International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Area burned in alpine treeline ecotones reflects region-wide trends

C. Alina Cansler A C , Donald McKenzie B and Charles B. Halpern A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA.

B Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, Seattle, WA 98103, USA.

C Corresponding author. Email: acansler@uw.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 25(12) 1209-1220 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF16025
Submitted: 15 February 2016  Accepted: 30 August 2016   Published: 26 October 2016

Abstract

The direct effects of climate change on alpine treeline ecotones – the transition zones between subalpine forest and non-forested alpine vegetation – have been studied extensively, but climate-induced changes in disturbance regimes have received less attention. To determine if recent increases in area burned extend to these higher-elevation landscapes, we analysed wildfires from 1984–2012 in eight mountainous ecoregions of the Pacific Northwest and Northern Rocky Mountains. We considered two components of the alpine treeline ecotone: subalpine parkland, which extends upward from subalpine forest and includes a fine-scale mosaic of forest and non-forested vegetation; and non-forested alpine vegetation. We expected these vegetation types to burn proportionally less than the entire ecoregion, reflecting higher fuel moisture and longer historical fire rotations. In four of eight ecoregions, the proportion of area burned in subalpine parkland (3%–8%) was greater than the proportion of area burned in the entire ecoregion (2%–7%). In contrast, in all but one ecoregion, a small proportion (≤4%) of the alpine vegetation burned. Area burned regionally was a significant predictor of area burned in subalpine parkland and alpine, suggesting that similar climatic drivers operate at higher and lower elevations or that fire spreads from neighbouring vegetation into the alpine treeline ecotone.

Additional keywords: alpine tundra, fire regime, infrequent disturbances, meadow, western North America.


References

Abatzoglou JT, Kolden CA (2013) Relationships between climate and macroscale area burned in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 1003–1020.
Relationships between climate and macroscale area burned in the western United States.CrossRef |

Abatzoglou JT, Rupp DE, Mote PW (2014) Seasonal climate variability and change in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Journal of Climate 27, 2125–2142.
Seasonal climate variability and change in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.CrossRef |

Agee JK (1993) ‘Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC)

Agee JK, Smith L (1984) Subalpine tree reestablishment after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Ecology 65, 810–819.
Subalpine tree reestablishment after fire in the Olympic Mountains, Washington.CrossRef |

Agee JK, Finney M, De Gouvenain R (1990) Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20, 350–356.
Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington.CrossRef |

Arno SF, Habeck JR (1972) Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Monographs 42, 417–450.
Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest.CrossRef |

Arno SF, Hammerly RP (1984) ‘Timberline: mountain and arctic forest frontiers.’ (The Mountaineers: Seattle, WA)

Arno SF, Petersen TD (1983) Variation in estimates of fire intervals: a closer look at fire history on the Bitterroot National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-301. (Ogden, UT)

Ayres HB (1900) ‘The Lewis and Clark Forest Reserve, Montana. Extract from the twenty-first annual report of the survey, 1899–1900, Part V. Forest Reserves.’ (US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC)

Baker WL (2009) ‘Fire ecology in Rocky Mountain landscapes.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC)

Bebi P, Kulakowski D, Rixen C (2009) Snow avalanche disturbances in forest ecosystems – state of research and implications for management. Forest Ecology and Management 257, 1883–1892.
Snow avalanche disturbances in forest ecosystems – state of research and implications for management.CrossRef |

Benedict JB (2002) Eolian deposition of forest-fire charcoal above tree limit, Colorado Front Range, USA: potential contamination of AMS radiocarbon samples. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 34, 33–37.
Eolian deposition of forest-fire charcoal above tree limit, Colorado Front Range, USA: potential contamination of AMS radiocarbon samples.CrossRef |

Bessie WC, Johnson EA (1995) The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behavior in subalpine forests. Ecology 76, 747–762.
The relative importance of fuels and weather on fire behavior in subalpine forests.CrossRef |

Billings WD (1969) Vegetational pattern near alpine timberline as affected by fire–snowdrift interactions. Vegetatio 19, 192–207.
Vegetational pattern near alpine timberline as affected by fire–snowdrift interactions.CrossRef |

Brown CD (2010) Tree-line dynamics: adding fire to climate change prediction. Arctic 63, 488–492.
Tree-line dynamics: adding fire to climate change prediction.CrossRef |

Brubaker LB (1986) Responses of tree populations to climatic change. Vegetatio 67, 119–130.
Responses of tree populations to climatic change.CrossRef |

Cansler CA (2011) Drivers of burn severity in the northern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. MS thesis, University of Washington School of Forest Resources, Seattle, WA.

