Soil Research Soil Research Society
Soil, land care and environmental research
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

The composition of organic phosphorus in soils of the Snowy Mountains region of south-eastern Australia

Ashlea L. Doolette A C , Ronald J. Smernik A and Timothy I. McLaren A B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Soils Group, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and Waite Research Institute, Davies Building, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia.

B Present address: Group of Plant Nutrition, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Eschikon 33, CH-8315 Lindau, Switzerland.

C Corresponding author. Email: ashlea.doolette@adelaide.edu.au

Soil Research 55(1) 10-18 https://doi.org/10.1071/SR16058
Submitted: 1 March 2016  Accepted: 6 July 2016   Published: 10 October 2016

Abstract

Few studies have considered the influence of climate on organic phosphorus (P) speciation in soils. We used sodium hydroxide–ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (NaOH–EDTA) soil extractions and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the soil P composition of five alpine and sub-alpine soils. The aim was to compare the P speciation of this set of soils with those of soils typically reported in the literature from other cold and wet locations, as well as those of other Australian soils from warmer and drier environments. For all alpine and sub-alpine soils, the majority of P detected was in an organic form (54–66% of total NaOH–EDTA extractable P). Phosphomonoesters comprised the largest pool of extractable organic P (83–100%) with prominent peaks assigned to myo- and scyllo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), although trace amounts of the neo- and d-chiro-IP6 stereoisomers were also present. Phosphonates were identified in the soils from the coldest and wettest locations; α- and β-glycerophosphate and mononucleotides were minor components of organic P in all soils. The composition of organic P in these soils contrasts with that reported previously for Australian soils from warm, dry environments where inositol phosphate (IP6) peaks were less dominant or absent and humic-P and α- and β-glycerophosphate were proportionally larger components of organic P. Instead, the soil organic P composition exhibited similarities to soils from other cold, wet environments. This provides preliminary evidence that climate is a key driver in the variation of organic P speciation in soils.

Additional keywords: climate, organic matter, solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.


References

Ahlgren J, Djodjic F, Börjesson G, Mattsson L (2013) Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments. Soil Use and Management 29, 24–35.
Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments.CrossRef |

Anderson G (1964) Investigations on the analysis of inositol hexaphosphate in soils. In ‘Transactions of the 8th International Congress of Soil Science’, 31 August–9 September 1964, Bucharest, Romania. Vol. 4, pp. 563–571. (Publishing House of the Academy of The Socialist Republic of Romania)

Annaheim KE, Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Mayer J, Oberson A, Frossard E, Bünemann EK (2015) Long-term addition of organic fertilizers has little effect on soil organic phosphorus as characterized by 31P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme additions. Geoderma 257–258, 67–77.
Long-term addition of organic fertilizers has little effect on soil organic phosphorus as characterized by 31P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme additions.CrossRef |

Baer E, Kates M (1948) Migration during hydrolysis of esters of glycerophosphoric acid. I. The chemical hydrolysis of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 175, 79–88.

Baer E, Kates M (1950) Migration during hydrolysis of esters of glycerophosphoric acid. II. The acid and alkaline hydrolysis of l-α-lecithins. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 185, 615–623.

Bockheim JG, Koerner D (1997) Pedogenesis in alpine ecosystems of the Eastern Uinta Mountains, Utah, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research 29, 164–172.
Pedogenesis in alpine ecosystems of the Eastern Uinta Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.CrossRef |

Bui E, Henderson B (2013) C:N:P stoichiometry in Australian soils with respect to vegetation and environmental factors. Plant and Soil 373, 553–568.
C:N:P stoichiometry in Australian soils with respect to vegetation and environmental factors.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhtVGrsrzI&md5=a8921b21826bab215570d0e93b9ac25dCAS |

Cade-Menun B, Liu CW (2014) Solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of soils from 2005 to 2013: a review of sample preparation and experimental parameters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 78, 19–37.
Solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of soils from 2005 to 2013: a review of sample preparation and experimental parameters.CrossRef |

