Investigating the effect of vetiver and polyacrylamide on runoff, sediment load and cumulative water infiltrationElham Amiri A , Hojat Emami A C , Mohammad R. Mosaddeghi B and Ali R. Astaraei A
A Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91777948974, Iran.
B Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
C Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Soil Research 55(8) 769-777 https://doi.org/10.1071/SR17011
Submitted: 12 January 2017 Accepted: 10 April 2017 Published: 23 May 2017
Soil erosion is one of the most critical environmental problems currently facing Iran, and soil conservation is crucial for managing natural resources. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a vetiver cultivation system, known to be a valuable bioengineering technique, and polyacrylamide (PAM) addition on runoff, sediment load (SL) and cumulative water infiltration under field conditions in a loamy soil. The experimental treatments were vetiver cultivation, PAM (applied at 20 and 40 kg ha–1) and a mixture of vetiver and different PAM application rates. Three simulated rainfall intensities of 15, 30 and 45 mm h–1 were applied on the treated soils. Runoff and SL were collected at different time steps. The results showed that vetiver significantly decreased runoff and SL and increased cumulative water infiltration at different rainfall intensities, whereas the effect of PAM on runoff, SL and cumulative water infiltration depended on the PAM level. At the 15 mm h–1 rainfall intensity, PAM application increased the runoff, but decreased SL and cumulative water infiltration. At the 30 mm h–1 rainfall intensity, the 20 kg ha–1 PAM level decreased the runoff and SL. At the 45 mm h–1 rainfall intensity, the higher PAM level was more effective to enhance the cumulative water infiltration and to reduce the runoff and SL. In general, although simultaneous application of vetiver and PAM significantly decreased the runoff volume and SL and increased water infiltration compared with the control, vetiver considerably decreased the runoff and SL. This suggests that vetiver may sufficiently decrease soil erosion and PAM is therefore unnecessary in controlling runoff and soil erosion where vetiver is applied.
Additional keywords: rainfall intensity, rainfall simulator, soil biological conservation, soil erosion.
ReferencesAbrol V, Shainberg I, Lado M, Ben-Hur M (2013) Efficacy of dry granular anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) on infiltration, runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science 64, 699–705.
| Efficacy of dry granular anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) on infiltration, runoff and erosion.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXhsFGgsbvI&md5=097fda1ee8b64b5a0f72c441f5900c90CAS |
Ao C, Yang P, Ren S, Xing W, Li X, Feng X (2016) Efficacy of granular polyacrylamide on runoff, erosion and nitrogen loss at loess slope under rainfall simulation. Environmental Earth Sciences 75, 490–590.
| Efficacy of granular polyacrylamide on runoff, erosion and nitrogen loss at loess slope under rainfall simulation.CrossRef |
Babalola O, Oshunsanya SO, Are K (2007) Effects of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and an organomineral fertilizer on soil, water and nutrient losses and maize (Zea mays, L) yields. Soil & Tillage Research 96, 6–18.
| Effects of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and an organomineral fertilizer on soil, water and nutrient losses and maize (Zea mays, L) yields.CrossRef |
Chochran WG, Cox GM (1991) ‘Experimental designs.’ (John Wiley and Sons: USA)
Donjadee S, Chinnarasri C (2012) Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the application of vetiver grass mulch in soil and water conservation. International Journal of Sediment Research 27, 168–177.
| Effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on the application of vetiver grass mulch in soil and water conservation.CrossRef |
Donjadee S, Clemente RS, Tingsanchali T, Chinnarasri C (2010) Effects of vertical hedge interval of vetiver grass on erosion on steep agricultural lands. Land Degradation & Development 21, 219–227.
