International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Too hot to trot? Evaluating the effects of wildfire on patterns of occupancy and abundance for a climate-sensitive habitat specialist

Johanna Varner A F , Mallory S. Lambert A , Joshua J. Horns A , Sean Laverty B , Laurie Dizney C , Erik A. Beever D E and M. Denise Dearing A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A University of Utah, Department of Biology, 257 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

B University of Central Oklahoma, Department of Mathematics, 100 North University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034, USA.

C University of Portland, Department of Biology, 5000 N. Willamette Boulevard, Portland, OR 97203, USA.

D US Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, 2327 University Way, Suite 2, Bozeman, MT 59715, USA.

E Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.

F Corresponding author. Email: johanna.varner@utah.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 24(7) 921-932 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF15038
Submitted: 6 February 2015  Accepted: 21 April 2015   Published: 4 June 2015

Abstract

Wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity as a result of climate change in many ecosystems; however, effects of altered disturbance regimes on wildlife remain poorly quantified. Here, we leverage an unexpected opportunity to investigate how fire affects the occupancy and abundance of a climate-sensitive habitat specialist, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We determine the effects of a fire on microclimates within talus and explore habitat factors promoting persistence and abundance in fire-affected habitat. During the fire, temperatures in talus interstices remained below 19°C, suggesting that animals could have survived in situ. Within 2 years, pikas were widely distributed throughout burned areas and did not appear to be physiologically stressed at severely burned sites. Furthermore, pika densities were better predicted by topographic variables known to affect this species than by metrics of fire severity. This widespread distribution may reflect quick vegetation recovery and the fact that the fire did not alter the talus microclimates in the following years. Together, these results highlight the value of talus as a thermal refuge for small animals during and after fire. They also underscore the importance of further study in individual species’ responses to typical and altered disturbance regimes.

Additional keywords: Ochotona, pika, talus, thermal refuge, wildlife.


References

Agee JK (1973) ‘Prescribed fire effects on physical and hydrologic properties of mixed-conifer forest floor and soil.’ Water Resources Center, University of California, Contribution Report 143. (Berkeley, CA.)

Agee JK (1996) ‘Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC.)

Albanesi S, Dardanelli S, Bellis L (2014) Effects of fire disturbance on bird communities and species of mountain serrano forest in central Argentina. Journal of Forest Research 19, 105–114.
Effects of fire disturbance on bird communities and species of mountain serrano forest in central Argentina.CrossRef |

Azeria ET, Ibarzabal J, Hébert C, Boucher J, Imbeau L, Savard J-PL (2011) Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem. Acta Oecologica 37, 220–229.
Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem.CrossRef |

Baker W (2009) ‘Fire ecology in rocky mountain landscapes.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC.)

Beever EA, Wilkening JL, McIvor DE, Weber SS, Brussard PE (2008) American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in northwestern Nevada: a newly discovered population at a low-elevation site. Western North American Naturalist 68, 8–14.
American pikas (Ochotona princeps) in northwestern Nevada: a newly discovered population at a low-elevation site.CrossRef |

Beever EA, Ray C, Mote PW, Wilkening JL (2010) Testing alternative models of climate-mediated extirpations. Ecological Applications 20, 164–178.
Testing alternative models of climate-mediated extirpations.CrossRef | 20349838PubMed |

Beever EA, Ray C, Wilkening JL, Brussard PF, Mote PW (2011) Contemporary climate change alters the pace and drivers of extinction. Global Change Biology 17, 2054–2070.
Contemporary climate change alters the pace and drivers of extinction.CrossRef |

Beever EA, Dobrowski SZ, Long J, Mynsberge AR, Piekielek NB (2013) Understanding relationships among abundance, extirpation, and climate at ecoregional scales. Ecology 94, 1563–1571.
Understanding relationships among abundance, extirpation, and climate at ecoregional scales.CrossRef | 23951716PubMed |

Braganza K, Karoly DJ, Arblaster J (2004) Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters 31, L13217
Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century.CrossRef |

Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) ‘Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach.’ (Springer: New York, NY.)