Cade-Menun BJ, Preston CM (1996) A comparison of soil extraction procedures for 31P NMR spectroscopy. Soil Science 161, 770–785.
A comparison of soil extraction procedures for 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XntVOitLo%3D&md5=31dc5dbb69d43b0abeac6c57e5ded86bCAS |

Chatterjee A, Jenerette G (2015) Variation in soil organic matter accumulation and metabolic activity along an elevation gradient in the Santa Rosa Mountains of Southern California, USA. Journal of Arid Land 7, 814–819.
Variation in soil organic matter accumulation and metabolic activity along an elevation gradient in the Santa Rosa Mountains of Southern California, USA.CrossRef |

Condron LM, Frossard E, Tiessen H, Newman RH, Stewart JWB (1990) Chemical nature of organic phosphorus in cultivated and uncultivated soils under different environmental conditions. Journal of Soil Science 41, 41–50.
Chemical nature of organic phosphorus in cultivated and uncultivated soils under different environmental conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXitFGlsr8%3D&md5=924dc5b0c4ee2fdf5292b84cdb204012CAS |

Costin AB (1954) ‘A study of the ecosystems of the Monaro Region of New South Wales.’ (Government Printer: Sydney)

Costin A (1957) The high mountain vegetation of Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 5, 173–189.
The high mountain vegetation of Australia.CrossRef |

Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Dougherty WJ (2009) Spiking improved solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance identification of soil phosphorus compounds. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73, 919–927.
Spiking improved solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance identification of soil phosphorus compounds.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlsFylsLk%3D&md5=5507554d66109cd2e9aca0dfeaae56adCAS |

Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Dougherty WJ (2011) A quantitative assessment of phosphorus forms in some Australian soils. Soil Research 49, 152–165.
A quantitative assessment of phosphorus forms in some Australian soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXivFylsrk%3D&md5=93dc20694f8b78d2a8120cdf552b1989CAS |

Egli M, Fitze P, Mirabella A (2001) Weathering and evolution of soils formed on granitic, glacial deposits: results from chronosequences of Swiss alpine environments. Catena 45, 19–47.
Weathering and evolution of soils formed on granitic, glacial deposits: results from chronosequences of Swiss alpine environments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjsFeht7c%3D&md5=2a1eae4f135e2a063e26cf38b17c3cd3CAS |

Gil-Sotres F, Zech W, Alt HG (1990) Characterization of phosphorus fractions in surface horizons of soils from Galicia (N.W. Spain) by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 22, 75–79.
Characterization of phosphorus fractions in surface horizons of soils from Galicia (N.W. Spain) by 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXhsFOitLY%3D&md5=a3bf85d29e2b80f3224c6d7069c0ea0dCAS |

Hollings PE, Dutch ME, Stout JD (1969) Bacteria of four tussock grassland soils on the Old Man Range, Central Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 177–192.
Bacteria of four tussock grassland soils on the Old Man Range, Central Otago, New Zealand.CrossRef |

Irving GCJ, Cosgrove DJ (1982) The use of gas-liquid chromatography to determine the proportions of inositol isomers present as pentakis- and hexakisphosphates in alkaline extracts of soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 13, 957–967.
The use of gas-liquid chromatography to determine the proportions of inositol isomers present as pentakis- and hexakisphosphates in alkaline extracts of soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3sXhsFymsQ%3D%3D&md5=1d1014824435c048256f120f2de8f7f6CAS |

Isbell RF (2002) ‘The Australian soil classification.’ (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Jarosch KA, Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Tamburini F, Frossard E, Bünemann EK (2015) Characterisation of soil organic phosphorus in NaOH-EDTA extracts: a comparison of 31P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme addition assays. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 91, 298–309.
Characterisation of soil organic phosphorus in NaOH-EDTA extracts: a comparison of 31P NMR spectroscopy and enzyme addition assays.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsFOrsrfL&md5=1ae1749103deb1cffd276824a500002eCAS |

