Soil Research Soil Research Society
Soil, land care and environmental research
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Evidence for soil carbon enhancement through deeper mouldboard ploughing at pasture renovation on a Typic Fragiaqualf

R. Calvelo Pereira A B , M. J. Hedley A , M. Camps Arbestain A , P. Bishop A , K. E. Enongene A and I. J. J. Otene A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Soil and Earth Sciences Group, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Private Bag 11222, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

B Corresponding author. Email: R.CalveloPereira@massey.ac.nz

Soil Research - https://doi.org/10.1071/SR17039
Submitted: 25 January 2017  Accepted: 21 August 2017   Published online: 13 October 2017

Abstract

Permanent pastures require periodic renewal (cultivation and resowing) to maintain their productive potential, which involves a short-term carbon (C) loss. Normal cultivation (ploughing or discing) often involves only the top 10–15 cm, or less, of pasture soils. A regrassing field trial with ryegrass plus white clover swards was established in 2011 to assess the effect of deeper ploughing (25 cm) on C storage in an imperfectly drained soil (Tokomaru silt loam). The site was core sampled (0–30 cm depth) 2 and 4 years (i.e. in 2013 and 2015 respectively) after cultivation and regrassing (soil inversion treatment) to assess changes in soil C content at different depths. At both times, an adjacent uncultivated ryegrass paddock (undisturbed pasture treatment) under similar grazing intensity was also sampled and C stocks were compared. Profiles of cultivated soils (soil inversion) showed higher (P < 0.01) C stocks than the adjacent permanent pasture at the nominal 15–25 and 25–30 cm depths and significantly lower (P < 0.01) C stocks in the topsoil (nominal 0–5 cm depth) for both years sampled (2013, 2015). These findings imply that the differences (inversion – pasture) were consistent 4 years after cultivation and deep ploughing at pasture renewal had resulted in an overall increase in soil C mass to approximately 30 cm of ~18% (13.9 Mg C ha–1; equivalent soil mass 3701 Mg soil ha–1) compared with not undertaking the regrassing. This gain in soil C may be temporary, but in a period of 4 years it has significantly increased the net residence time of C in soil related to soil inversion.

Additional keywords: carbon storage in soil, deep ploughing, silt loam soil, soil inversion, soil tillage.


References

Alcántara V, Don A, Well R, Nieder R (2016) Deep ploughing increases agricultural soil organic matter stocks. Global Change Biology 22, 2939–2956.
Deep ploughing increases agricultural soil organic matter stocks.CrossRef |

Angers DA, Chenu C (1998) Dynamics of soil aggregation and C sequestration. In ‘Soil processes and the carbon cycle’. (Eds R Lal, JM Kimble, RF Follet, BA Stewart) pp. 199–206. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Angers DA, Eriksen-Hamel NS (2008) Full-inversion tillage and organic carbon distribution in soil profiles: a meta-analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal 72, 1370–1374.
Full-inversion tillage and organic carbon distribution in soil profiles: a meta-analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtV2it77O&md5=1c4bd578f661a0400cb37ec2b20b4254CAS |

Angers DA, Bolinder MA, Carter MR, Gregorich EG, Drury CF, Liang BC, Voroney RP, Simard RR, Donald RG, Beyaert RP, Martel J (1997) Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada. Soil & Tillage Research 41, 191–201.
Impact of tillage practices on organic carbon and nitrogen storage in cool, humid soils of eastern Canada.CrossRef |

Balesdent J, Chenu C, Balabane M (2000) Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage. Soil & Tillage Research 53, 215–230.
Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillage.CrossRef |

Barrow N (1969) The accumulation of soil organic matter under pasture and its effect on soil properties. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 9, 437–444.
The accumulation of soil organic matter under pasture and its effect on soil properties.CrossRef |

Beare MH, McNeill SJ, Curtin D, Parfitt RL, Jones HS, Dodd MB, Sharp J (2014) Estimating the organic carbon stabilisation capacity and saturation deficit of soils: a New Zealand case study. Biogeochemistry 120, 71–87.
Estimating the organic carbon stabilisation capacity and saturation deficit of soils: a New Zealand case study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXntFOlt7Y%3D&md5=e7bf1742001a4fcc96e6fb3d5ae25138CAS |

Blakemore LC, Searle PL, Daly BK (1987) Methods for chemical analysis of soils. NZ Soil Bureau Scientific Report 80, New Zealand Soil Bureau, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.