Cahill AE, Aiello-Lammens ME, Fisher-Reid CM, Hua X, Karanewsky CJ, Ryu HY, Sbeglia GC, Spagnolo F, Waldron JB, Warsi O, Wiens JJ (2012) How does climate change cause extinction? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280, 20121890
How does climate change cause extinction?CrossRef | 23075836PubMed |

Cansler CA, McKenzie D (2014) Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA. Ecological Applications 24, 1037–1056.
Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA.CrossRef | 25154095PubMed |

Castillo JA, Epps CW, Davis AR, Cushman SA (2014) Landscape effects on gene flow for a climate-sensitive montane species, the American pika. Molecular Ecology 23, 843–856.
Landscape effects on gene flow for a climate-sensitive montane species, the American pika.CrossRef | 24383818PubMed |

Crisafulli CM, MacMahon JA, Parmenter RR (2005) Small-mammal survival and colonization on the Mount St. Helens volcano: 1980–2002. In ‘Ecological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens’. (Eds VH Dale, FJ Swanson, CM Crisafulli.) pp. 199–218. (Springer: New York, NY.)

D’Antonio CM, Vitousek PM (1992) Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23, 63–87.
Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change.CrossRef |

Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances: climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity, duration, and timing of fire, drought, introduced species, insect and pathogen outbreaks, hurricanes, windstorms, ice storms, or landslides. Bioscience 51, 723–734.
Climate change and forest disturbances: climate change can affect forests by altering the frequency, intensity, duration, and timing of fire, drought, introduced species, insect and pathogen outbreaks, hurricanes, windstorms, ice storms, or landslides.CrossRef |

Dearing MD (1996) Disparate determinants of summer and winter diet selection of a generalist herbivore, Ochotona princeps. Oecologia 108, 467–478.
Disparate determinants of summer and winter diet selection of a generalist herbivore, Ochotona princeps.CrossRef |

Dearing MD (1997) The function of haypiles of pikas (Ochotona princeps). Journal of Mammalogy 78, 1156–1163.
The function of haypiles of pikas (Ochotona princeps).CrossRef |

Dennison PE, Brewer SC, Arnold JD, Moritz MA (2014) Large wildfire trends in the western United States, 1984–2011. Geophysical Research Letters 41, 2928–2933.
Large wildfire trends in the western United States, 1984–2011.CrossRef |

Driscoll DA, Lindenmayer DB, Bennett AF, Bode M, Bradstock RA, Cary GJ, Clarke MF, Dexter N, Fensham R, Friend G, Gill M, James S, Kay G, Keith DA, MacGregor C, Russell-Smith J, Salt D, Watson JEM, Williams RJ, York A (2010) Fire management for biodiversity conservation: key research questions and our capacity to answer them. Biological Conservation 143, 1928–1939.
Fire management for biodiversity conservation: key research questions and our capacity to answer them.CrossRef |

Engstrom RT (2010) First-order fire effects on animals: review and recommendations. Fire Ecology 6, 115–130.
First-order fire effects on animals: review and recommendations.CrossRef |

Erb LP, Ray C, Guralnick R (2011) On the generality of a climate-mediated shift in the distribution of the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Ecology 92, 1730–1735.
On the generality of a climate-mediated shift in the distribution of the American pika (Ochotona princeps).CrossRef | 21939069PubMed |

Fellers GM, Pratt D, Griffin JL (2004) Fire effects on the Point Reyes mountain beaver at Point Reyes National Seashore, California. The Journal of Wildlife Management 68, 503–508.
Fire effects on the Point Reyes mountain beaver at Point Reyes National Seashore, California.CrossRef |

Flannigan M, Stocks B, Turetsky M, Wotton M (2009) Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest. Global Change Biology 15, 549–560.
Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest.CrossRef |