Johnson LF, Tate ME (1969) Structure of ‘phytic acids’. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 47, 63–73.
Structure of ‘phytic acids’.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF1MXjvVSiug%3D%3D&md5=6b1143bad377bf4290c96c2262cad06bCAS |

Johnston RM, Barry SJ, Bleys E, Bui EN, Moran CJ, Simon DAP, Carlile P, McKenzie NJ, Henderson BL, Chapman G, Imhoff M, Maschmedt D, Howe D, Grose C, Schoknecht N, Powell B, Grundy M (2003) ASRIS: the database. Soil Research 41, 1021–1036.
ASRIS: the database.CrossRef |

Kirkby CA, Kirkegaard JA, Richardson AE, Wade LJ, Blanchard C, Batten G (2011) Stable soil organic matter: a comparison of C:N:P:S ratios in Australian and other world soils. Geoderma 163, 197–208.
Stable soil organic matter: a comparison of C:N:P:S ratios in Australian and other world soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXnt1amsr0%3D&md5=2468d70c13ed22f09cb1c1b41052f24bCAS |

Kirkpatrick JB, Green K, Bridle KL, Venn SE (2014) Patterns of variation in Australian alpine soils and their relationships to parent material, vegetation formation, climate and topography. Catena 121, 186–194.
Patterns of variation in Australian alpine soils and their relationships to parent material, vegetation formation, climate and topography.CrossRef |

Kruse J, Abraham M, Amelung W, Baum C, Bol R, Kühn O, Lewandowski H, Niederberger J, Oelmann Y, Rüger C, Santner J, Siebers M, Siebers N, Spohn M, Vestergren J, Vogts A, Leinweber P (2015) Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 178, 43–88.
Innovative methods in soil phosphorus research: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXmtVOjsQ%3D%3D&md5=4d3c16874bc2688058852104d4a54db8CAS | 26167132PubMed |

Makarov MI, Haumaier L, Zech W (2002a) The nature and origins of diester phosphates in soils: a 31P-NMR study. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35, 136–146.
The nature and origins of diester phosphates in soils: a 31P-NMR study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XisF2qtL0%3D&md5=b2c361e7ca8b2afeb1ef8f3cce056108CAS |

Makarov MI, Haumaier L, Zech W (2002b) Nature of soil organic phosphorus: an assessment of peak assignments in the diester region of 31P NMR spectra. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34, 1467–1477.
Nature of soil organic phosphorus: an assessment of peak assignments in the diester region of 31P NMR spectra.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XnsVWrs78%3D&md5=7f3b74ba5dfdbf92780a35050fe59e38CAS |

Matejovic I (1997) Determination of carbon and nitrogen in samples of various soils by the dry combustion. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 28, 1499–1511.
Determination of carbon and nitrogen in samples of various soils by the dry combustion.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXnsVCltbg%3D&md5=0561b2954a70c273acd16f2a5ba40b5aCAS |

McKercher RB, Anderson G (1968) Content of inositol penta- and hexaphosphates in some Canadian soils. European Journal of Soil Science 19, 47–55.
Content of inositol penta- and hexaphosphates in some Canadian soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF1cXktV2qsbs%3D&md5=1a91fee57ca796e417698992cda98f31CAS |

McLaren TI, Smernik RJ, Guppy CN, Bell MJ, Tighe MK (2014) The organic P composition of vertisols as determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 78, 1893–1902.
The organic P composition of vertisols as determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef |

McLaren TI, Smernik RJ, Simpson RJ, McLaughlin MJ, McBeath TM, Guppy CN, Richardson AE (2015a) Spectral sensitivity of solution 31P NMR spectroscopy is improved by narrowing the soil to solution ratio to 1 : 4 for pasture soils of low organic P content. Geoderma 257–258, 48–57.
Spectral sensitivity of solution 31P NMR spectroscopy is improved by narrowing the soil to solution ratio to 1 : 4 for pasture soils of low organic P content.CrossRef |