Calvelo Pereira R, Hedley M, Camps Arbestain M, Wisnubroto E, Green S, Saggar S, Kusumo BH, Mahmud AF (2016) Net changes of soil C stocks in two grassland soils 26 months after simulated pasture renovation including biochar addition. Global Change Biology. Bioenergy 8, 600–615.
Net changes of soil C stocks in two grassland soils 26 months after simulated pasture renovation including biochar addition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28XlslWju74%3D&md5=df518d1ca66ab80db7a65cda21ee99b8CAS |

Caradus JR, Evans PS (1977) Seasonal root formation of white clover, ryegrass, and cocksfoot in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 20, 337–342.
Seasonal root formation of white clover, ryegrass, and cocksfoot in New Zealand.CrossRef |

Chabbi A, Kögel-Knabner I, Rumpel C (2009) Stabilised carbon in subsoil horizons is located in spatially distinct parts of the soil profile. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41, 256–261.
Stabilised carbon in subsoil horizons is located in spatially distinct parts of the soil profile.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXotV2itA%3D%3D&md5=6fdd4db54b5dbc5f4f2de26dcb360693CAS |

Curtin D, Beare H, Fraser P, Gillespie R, Harrison-Kirk T (2010) Soil organic matter loss following land use change from long-term pasture to arable cropping: pool size changes and effects on some biological and chemical functions. In ‘19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World’, 1–6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. (Eds R Gilkes and N Prakongkep) pp. 213–216. (Australian Society of Soil Science Incorporated: Warragul, Victoria, Australia)

Ellert BH, Bettany JR (1995) Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 75, 529–538.
Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrasting management regimes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28XhslKlsbo%3D&md5=9526d3ee6bf1946117a5816690512149CAS |

Fontaine S, Barot S, Barre P, Bdioui N, Mary B, Rumpel C (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450, 277–280.
Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1yntrjJ&md5=6263af2520936b780ae046b72ae51193CAS |

Gregorich EG, Carter MR, Angers DA, Drury CF (2009) Using a sequential density and particle-size fractionation to evaluate carbon and nitrogen storage in the profile of tilled and no-till soils in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 89, 255–267.
Using a sequential density and particle-size fractionation to evaluate carbon and nitrogen storage in the profile of tilled and no-till soils in eastern Canada.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXosFCqtbg%3D&md5=1ab600c3dcfeebad532bfd8a5b3ba499CAS |

Haynes RJ, Beare MH (1995) Aggregation and organic matter storage in meso-thermal, humid soils. In ‘Structure and organic matter storage in agriculutral soils’. (Eds MR Carter, BA Stewart) pp. 213–262. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Hedley CB, Kusumo BH, Hedley MJ, Tuohy MP, Hawke M (2009) Soil C and N sequestration and fertility development under land recently converted from plantation forest to pastoral farming. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 443–453.
Soil C and N sequestration and fertility development under land recently converted from plantation forest to pastoral farming.CrossRef |

Herath HMSK, Camps-Arbestain M, Hedley MJ, Kirschbaum MUF, Wang T, van Hale R (2015) Experimental evidence for sequestering C with biochar by avoidance of CO2 emissions from original feedstock and protection of native soil organic matter. Global Change Biology. Bioenergy 7, 512–526.
Experimental evidence for sequestering C with biochar by avoidance of CO2 emissions from original feedstock and protection of native soil organic matter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXms1Srt7k%3D&md5=d4de5bb47e8b11b0403b867a801d063dCAS |

Hewitt AE (2010) ‘New Zealand soil classification.’ 3rd edn. (Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln, New Zealand)

Kemp PD, Kenyon PR, Morris ST (2010) The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 39, 169–174.
The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems.CrossRef |

Koch H-J, Stockfisch N (2006) Loss of soil organic matter upon ploughing under a loess soil after several years of conservation tillage. Soil & Tillage Research 86, 73–83.
Loss of soil organic matter upon ploughing under a loess soil after several years of conservation tillage.CrossRef |

Kusumo BH, Hedley MJ, Hedley CB, Hueni A, Arnold GC, Tuohy MP (2009) The use of Vis-NIR spectral reflectance for determining root density: evaluation of ryegrass roots in a glasshouse trial. European Journal of Soil Science 60, 22–32.
The use of Vis-NIR spectral reflectance for determining root density: evaluation of ryegrass roots in a glasshouse trial.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjsVCjtr4%3D&md5=a98d058f343d5a578af8bc88116bb0f6CAS |

Kuzyakov Y, Blagodatskaya E (2015) Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil: Concept & review. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 83, 184–199.
Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil: Concept & review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXisFCjtbo%3D&md5=dd611f5a516132f66cdf58a685576e20CAS |

Lal R (2011) Soil carbon and climate change. In ‘Handbook of climate change and agroecosystems. Impacts, adaptation and mitigation’. Vol. 1. (Eds D Hillel, C Rosenzweig) pp. 287–305. (Imperial College Press: London, UK)

MacDonald JD, Angers DA, Rochette P, Chantigny MH, Royer I, Gasser M-O (2010) Plowing a poorly drained grassland reduced soil respiration. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74, 2067–2076.
Plowing a poorly drained grassland reduced soil respiration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFahtrvM&md5=c663fa564315ee741aa08c5fe891077dCAS |

Machmuller MB, Kramer MG, Cyle TK, Hill N, Hancock D, Thompson A (2015) Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter. Nature Communications 6, 6995
Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtFylt7vI&md5=15d3166eaa40f0263cb72853e7c67822CAS |