Fontaine JB, Kennedy PL (2012) Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in US fire-prone forests. Ecological Applications 22, 1547–1561.
Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in US fire-prone forests.CrossRef | 22908713PubMed |

Fontaine JB, Donato DC, Campbell JL, Martin JG, Law BE (2010) Effects of post-fire logging on forest surface air temperatures in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA. Forestry 83, 477–482.
Effects of post-fire logging on forest surface air temperatures in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA.CrossRef |

Fowler W, Helvey J (1978) ‘Changes in the thermal regime after prescribed burning and select tree removal (Grass Camp, 1975).’ U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper PNW-234. (Portland, OR.)

Gelman A, Hill J (2007) ‘Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models.’ (Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.)

Henry P, Russello M (2013) Adaptive divergence along environmental gradients in a climate-change-sensitive mammal. Ecology and Evolution 3, 3906–3917.
Adaptive divergence along environmental gradients in a climate-change-sensitive mammal.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC2c7jvVSguw%3D%3D&md5=fc771f12fabf5dcd5b09eb22b69f5a0bCAS | 24198948PubMed |

Henry P, Henry A, Russello MA (2012a) Variation in habitat characteristics of American pikas along an elevation gradient at their northern range margin. Northwest Science 86, 346–350.
Variation in habitat characteristics of American pikas along an elevation gradient at their northern range margin.CrossRef |

Henry P, Sim Z, Russello MA (2012b) Genetic evidence for restricted dispersal along continuous altitudinal gradients in a climate change-sensitive mammal: the American pika. PLoS One 7, e39077
Genetic evidence for restricted dispersal along continuous altitudinal gradients in a climate change-sensitive mammal: the American pika.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XptFaltrg%3D&md5=de8d71e15addd87572e00d49e691af90CAS | 22720034PubMed |

Huntly NJ, Smith AT, Ivins BL (1986) Foraging behavior of the pika (Ochotona princeps), with comparisons of grazing versus haying. Journal of Mammalogy 67, 139–148.
Foraging behavior of the pika (Ochotona princeps), with comparisons of grazing versus haying.CrossRef |

InciWeb Incident Management System (2011) ‘The Dollar Lake fire.’ Available at: http://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/2563 [Verified 1 October 2013].

Jakubas WJ, Garrott RA, White PJ, Mertens DR (1994) Fire-induced changes in the nutritional quality of lodgepole pine bark. The Journal of Wildlife Management 58, 35–46.
Fire-induced changes in the nutritional quality of lodgepole pine bark.CrossRef |

Jeffress MR, Rodhouse TJ, Ray C, Wolff S, Epps C (2013) The idiosyncrasies of place: geographic variation in the climate-distribution relationships of the American pika. Ecological Applications 23, 864–878.
The idiosyncrasies of place: geographic variation in the climate-distribution relationships of the American pika.CrossRef | 23865236PubMed |

Keane R (2007) ‘Firemon: Plot description sampling methods.’ Available at: http://www.frames.gov/documents/projects/firemon/PD_Text_062007.pdf [Verified 20 March 2015].

Keeley JE (2009) Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 116–126.
Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage.CrossRef |

Lawrence GE (1966) Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Ecology 47, 278–291.
Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills.CrossRef |

Leigh J, Wood D, Slee A, Holgate M (1991) The effects of burning and simulated grazing on productivity, forage quality, mortality and flowering of eight subalpine herbs in Kosciusko National Park. Australian Journal of Botany 39, 97–118.
The effects of burning and simulated grazing on productivity, forage quality, mortality and flowering of eight subalpine herbs in Kosciusko National Park.CrossRef |

Letnic M, Dickman C (2005) The responses of small mammals to patches regenerating after fire and rainfall in the Simpson Desert, central Australia. Austral Ecology 30, 24–39.
The responses of small mammals to patches regenerating after fire and rainfall in the Simpson Desert, central Australia.CrossRef |