McLaren TI, Smernik RJ, McLaughlin MJ, McBeath TM, Kirby JK, Simpson RJ, Guppy CN, Doolette AL, Richardson AE (2015b) Complex forms of soil organic phosphorus – a major component of soil phosphorus. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 13238–13245.
Complex forms of soil organic phosphorus – a major component of soil phosphorus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhslSlsbfP&md5=09987035b965e39e795a945c2c928713CAS |

McLaren TI, Simpson RJ, McLaughlin MJ, Smernik RJ, McBeath TM, Guppy CN, Richardson AE (2015c) An assessment of various measures of soil phosphorus and the net accumulation of phosphorus in fertilized soils under pasture. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 178, 543–554.
An assessment of various measures of soil phosphorus and the net accumulation of phosphorus in fertilized soils under pasture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtVGmu7jO&md5=ec55cdbd1f87231e6dde91bfb554a2bdCAS |

Moata M, Doolette A, Smernik R, McNeill A, Macdonald L (2016) Organic phosphorus speciation in Australian red chromosols: stoichiometric control. Soil Research 54, 11–19.
Organic phosphorus speciation in Australian red chromosols: stoichiometric control.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XisVyhsb4%3D&md5=3ab3158b164769d1cafb30df3beb5cddCAS |

Murphy PNC, Bell A, Turner BL (2009) Phosphorus speciation in temperate basaltic grassland soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. European Journal of Soil Science 60, 638–651.
Phosphorus speciation in temperate basaltic grassland soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVGis7zF&md5=ae76041e3eae7f891366211ee38f6ad6CAS |

Newman RH, Tate KR (1980) Soil phosphorus characterization by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11, 835–842.
Soil phosphorus characterization by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXlvVCrtbw%3D&md5=56d9cb47425dc141a41398810a979adaCAS |

Oades JM (1988) The retention of organic matter in soils. Biogeochemistry 5, 35–70.
The retention of organic matter in soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXitVeksb0%3D&md5=86fa1a5b31abd3d6601b19375be33de2CAS |

Omotoso TI, Wild A (1970) Content of inositol phosphates in some English and Nigerian soils. Journal of Soil Science 21, 216–223.
Content of inositol phosphates in some English and Nigerian soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE3MXjtFWgsg%3D%3D&md5=3849698d3f8fd18716988985301a0060CAS |

Post WM, Emanuel WR, Zinke PJ, Stangenberger AG (1982) Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298, 156–159.
Soil carbon pools and world life zones.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL38XlsVyju7w%3D&md5=1f64ddd286d6937080d11e5a10d1e607CAS |

Schefe CR, Barlow KM, Robinson N, Crawford D, McLaren TI, Smernik RJ, Croatto G, Walsh R, Kitching M (2015) 100 years of superphosphate addition to pasture in an acid soil – current nutrient status and future management. Soil Research 53, 662–676.
100 years of superphosphate addition to pasture in an acid soil – current nutrient status and future management.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsFart7bF&md5=529df45cc03bbf4d13d7d32e88bcd995CAS |

Sharpley AN (1985) Phosphorus cycling in unfertilized and fertilized agricultural soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 905–911.
Phosphorus cycling in unfertilized and fertilized agricultural soils.CrossRef |

Smernik RJ, Dougherty WJ (2007) Identification of phytate in phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra – the need for spiking. Soil Science Society of America Journal 71, 1045–1050.
Identification of phytate in phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra – the need for spiking.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXlvFGgurc%3D&md5=5f27bf49ba6631ca531289d752dd46f9CAS |

Smernik RJ, Doolette AL, Noack SR (2015) Identification of RNA hydrolysis products in NaOH-EDTA extracts using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46, 2746–2756.
Identification of RNA hydrolysis products in NaOH-EDTA extracts using 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvVKmurjI&md5=86190eb72b75206a4ce174c6d6a603d3CAS |

Stace HTC, Hubble GD, Brewer R, Northcote KH, Sleeman JR, Mulcahy MJ, Hallsworth EG (1968) ‘A handbook of Australian soils.’ (Rellim Technical Publications for the CSIRO and the International Society of Soil Science: Adelaide, SA)