Minasny B, Malone BP, McBratney AB, Angers DA, Arrouays D, Chambers A, Chaplot V, Chen Z-S, Cheng K, Das BS, Field DJ, Gimona A, Hedley CB, Hong SY, Mandal B, Marchant BP, Martin M, McConkey BG, Mulder VL, O’Rourke S, Richer-de-Forges AC, Odeh I, Padarian J, Paustian K, Pan G, Poggio L, Savin I, Stolbovoy V, Stockmann U, Sulaeman Y, Tsui C-C, Vågen T-G, van Wesemael B, Winowiecki L (2017) Soil carbon 4 per mille. Geoderma 292, 59–86.
Soil carbon 4 per mille.CrossRef |

Morton JD, Roberts AHC (2012) ‘Fertiliser use on New Zealand sheep and beef farms.’ (New Zealand Fertiliser Manufacturers’ Research Association: Wellington, New Zealand)

Paustian K, Lehmann J, Ogle S, Reay D, Robertson GP, Smith P (2016) Climate-smart soils. Nature 532, 49–57.
Climate-smart soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xlsl2gs7g%3D&md5=a9797cc380f9793c0adf938130e5864aCAS |

Rasse D, Rumpel C, Dignac M-F (2005) Is soil carbon mostly root carbon? Mechanisms for a specific stabilisation. Plant and Soil 269, 341–356.
Is soil carbon mostly root carbon? Mechanisms for a specific stabilisation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXks1Oju7c%3D&md5=ed6821836a982032f9f5b995465f473eCAS |

Rumpel C, Kögel-Knabner I (2011) Deep soil organic matter – a key but poorly understood component of terrestrial C cycle. Plant and Soil 338, 143–158.
Deep soil organic matter – a key but poorly understood component of terrestrial C cycle.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFKmtLrE&md5=16ccefd5ffc583472ee7144a2edfcb4dCAS |

Rutledge S, Mudge PL, Wallace DF, Campbell DI, Woodward SL, Wall AM, Schipper LA (2014) CO2 emissions following cultivation of a temperate permanent pasture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 184, 21–33.
CO2 emissions following cultivation of a temperate permanent pasture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXjs1Kqsbw%3D&md5=a32ce2eb890bd27d31c644283a2d79cdCAS |

Sherrod LA, Reeder JD, Hunter W, Ahuja LR (2012) Rapid and cost-effective method for soil carbon mineralization in static laboratory incubations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43, 958–972.
Rapid and cost-effective method for soil carbon mineralization in static laboratory incubations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38Xks1Wis7o%3D&md5=3c561af507a321218b6bcfb1cf95aa2bCAS |

Six J, Conant RT, Paul EA, Paustian K (2002) Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant and Soil 241, 155–176.
Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XltV2jsbo%3D&md5=e13301db72e76a53d732cf8a5dfe81a1CAS |

Smith P (2016) Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies. Global Change Biology 22, 1315–1324.
Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.CrossRef |

Soil Survey Staff (2014) ‘Keys to soil taxonomy.’ 12th edn. (USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service: Washington, D.C.)

Soussana JF, Loiseau P, Vuichard N, Ceschia E, Balesdent J, Chevallier T, Arrouays D (2004) Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands. Soil Use and Management 20, 219–230.
Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands.CrossRef |

Sparling GP, Lewis R, Schipper LA, Mudge P, Balks M (2014) Changes in soil total C and N contents at three chronosequences after conversion from plantation pine forest to dairy pasture on a New Zealand Pumice soil. Soil Research 52, 38–45.
Changes in soil total C and N contents at three chronosequences after conversion from plantation pine forest to dairy pasture on a New Zealand Pumice soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXit12gtrk%3D&md5=ffcccaa7910b2d0898bf068c4a917fedCAS |

Stewart C, Paustian K, Conant R, Plante A, Six J (2007) Soil carbon saturation: concept, evidence and evaluation. Biogeochemistry 86, 19–31.
Soil carbon saturation: concept, evidence and evaluation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVagtbbE&md5=7375bccd0b6f5235b393c47a14458c38CAS |

Tozer K, Rennie G, King W, Mapp N, Bell N, Cameron C, Eden T. (2013) Pasture renewal on Bay of Plenty and Waikato dairy farms: impacts on pasture production and invertebrate populations post-establishment. In ‘Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association’, 5–7 November 2013. pp. 227–234. (New Zealand Grassland Association: Wellington)

Walker T, Thapa B, Adams A (1959) Studies on soil organic matter: 3. Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, organic and total phosphorus in improved grassland soils. Soil Science 87, 135–140.
Studies on soil organic matter: 3. Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, organic and total phosphorus in improved grassland soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaF3MXktlGj&md5=063df397aab8da019e01ebf1af44eafdCAS |

Wendt JW, Hauser S (2013) An equivalent soil mass procedure for monitoring soil organic carbon in multiple soil layers. European Journal of Soil Science 64, 58–65.
An equivalent soil mass procedure for monitoring soil organic carbon in multiple soil layers.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXit1Wiu7Y%3D&md5=4e145e9c2b970a16e2c89f22c00a9d4dCAS |

Yim MH, Joo SJ, Nakane K (2002) Comparison of field methods for measuring soil respiration: a static alkali absorption method and two dynamic closed chamber methods. Forest Ecology and Management 170, 189–197.
Comparison of field methods for measuring soil respiration: a static alkali absorption method and two dynamic closed chamber methods.CrossRef |



Export Citation