Fahlén A (2002) Mixed tree-vegetative barrier designs: experiences from project works in northern Vietnam. Land Degradation & Development 13, 307–329.
| Mixed tree-vegetative barrier designs: experiences from project works in northern Vietnam.CrossRef |
Gerber FA, von Maltitz Harmse HJ (1988) Proposed procedure for identification of dispersive soils by chemical testing. In ‘Second International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering’, 1–5 June 1988, University of Missouri, Rolla, MO. (University of Missouri)
Kumar A, Saha A (2011) Effect of polyacrylamide and gypsum on surface runoff, sediment yield and nutrient losses from steep slopes. Agricultural Water Management 98, 999–1004.
| Effect of polyacrylamide and gypsum on surface runoff, sediment yield and nutrient losses from steep slopes.CrossRef |
Lal R (1994) ‘Soil erosion research methods.’ 2nd edn. (Soil and Water Conservation Society: Ankeny)
Lee SS, Shah HS, Awad YM, Kumar S, Ok YS (2015) Synergy effects of biochar and polyacrylamide on plants growth and soil erosion control. Environmental Earth Sciences 74, 2463–2473.
| Synergy effects of biochar and polyacrylamide on plants growth and soil erosion control.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXkvVKnurs%3D&md5=bd50b1ae3137a32e4869fcc5d6e40fb6CAS |
Lentz RD, Koehn AC, Peckenpaugh RE (2003) Managing erosion and infiltration on steeply sloping (>4%) irrigation furrows with polyacrylamide. In ‘Proceedings of Soil Science Society of America Annual Meeting,’ 2–6 November 2003, Denver, CO.
Morgan RPC (2005) ‘Soil erosion and conservation.’ 3rd edn. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd: UK)
Sepaskhah AR, Bazrafshan-Jahromi AR (2006) Controlling runoff and erosion in sloping land with polyacrylamide under a rainfall simulator. Biosystems Engineering 93, 469–474.
| Controlling runoff and erosion in sloping land with polyacrylamide under a rainfall simulator.CrossRef |
Sirjacobs D, Shainberg I, Rapp I, Levy GJ (2000) Polyacrylamide, sediments, and interrupted flow effects on rill erosion and intake rate. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 1487–1495.
| Polyacrylamide, sediments, and interrupted flow effects on rill erosion and intake rate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmsF2hsrg%3D&md5=89fe55775753ab9b9cd33c4fc7fd8028CAS |
Soil Survey Staff (2006) ‘Keys to soil taxonomy.’ (Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service: Washington, DC)
Styczen ME, Morgan RPC (1995) Engineering properties of vegetation. In ‘Slope stabilization and erosion control: a bioengineering approach’. (Eds RPC Morgan, RJ Rickson) pp. 496–509. (Silsoe College, Cranfield University: Granfield, UK)
Truong PN (2002) Vetiver grass technology. In ‘Vetiveria’. (Ed. M Maffei) pp. 114–132. (Taylor and Francis: London and New York)
Welle S, Chantawarangul K, Nontananandh S, Jantawat S (2006) Effectiveness of grass strips as barrier against runoff and soil loss in Jijiga area, northern part of Somali region, Ethiopia. Witthayasan Kasetsat Witthayasat 40, 549–558.
Weston DD, Lentz RD, Cahn MD, Ogle RS, Rother AK, Lydy MJ (2009) Toxicity of anionic polyacrylamide formulations when used for erosion control in agriculture. Technical reports: surface water quality. Journal of Environmental Quality 38, 238–247.
| Toxicity of anionic polyacrylamide formulations when used for erosion control in agriculture. Technical reports: surface water quality.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpt1Snsw%3D%3D&md5=7de69cff7772e2ee2e08f88e2a3092fbCAS |
Wischmeier WH, Smith DD (1978) ‘Predicting rainfall erosion losses – a guide to conservation planning’. (USDA Agricultural Research Service Handbook)
Wolde Z (2015) Assessment of the role of Vetiver Grass System in soil and water conservation at Kuraz Sugar Development Project. International Invention Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science 3, 21–25.
CTA (1989) Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) – a method of vegetative soil and moisture conservation. Spore 23. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.