Sumann M, Amelung W, Haumaier L, Zech W (1998) Climatic effects on soil organic phosphorus in the North American Great Plains identified by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 1580–1586.
Climatic effects on soil organic phosphorus in the North American Great Plains identified by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXjslygtA%3D%3D&md5=77d9056088281f1ae39e5ed4bd5335ecCAS |

Tate KR, Newman RH (1982) Phosphorus fractions of a climosequence of soils in New Zealand tussock grassland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 14, 191–196.
Phosphorus fractions of a climosequence of soils in New Zealand tussock grassland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL28XoslGksA%3D%3D&md5=bfa920221bf6b78bf231bf65d70de640CAS |

Trumbore SE, Chadwick OA, Amundson R (1996) Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change. Science 272, 393–396.
Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XisVehu7g%3D&md5=bf08dfc70b2da6a0d41f8e6e6502fe36CAS |

Turner B (2008) Soil organic phosphorus in tropical forests: an assessment of the NaOH-EDTA extraction procedure for quantitative analysis by solution 31P NMR. European Journal of Soil Science 59, 453–466.
Soil organic phosphorus in tropical forests: an assessment of the NaOH-EDTA extraction procedure for quantitative analysis by solution 31P NMR.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXnvVOju7g%3D&md5=2beb5f6821773a6b9eb610aa9fb098dbCAS |

Turner BL, Blackwell MSA (2013) Isolating the influence of pH on the amounts and forms of soil organic phosphorus. European Journal of Soil Science 64, 249–259.
Isolating the influence of pH on the amounts and forms of soil organic phosphorus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXksVKktbw%3D&md5=ab4a3deecf3fd1b8435cf9ddb120b8c2CAS |

Turner BL, Richardson AE (2004) Identification of scyllo-inositol phosphates in soils by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68, 802–808.
Identification of scyllo-inositol phosphates in soils by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXktV2gtb8%3D&md5=00838635fc9ba14a430efd515f8daf09CAS |

Turner BL, Cade-Menun BJ, Westermanm DT (2003a) Organic phosphorus composition and potential bioavailability in semi-arid arable soils of the western United States. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67, 1168–1179.
Organic phosphorus composition and potential bioavailability in semi-arid arable soils of the western United States.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXlslCqtb0%3D&md5=d06e2b410b31bd23afcee40f3df569f6CAS |

Turner BL, Mahieu N, Condron LM (2003b) Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral assignments of phosphorus compounds in soil NaOH-EDTA extracts. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67, 497–510.
Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral assignments of phosphorus compounds in soil NaOH-EDTA extracts.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkslChsLo%3D&md5=9b838b544107d6e31f66f5beba60b205CAS |

Turner BL, Cheesman AW, Godage HY, Riley AM, Potter BVL (2012) Determination of neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 4994–5002.
Determination of neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate in soils by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xltlags7w%3D&md5=8c5cb90d54e0f8722222a9f7112ec7edCAS |

Turner B, Wells A, Condron L (2014) Soil organic phosphorus transformations along a coastal dune chronosequence under New Zealand temperate rain forest. Biogeochemistry 121, 595–611.
Soil organic phosphorus transformations along a coastal dune chronosequence under New Zealand temperate rain forest.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsVCisbrE&md5=350603b2931f8c413deee9726c3b66fbCAS |

Van Meeteren MKM, Tietema A, Westerveld JW (2007) Regulation of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transformations by temperature and moisture during decomposition of Calluna vulgaris litter. Biology and Fertility of Soils 44, 103–112.
Regulation of microbial carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transformations by temperature and moisture during decomposition of Calluna vulgaris litter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVGmt73O&md5=46bdaa59ef3d44ae35805e277bd52cd7CAS |

van Ryswyk AL, Okazaki R (1979) Genesis and classification of modal subalpine and alpine soil pedons of south-central British Columbia, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research 11, 53–67.
Genesis and classification of modal subalpine and alpine soil pedons of south-central British Columbia, Canada.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1MXhvVGnu7w%3D&md5=af9b4f8cafe8c45988e853dd7910cee7CAS |

