organic matter and clay to soil cation-exchange capacity as affected by the pH of the saturating solution1. Soil Science Society of America Journal 28, 517–520.
Contribution of organic matter and clay to soil cation-exchange capacity as affected by the pH of the saturating solution1.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF2cXks1yhtr0%3D&md5=d6363ba35beb8e64ce6c5a10b73732ebCAS |

Isbell RF (2002) ‘The Australian Soil Classification.’ Australian Soil and Land Survey Handbook Series 4. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Jackson ML (2005) ‘Soil chemical analysis: Advanced course.’ Revised 2nd edn (University of Wisconsin–Madison: Madison, WI)

Laurenson S, Bolan NS, Smith E, McCarthy M (2012) Review: Use of recycled wastewater for irrigating grapevines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 18, 1–10.
Review: Use of recycled wastewater for irrigating grapevines.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XltFKksLc%3D&md5=1268c39f89099aaf8c0e7e03cf05d96cCAS |

Marchuk A, Rengasamy P (2011) Clay behaviour in suspension is related to the ionicity of clay–cation bonds. Applied Clay Science 53, 754–759.
Clay behaviour in suspension is related to the ionicity of clay–cation bonds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtVylt7%2FE&md5=736075a53d34be4be3dd65f6cc9c74e0CAS |

Marchuk A, Rengasamy P (2012) Threshold electrolyte concentration and dispersive potential in relation to CROSS in dispersive soils. Soil Research 50, 473–481.
Threshold electrolyte concentration and dispersive potential in relation to CROSS in dispersive soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xhtl2lsL%2FM&md5=b35e47123cc0a6a1fd6f72f8332f8ef9CAS |

Nelson PN, Oades JM (1998) Organic matter, sodicity and soil structure. In ‘Sodic soils: distribution, properties, management and environmental consequences’. (Eds ME Sumner, R Naidu) pp. 51–75. (Oxford University Press: New York)

Quirk JP, Schofield RK (1955) The effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability. European Journal of Soil Science 6, 163–178.
The effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaG28XhslKqug%3D%3D&md5=6d831831dfeb43bd81b86a8d4c7c467aCAS |

Rayment G, Lyons D (2011) ‘Soil chemical methods—Australasia.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Rengasamy P (2002) Clay dispersion. In ‘Soil physical measurement and interpretation for land evaluation’. (Eds BM McKenzie, K Coughlan, H Cresswell) pp. 200–210. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Rengasamy P (2010) Osmotic and ionic effects of various electrolytes on the growth of wheat. Australian Journal of Soil Research 48, 120–124.
Osmotic and ionic effects of various electrolytes on the growth of wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXktVShu7k%3D&md5=698fcf79968ecba527f4cb6a14e8cee7CAS | [In English]

Rengasamy P, Marchuk A (2011) Cation ratio of soil structural stability (CROSS). Soil Research 49, 280–285.
Cation ratio of soil structural stability (CROSS).CrossRef |

Rengasamy P, Olsson KA (1991) Sodicity and soil structure. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29, 935–952.
Sodicity and soil structure.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XitlCmsr4%3D&md5=a34b90df3b67c691305bfc4660a5ef49CAS |

Rengasamy P, Sumner ME (1998) Processes involved in sodic behaviour. In ‘Sodic soils. Distribution, properties, management, and environmental consequences’. (Eds ME Sumner, R Naidu) pp. 35–50. (New York Press: New York)

Rengasamy P, Greene R, Ford GW, Mehanni AH (1984) Identification of dispersive behaviour and the management of red- brown earths. Australian Journal of Soil Research 22, 413–431.
Identification of dispersive behaviour and the management of red- brown earths.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2MXitlCrtA%3D%3D&md5=e574e2e089963c0899f9f33bdacb9fd8CAS |

Smiles DE (2006) Sodium and potassium in soils of the Murray–Darling Basin: a note. Australian Journal of Soil Research 44, 727–730.
Sodium and potassium in soils of the Murray–Darling Basin: a note.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFWhsbrK&md5=367ae025439153298ffb4b14df11e5deCAS |

Suarez DL, Rhoades JD, Lavado R, Grieve CM (1984) Effect of pH on saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil dispersion. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48, 50–55.
Effect of pH on saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil dispersion.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXhtF2rurc%3D&md5=4c2c5be76939b704b5b8c25aaef84fc3CAS |

Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic Matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 29–38.
An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic Matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaA2cXitlGmug%3D%3D&md5=4685096ca0e51274c961d36bcf763758CAS |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (5)