Cansler CA (2015) Multiscale analysis of fire effects in alpine treeline ecotones. PhD dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Cansler CA, McKenzie D (2012) How robust are burn severity indices when applied in a new region? Evaluation of alternate field-based and remote-sensing methods. Remote Sensing 4, 456–483.
How robust are burn severity indices when applied in a new region? Evaluation of alternate field-based and remote-sensing methods.CrossRef |

Cansler CA, McKenzie D (2014) Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA. Ecological Applications 24, 1037–1056.
Climate, fire size, and biophysical setting control fire severity and spatial pattern in the northern Cascade Range, USA.CrossRef | 25154095PubMed |

Cohen JE, Deeming JD (1985) The National Fire-Danger Rating System: basic equations. General Technical Report 16. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr082/psw_gtr082.pdf [Verified 7 September 2016]

Collins BM, Lydersen JM, Everett RG, Fry DL, Stephens SL (2015) Novel characterization of landscape-level variability in historical vegetation structure. Ecological Applications 25, 1167–1174.
Novel characterization of landscape-level variability in historical vegetation structure.CrossRef | 26485946PubMed |

Commission for Environmental Cooperation (1997) ‘Ecological regions of North America: toward a common perspective.’ (Revised 2006) (Commission for Environmental Cooperation: Montreal, QC) Available at www.cec.org [Verified 7 September 2016]

Cumming S (2001) Forest type and wildfire in the Alberta boreal mixedwood: what do fires burn? Ecological Applications 11, 97–110.
Forest type and wildfire in the Alberta boreal mixedwood: what do fires burn?CrossRef |

Daubenmire R (1952) Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification. Ecological Monographs 22, 301–330.
Forest vegetation of northern Idaho and adjacent Washington, and its bearing on concepts of vegetation classification.CrossRef |

Daubenmire R (1968) ‘Plant communities.’ (Harper and Row: New York, NY)

Dietz MS, Belote RT, Aplet GH, Aycrigg JL (2015) The world’s largest wilderness protection network after 50 years: an assessment of ecological system representation in the US National Wilderness Preservation System. Biological Conservation 184, 431–438.
The world’s largest wilderness protection network after 50 years: an assessment of ecological system representation in the US National Wilderness Preservation System.CrossRef |

Douglas GW, Ballard TM (1971) Effects of fire on alpine plant communities in the North Cascades, Washington. Ecology 52, 1058
Effects of fire on alpine plant communities in the North Cascades, Washington.CrossRef |

Eidenshink J, Schwind B, Brewer K, Zhu Z-L, Quayle B, Howard S (2007) A project for Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity. Fire Ecology 3, 3–21.
A project for Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity.CrossRef |

Fahnestock GR (1976) Fires, fuel, and flora as factors in wilderness management: the Pasayten case. In ‘Proceedings of the annual tall timbers fire ecology conference, no. 15’, 16–17 October 1974, Portland, OR. (Ed. EV Komarek) Pacific Northwest, Tall Timbers Research Station, pp. 33–70. (Tallahassee, FL)

Flannigan MD, Amiro BD, Logan KA, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2006) Forest fires and climate change in the 21st century. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 847–859.
Forest fires and climate change in the 21st century.CrossRef |

Flannigan MD, Krawchuk MA, de Groot WJ, Wotton BM, Gowman LM (2009) Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18, 483–507.
Implications of changing climate for global wildland fire.CrossRef |

Franklin JF, Dyrness CT (1988) ‘Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington.’ (Oregon State University Press: Corvallis, OR)

Franklin JF, Moir WH, Douglas GW, Wiberg C (1971) Invasion of subalpine meadows by trees in the Cascade Range, Washington and Oregon. Arctic and Alpine Research 3, 215–224.
Invasion of subalpine meadows by trees in the Cascade Range, Washington and Oregon.CrossRef |

Franklin JF, Moir WH, Hemstrom MA, Greene SE, Smith BG (1988) ‘The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park.’ (USDI, National Park Service: Washington, DC)

Gabriel HW, III (1976) Wilderness ecology: the Danaher Creek drainage, Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana. PhD dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.