Vincent A, Schleucher J, Gröbner G, Vestergren J, Persson P, Jansson M, Giesler R (2012) Changes in organic phosphorus composition in boreal forest humus soils: the role of iron and aluminium. Biogeochemistry 108, 485–499.
Changes in organic phosphorus composition in boreal forest humus soils: the role of iron and aluminium.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XivFOnt78%3D&md5=6dd0215f1e842559da0aa4bcb2f86ea9CAS |

Vincent A, Vestergren J, Gröbner G, Persson P, Schleucher J, Giesler R (2013) Soil organic phosphorus transformations in a boreal forest chronosequence. Plant and Soil 367, 149–162.
Soil organic phosphorus transformations in a boreal forest chronosequence.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXntVaksbg%3D&md5=3eb139ea04b133cddf6eea87d28dec09CAS |

Williams CH, Costin AB (1994) Alpine and subalpine vegetation. In ‘Australian vegetation’. (Ed. RH Groves) pp. 467–500. (Cambridge University Press: Melbourne)

Williams CH, Steinbergs A (1958) Sulphur and phosphorus in some eastern Australian soils. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 9, 483–491.
Sulphur and phosphorus in some eastern Australian soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaG1cXhtVOht7k%3D&md5=16f454298b679f032e2e6ebe11becdc7CAS |

Williams JDH, Mayer T, Nriagu JO (1980) Extractability of phosphorus from phosphate minerals common in coils and sediments. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44, 462–465.
Extractability of phosphorus from phosphate minerals common in coils and sediments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXkvFyqtr0%3D&md5=7bffe1729200537824a182bf657da574CAS |

Williams RJ, Wahren C, Tolsma AD, Sanecki GM, Papst WA, Myers BA, McDougall KL, Heinze DA, Green K (2008) Large fires in Australian alpine landscapes: their part in the historical fire regime and their impacts on alpine biodiversity. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 793–808.
Large fires in Australian alpine landscapes: their part in the historical fire regime and their impacts on alpine biodiversity.CrossRef |

Wood TG (1970) Decomposition of plant litter in montane and alpine soils on Mt Kosciusko, Australia. Nature 226, 561–562.
Decomposition of plant litter in montane and alpine soils on Mt Kosciusko, Australia.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD2MzpslGgtA%3D%3D&md5=c26361e7ee1378151e69c730cbbb46eaCAS | 16057384PubMed |

Wood TG (1974) The distribution of earthworms (Megascolecidae) in relation to soils, vegetation and altitude on the slopes of Mt Kosciusko, Australia. Journal of Animal Ecology 43, 87–106.
The distribution of earthworms (Megascolecidae) in relation to soils, vegetation and altitude on the slopes of Mt Kosciusko, Australia.CrossRef |

Yang H, Yuan Y, Zhang Q, Tang J, Liu Y, Chen X (2011) Changes in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi along a large-scale aridity gradient. Catena 87, 70–77.
Changes in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi along a large-scale aridity gradient.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXoslCksbk%3D&md5=c3d59c012389b12de8a9b271b9c4c223CAS |

Zarcinas BA, McLaughlin MJ, Smart MK (1996) The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 27, 1331–1354.
The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XivVKltrg%3D&md5=9832c8220ec09d588e11280dd4ee540cCAS |

Zech W, Alt HG, Haumaier L, Blasek R (1987) Characterization of phosphorus fractions in mountain soils of the Bavarian Alps by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 150, 119–123.
Characterization of phosphorus fractions in mountain soils of the Bavarian Alps by 31P NMR spectroscopy.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXkt1amtr8%3D&md5=04d1b3ef64eb423aeb6fce59b3d3e4dcCAS |


Full Text PDF (282 KB) Export Citation Cited By (1)