Letnic M, Dickman CR, Tischler MK, Tamayo B, Beh CL (2004) The responses of small mammals and lizards to post-fire succession and rainfall in arid Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 59, 85–114.
The responses of small mammals and lizards to post-fire succession and rainfall in arid Australia.CrossRef |

Lundquist JD, Lott F (2008) Using inexpensive temperature sensors to monitor the duration and heterogeneity of snow-covered areas. Water Resources Research 44, W00D16
Using inexpensive temperature sensors to monitor the duration and heterogeneity of snow-covered areas.CrossRef |

MacArthur RA, Wang LCH (1974) Behavioral thermoregulation in the pika, Ochotona princeps: a field study using radiotelemetry. Canadian Journal of Zoology 52, 353–358.
Behavioral thermoregulation in the pika, Ochotona princeps: a field study using radiotelemetry.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE2c7jt1yrsA%3D%3D&md5=cf6ba19510b3c95a27c1c8d3d46f6b94CAS | 4819475PubMed |

MacMahon JA, Parmenter RR, Johnson KA, Crisafulli CM (1989) Small mammal recolonization on the Mount St. Helens volcano: 1980–1987. American Midland Naturalist 122, 365–387.
Small mammal recolonization on the Mount St. Helens volcano: 1980–1987.CrossRef |

Mason TH, Stephens PA, Apollonio M, Willis SG (2014) Predicting potential responses to future climate in an alpine ungulate: interspecific interactions exceed climate effects. Global Change Biology 20, 3872–3882.
Predicting potential responses to future climate in an alpine ungulate: interspecific interactions exceed climate effects.CrossRef | 24957266PubMed |

Mawdsley JR, O’Malley R, Ojima DS (2009) A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23, 1080–1089.
A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.CrossRef | 19549219PubMed |

Millar CI, Westfall RD (2010) Distribution and climatic relationships of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Sierra Nevada and western Great Basin, USA; periglacial landforms as refugia in warming climates. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 42, 76–88.
Distribution and climatic relationships of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the Sierra Nevada and western Great Basin, USA; periglacial landforms as refugia in warming climates.CrossRef |

Millar CI, Westfall RD, Delany DL (2013) New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the western Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist 73, 457–476.
New records of marginal locations for American pika (Ochotona princeps) in the western Great Basin.CrossRef |

Millspaugh J, Washburn B (2004) Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 138, 189–199.
Use of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite measures in conservation biology research: considerations for application and interpretation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnsFSjtr8%3D&md5=a1a2733b04c00b03a724b43a205c78e2CAS | 15364201PubMed |

Moe SR, Wegge P (1997) The effects of cutting and burning on grass quality and axis deer (Axis axis) use of grassland in lowland Nepal. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13, 279–292.
The effects of cutting and burning on grass quality and axis deer (Axis axis) use of grassland in lowland Nepal.CrossRef |

Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (2000) ‘Invasive species in a changing world.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC.)

Nappi A, Drapeau P, Saint-Germain M, Angers VA (2010) Effect of fire severity on long-term occupancy of burned boreal conifer forests by saproxylic insects and wood-foraging birds. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 500–511.
Effect of fire severity on long-term occupancy of burned boreal conifer forests by saproxylic insects and wood-foraging birds.CrossRef |

O’Brien JJ, Stahala C, Mori GP, Callaham MA, Bergh CM (2006) Effects of prescribed fire on conditions inside a Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) surrogate nesting cavity on Great Abaco, Bahamas. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118, 508–512.
Effects of prescribed fire on conditions inside a Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) surrogate nesting cavity on Great Abaco, Bahamas.CrossRef |

Oakwood M (2000) Reproduction and demography of the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus, in the lowland savanna of northern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 48, 519–539.
Reproduction and demography of the northern quoll, Dasyurus hallucatus, in the lowland savanna of northern Australia.CrossRef |

Panzer R (2002) Compatibility of prescribed burning with the conservation of insects in small, isolated prairie reserves. Conservation Biology 16, 1296–1307.
Compatibility of prescribed burning with the conservation of insects in small, isolated prairie reserves.CrossRef |

Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 37, 637–669.
Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change.CrossRef |

Perry RW (2011) A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the Eastern Oaks region. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference’, 17–19 May 2011, Springfield, MO. (Eds DC Dey, MC Stambaugh, SL Clark, CJ Schweitzer.) USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, pp. 170–191. (Springfield, MO)

R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing. Available at: http://www.R-project.org/ [Verified 20 March 2015].