Google Inc (2013) Google Earth Pro. Version 7.1.1.188. Available at www.google.com/earth/explore/products/desktop.html [Verified 7 September 2016]

Gottfried M, Pauli H, Futschik A, Akhalkatsi M, Barančok P, Benito Alonso JL, Coldea G, Dick J, Erschbamer B, Fernández Calzado MR, Kazakis G, Krajči J, Larsson P, Mallaun M, Michelsen O, Moiseev D, Moiseev P, Molau U, Merzouki A, Nagy L, Nakhutsrishvili G, Pedersen B, Pelino G, Puscas M, Rossi G, Stanisci A, Theurillat J-P, Tomaselli M, Villar L, Vittoz P, Vogiatzakis I, Grabherr G (2012) Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nature Climate Change 2, 111–115.
Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change.CrossRef |

Harsch MA, Hulme PE, McGlone MS, Duncan RP (2009) Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline response to climate warming. Ecology Letters 12, 1040–1049.
Are treelines advancing? A global meta-analysis of treeline response to climate warming.CrossRef | 19682007PubMed |

Harvey BJ (2015) Causes and consequences of spatial patterns of fire severity in Northern Rocky Mountain forests: the role of disturbance interactions and changing climate. PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin–Madison, WI.

Hessburg PF, Agee JK, Franklin JF (2005) Dry forests and wildland fires of the inland north-west USA: contrasting the landscape ecology of the presettlement and modern eras. Forest Ecology and Management 211, 117–139.
Dry forests and wildland fires of the inland north-west USA: contrasting the landscape ecology of the presettlement and modern eras.CrossRef |

Hessburg PF, Churchill DJ, Larson AJ, Haugo RD, Miller C, Spies TA, North MP, Povak NA, Belote RT, Singleton PH, Gaines WL, Keane RE, Aplet GH, Stephens SL, Morgan P, Bisson PA, Rieman BE, Salter RB, Reeves GH (2015) Restoring fire-prone inland Pacific landscapes: seven core principles. Landscape Ecology 30, 1805–1835.
Restoring fire-prone inland Pacific landscapes: seven core principles.CrossRef |

Heyerdahl EK, Morgan P, Riser JP (2008) Multi-season climate synchronized historical fires in dry forests (1650–1900), Northern Rockies, USA. Ecology 89, 705–716.
Multi-season climate synchronized historical fires in dry forests (1650–1900), Northern Rockies, USA.CrossRef | 18459334PubMed |

Johnstone JA, Mantua NJ (2014) Atmospheric controls on north-east Pacific temperature variability and change, 1900–2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111, 14360–14365.
Atmospheric controls on north-east Pacific temperature variability and change, 1900–2012.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhsFyhtbnE&md5=3a647790de9f00bbfec0c949bf50738bCAS | 25246555PubMed |

Jolly WM, Cochrane MA, Freeborn PH, Holden ZA, Brown TJ, Williamson GJ, Bowman DMJS (2015) Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013. Nature Communications 6, 7537
Climate-induced variations in global wildfire danger from 1979 to 2013.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhtlCjsb7P&md5=59fc53be9e40d61307f172a0571e3afdCAS | 26172867PubMed |

Kagan JS, Ohmann JL, Gregory M, Tobalske C (2005) Land-cover map for map zones 8 and 9 developed from SAGEMAP, GNN, and SWReGAP: a pilot for NWGAP. Gap Analysis 15, 15–19. [Verified 1 September 2016]http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/pubs/pdf/pub4177.pdf

Kennedy MC, McKenzie D (2010) Using a stochastic model and cross-scale analysis to evaluate controls on historical low-severity fire regimes. Landscape Ecology 25, 1561–1573.
Using a stochastic model and cross-scale analysis to evaluate controls on historical low-severity fire regimes.CrossRef |

Key CH (2006) Ecological and sampling constraints on defining landscape fire severity. Fire Ecology 2, 34–59.
Ecological and sampling constraints on defining landscape fire severity.CrossRef |

Kipfmueller KF (2003) Fire–climate–vegetation interactions in subalpine forests of the Selway–Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho and Montana, USA. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Kolden CA, Weisberg PJ (2007) Assessing accuracy of manually mapped wildfire perimeters in topographically dissected areas. Fire Ecology 3, 22–31.
Assessing accuracy of manually mapped wildfire perimeters in topographically dissected areas.CrossRef |

Kolden CA, Lutz JA, Key CH, Kane JT, van Wagtendonk JW (2012) Mapped versus actual burned area within wildfire perimeters: characterizing the unburned. Forest Ecology and Management 286, 38–47.
Mapped versus actual burned area within wildfire perimeters: characterizing the unburned.CrossRef |

Kolden CA, Smith AMS, Abatzoglou JT (2015) Limitations and utilisation of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity products for assessing wildfire severity in the USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24, 1023–1028.
Limitations and utilisation of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity products for assessing wildfire severity in the USA.CrossRef |

Körner C (2003) ‘Alpine plant life: functional plant ecology of high-mountain ecosystems.’ (Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg)

Kutner MC, Nachtsheim CJ, Neter J, Li W (2005) ‘Applied linear statistical models.’ (McGraw–Hill: Boston, MA)

Lertzman KP, Krebs CJ (1991) Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21, 1730–1741.
Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest.CrossRef |

Lesica P, McCune B (2004) Decline of arctic-alpine plants at the southern margin of their range following a decade of climatic warming. Journal of Vegetation Science 15, 679–690.
Decline of arctic-alpine plants at the southern margin of their range following a decade of climatic warming.CrossRef |

Littell JS, Gwozdz RB (2011) Climatic water balance and regional fire years in the Pacific Northwest, USA: linking regional climate and fire at landscape scales. In ‘The landscape ecology of fire’. (Eds D McKenzie, C Miller, DA Falk) pp. 117–139. (Springer: the Netherlands)

Littell JS, McKenzie D, Peterson DL, Westerling AL (2009) Climate and wildfire area burned in western US ecoprovinces, 1916–2003. Ecological Applications 19, 1003–1021.
Climate and wildfire area burned in western US ecoprovinces, 1916–2003.CrossRef | 19544740PubMed |

Littell JS, Oneil EE, McKenzie D, Hicke JA, Lutz JA, Norheim RA, Elsner MM (2010) Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in Washington State, USA. Climatic Change 102, 129–158.
Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in Washington State, USA.CrossRef |

Little RL, Peterson DL, Conquest LL (1994) Regeneration of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) following fire: effects of climate and other factors. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24, 934–944.
Regeneration of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) following fire: effects of climate and other factors.CrossRef |

Malanson GP, Butler DR, Fagre DB, Walsh SJ, Tomback DF, Daniels LD, Resler LM, Smith WK, Weiss DJ, Peterson DL, Bunn AG, Hiemstra CA, Liptzin D, Bourgeron PS, Shen Z, Millar CI (2007) Alpine treeline of western North America: linking organism-to-landscape dynamics. Physical Geography 28, 378–396.
Alpine treeline of western North America: linking organism-to-landscape dynamics.CrossRef |

Mallek C, Safford H, Viers J, Miller J (2013) Modern departures in fire severity and area vary by forest type, Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades, California, USA. Ecosphere 4, art153
Modern departures in fire severity and area vary by forest type, Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades, California, USA.CrossRef |

McKenzie D, Littell JS (2016) Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: will area burned increase in a warming western U.S.? Ecological Applications
Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: will area burned increase in a warming western U.S.?CrossRef |

Miller EA, Halpern CB (1998) Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 9, 265–282.
Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK1M%2FmsFSisg%3D%3D&md5=376b07ada4054d657976c6e9d7ca4cd3CAS |

Miller JD, Safford H (2012) Trends in wildfire severity: 1984 to 2010 in the Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and Southern Cascades, California, USA. Fire Ecology 8, 41–57.
Trends in wildfire severity: 1984 to 2010 in the Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, and Southern Cascades, California, USA.CrossRef |

Miller JD, Collins BM, Lutz JA, Stephens SL, van Wagtendonk JW, Yasuda DA (2012) Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land-management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA. Ecosphere 3, art80
Differences in wildfires among ecoregions and land-management agencies in the Sierra Nevada region, California, USA.CrossRef |

Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (2014) Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) – National Geospatial Data. Available at www.mtbs.gov/nationalregional/download.html [Verified 7 September 2016]

Mori AS (2011) Climatic variability regulates the occurrence and extent of large fires in the subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies. Ecosphere 2, art7
Climatic variability regulates the occurrence and extent of large fires in the subalpine forests of the Canadian Rockies.CrossRef |