Radford IJ (2012) Threatened mammals become more predatory after small-scale prescribed fires in a high-rainfall rocky savanna. Austral Ecology 37, 926–935.
Threatened mammals become more predatory after small-scale prescribed fires in a high-rainfall rocky savanna.CrossRef |

Ray C, Wilkening JL, Sweazea K (2009) Signs of demographic change and physiological stress in Rocky Mountain pikas. In ‘Proceedings of the North American Pika Conference’, 25–27 March 2009. (Jackson, WY). Available at: http://www.tetonscience.org/data/contentfiles/File/downloads/pdf/CRC/CRCPikaPresentations/crc_pika_ppt_RayChris.pdf [Verified 14 May 2015]

Roberts SL, van Wagtendonk JW, Miles AK, Kelt DA, Lutz JA (2008) Modeling the effects of fire severity and spatial complexity on small mammals in Yosemite National Park, California. Fire Ecology 4, 83–104.

Rodhouse TJ, Beever EA, Garrett LK, Irvine KM, Jeffress MR, Munts M, Ray C (2010) Distribution of American pikas in a low-elevation lava landscape: conservation implications from the range periphery. Journal of Mammalogy 91, 1287–1299.
Distribution of American pikas in a low-elevation lava landscape: conservation implications from the range periphery.CrossRef |

Rowe RJ, Terry RC, Rickart EA (2011) Environmental change and declining resource availability for small-mammal communities in the Great Basin. Ecology 92, 1366–1375.
Environmental change and declining resource availability for small-mammal communities in the Great Basin.CrossRef | 21797164PubMed |

Shi H, Paull D, Wen Z, Broome L (2014) Thermal buffering effect of alpine boulder field microhabitats in Australia: implications for habitat management and conservation. Biological Conservation 180, 278–287.
Thermal buffering effect of alpine boulder field microhabitats in Australia: implications for habitat management and conservation.CrossRef |

Smith AT (1974a) The distribution and dispersal of pikas: consequences of insular population structure. Ecology 55, 1112–1119.
The distribution and dispersal of pikas: consequences of insular population structure.CrossRef |

Smith AT (1974b) The distribution and dispersal of pikas: influences of behavior and climate. Ecology 55, 1368–1376.
The distribution and dispersal of pikas: influences of behavior and climate.CrossRef |

Smith AT (1978) Comparative demography of pikas (Ochotona): effect of spatial and temporal age-specific mortality. Ecology 59, 133–139.
Comparative demography of pikas (Ochotona): effect of spatial and temporal age-specific mortality.CrossRef |

Smith AT, Ivins BL (1983) Colonization in a pika population: dispersal vs. philopatry. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 13, 37–47.
Colonization in a pika population: dispersal vs. philopatry.CrossRef |

Smith A, Weidong L, Hik D (2004) Pikas as harbingers of global warming. Species 41, 4–5.

Smucker KM, Hutto RL, Steele BM (2005) Changes in bird abundance after wildfire: importance of fire severity and time since fire. Ecological Applications 15, 1535–1549.
Changes in bird abundance after wildfire: importance of fire severity and time since fire.CrossRef |

Stavros EN, Abatzoglou J, McKenzie D, Larkin N (2014) Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous western United States. Climatic Change 126, 455–468.
Regional projections of the likelihood of very large wildland fires under a changing climate in the contiguous western United States.CrossRef |

Stewart JAE, Wright DH (2012) Assessing persistence of the American pika at historic localities in California’s northern Sierra Nevada. Wildlife Society Bulletin 36, 759–764.
Assessing persistence of the American pika at historic localities in California’s northern Sierra Nevada.CrossRef |

Stewart JAE, Perrine JD, Nichols LB, Thorne JH, Millar CI, Goehring KE, Massing CP, Wright DH (2015) Revisiting the past to foretell the future: summer temperature and habitat area predict pika extirpations in California. Journal of Biogeography
Revisiting the past to foretell the future: summer temperature and habitat area predict pika extirpations in California.CrossRef |

Swezy DM, Agee JK (1991) Prescribed-fire effects on fine-root and tree mortality in old-growth ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21, 626–634.
Prescribed-fire effects on fine-root and tree mortality in old-growth ponderosa pine.CrossRef |

Tapper SC (1973) The spatial organisation of pikas, Ochotona, and its effect on population recruitment. PhD Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Touihri M, Villard M-A, Charfi F (2014) Cavity-nesting birds show threshold responses to stand structure in native oak forests of northwestern Tunisia. Forest Ecology and Management 325, 1–7.
Cavity-nesting birds show threshold responses to stand structure in native oak forests of northwestern Tunisia.CrossRef |

Tyser RW (1980) Use of substrate for surveillance behaviors in a community of talus slope mammals. American Midland Naturalist 104, 32–38.
Use of substrate for surveillance behaviors in a community of talus slope mammals.CrossRef |

Varner J, Dearing MD (2014a) Dietary plasticity in pikas as a strategy for atypical resource landscapes. Journal of Mammalogy 95, 72–81.
Dietary plasticity in pikas as a strategy for atypical resource landscapes.CrossRef |

Varner J, Dearing MD (2014b) The importance of biologically relevant microclimates in habitat suitability assessments. PLoS One 9, e104648
The importance of biologically relevant microclimates in habitat suitability assessments.CrossRef | 25115894PubMed |

Viereck LA (1973) Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research 3, 465–495.
Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska.CrossRef |

Walther G-R, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJ, Fromentin J-M, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416, 389–395.
Ecological responses to recent climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XislantL8%3D&md5=dc69845678a4288e14f59b7f9e97cf3bCAS | 11919621PubMed |

Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity. Science 313, 940–943.
Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XotFCitbo%3D&md5=5148f8496efb4e5e78e7ee6c837fd85bCAS | 16825536PubMed |

Wiebe KL (2014) Responses of cavity-nesting birds to fire: testing a general model with data from the northern flicker. Ecology 95, 2537–2547.
Responses of cavity-nesting birds to fire: testing a general model with data from the northern flicker.CrossRef |

Wilkening JL (2014) Characterizing metrics and outcomes of stress in a climate-sensitive species, the American pika. PhD Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Wilkening JL, Ray C, Beever EA, Brussard PF (2011) Modeling contemporary range retraction in Great Basin pikas (Ochotona princeps) using data on microclimate and microhabitat. Quaternary International 235, 77–88.
Modeling contemporary range retraction in Great Basin pikas (Ochotona princeps) using data on microclimate and microhabitat.CrossRef |

Wilkening JL, Ray C, Sweazea KL (2013) Stress hormone concentration in Rocky Mountain populations of the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Conservation Physiology 1, cot027
Stress hormone concentration in Rocky Mountain populations of the American pika (Ochotona princeps).CrossRef |

Wilkening JL, Ray C, Varner J (2015) Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). PLoS One 10, e0119327
Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).CrossRef | 25803587PubMed |

Williams AA, Karoly DJ, Tapper N (2001) The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change. Climatic Change 49, 171–191.
The sensitivity of Australian fire danger to climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXktVOht7c%3D&md5=aa07a7d62b0bb7a66f12fe986a5cba89CAS |



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (298 KB) Export Citation

View Altmetrics