Mote PW, Hamlet AF, Clark MP, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86, 39–49.
Declining mountain snowpack in western North America.CrossRef |

National Gap Analysis Program (2011) National Gap Analysis Program land-cover data – version 2. Available at http://gapanalysis.usgs.gov/ [Verified 7 September 2016]

Oyler JW, Dobrowski SZ, Ballantyne AP, Klene AE, Running SW (2015) Artificial amplification of warming trends across the mountains of the western United States. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 153–161.
Artificial amplification of warming trends across the mountains of the western United States.CrossRef |

Parks S, Dillon G, Miller C (2014) A new metric for quantifying burn severity: the Relativized Burn Ratio. Remote Sensing 6, 1827–1844.
A new metric for quantifying burn severity: the Relativized Burn Ratio.CrossRef |

Parks SA, Miller C, Parisien M-A, Holsinger LM, Dobrowski SZ, Abatzoglou J (2015) Wildland fire deficit and surplus in the western United States, 1984–2012. Ecosphere 6, art275
Wildland fire deficit and surplus in the western United States, 1984–2012.CrossRef |

Podur JJ, Martell DL (2009) The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996–2006. Ecological Applications 19, 1246–1252.
The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996–2006.CrossRef | 19688931PubMed |

Potash LL, Agee JK (1998) The effect of fire on red heather (Phyllodoce empetriformis). Canadian Journal of Botany 76, 428–433.
The effect of fire on red heather (Phyllodoce empetriformis).CrossRef |

R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.1.2. (Vienna, Austria) Available at http://www.R-project.org/ [Verified 7 September 2016]

Reilly MJ (2014) Contemporary Regional Forest Dynamics in the Pacific Northwest. PhD dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Rochefort RM, Peterson DL (1996) Temporal and spatial distribution of trees in subalpine meadows of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA. Arctic and Alpine Research 28, 52–59.
Temporal and spatial distribution of trees in subalpine meadows of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, USA.CrossRef |

Rochefort RM, Little RL, Woodward A, Peterson DL (1994) Changes in sub-alpine tree distribution in western North America: a review of climatic and other causal factors. The Holocene 4, 89–100.
Changes in sub-alpine tree distribution in western North America: a review of climatic and other causal factors.CrossRef |

Schwartz MW, Butt N, Dolanc CR, Holguin A, Moritz MA, North MP, Safford HD, Stephenson NL, Thorne JH, van Mantgem PJ (2015) Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change. Ecosphere 6, art121
Increasing elevation of fire in the Sierra Nevada and implications for forest change.CrossRef |

Scott JM, Davis FW, McGhie RG, Wright RG, Groves C, Estes J (2001) Nature reserves: DO they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity? Ecological Applications 11, 999–1007.
Nature reserves: DO they capture the full range of America’s biological diversity?CrossRef |

Stahelin R (1943) Factors influencing the natural restocking of high-altitude burns by coniferous trees in the central Rocky Mountains. Ecology 24, 19–30.
Factors influencing the natural restocking of high-altitude burns by coniferous trees in the central Rocky Mountains.CrossRef |

Taylor AH (1995) Forest expansion and climate change in the mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) zone, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, USA. Arctic and Alpine Research 27, 207–216.
Forest expansion and climate change in the mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) zone, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, USA.CrossRef |

Turner MG, Romme WH (1994) Landscape dynamics in crown-fire ecosystems. Landscape Ecology 9, 59–77.
Landscape dynamics in crown-fire ecosystems.CrossRef |

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (2015). PLANTS database. Available at http://plants.usda.gov [Verified 7 September 2016]

van Wagtendonk JW (2007) The history and evolution of wildland fire use. Fire Ecology 3, 3–17.
The history and evolution of wildland fire use.CrossRef |

Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313, 940–943.
Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XotFCitbo%3D&md5=63b22aab2b41b6316345dc06d421f040CAS | 16825536PubMed |

Zhao F, Keane R, Zhu Z, Huang C (2015) Comparing historical and current wildfire regimes in the Northern Rocky Mountains using a landscape succession model. Forest Ecology and Management 343, 9–21.
Comparing historical and current wildfire regimes in the Northern Rocky Mountains using a landscape succession model.CrossRef |



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (93 KB) Export Citation