Federal fire managers’ perceptions of the importance, scarcity and substitutability of suppression resourcesCrystal S. Stonesifer A B , David E. Calkin A and Michael S. Hand A
A US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 800 East Beckwith Avenue, Missoula, MT 59801, USA.
B Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
International Journal of Wildland Fire 26(7) 598-603 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF16124
Submitted: 12 July 2016 Accepted: 29 December 2016 Published: 27 February 2017
Wildland firefighting in the United States is a complex and costly enterprise. While there are strong seasonal signatures for fire occurrence in specific regions of the United States, spatiotemporal occurrence of wildfire activity can have high inter-annual variability. Suppression resources come from a variety of jurisdictions and provide a wide range of skills, experience and associated mobility and logistical needs. Dispatch centres and regional and national resource allocation centres move suppression resources to respond to demand. However, little is known about the decision-making processes driving the allocation of limited resources at the national scale, particularly during periods of increased resource scarcity. Moreover, an understanding of these systems provides no insight into the impressions from the field regarding the value and relative scarcity of specific resources. We designed and implemented an online survey of United States Forest Service employees who have direct or indirect responsibility for ordering suppression resources, with the main objective of identifying which resources the field perceived to be most important, most scarce and which were without acceptable substitutes. In this research note, we present a preliminary overview of a selection of results of our survey and discuss the next steps for potential future analyses of the dataset.
Additional keywords: fire economics, fire management, fire suppression.
ReferencesBroyles G (2011) Fireline production rates. USDA Forest Service, National Technology & Development Program, Fire Management Report 1151–1805 (San Dimas, CA)
Calkin DE, Gebert KM, Jones JG, Neilson RP (2005) Forest Service large fire area burned and suppression expenditure trends, 1970–2002. Journal of Forestry 103, 179–183.
Calkin DE, Stonesifer CS, Thompson MP, McHugh CW (2014) Large airtanker use and outcomes in suppressing wildland fires in the United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 259–271.
| Large airtanker use and outcomes in suppressing wildland fires in the United States.CrossRef |
Holmes TP, Calkin DE (2013) Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 22, 246–255.
| Econometric analysis of fire suppression production functions for large wildland fires.CrossRef |
Katuwal H, Calkin DE, Hand MS (2016) Production and efficiency of large wildland fire suppression effort: a stochastic frontier analysis. Journal of Environmental Management 166, 227–236.
| Production and efficiency of large wildland fire suppression effort: a stochastic frontier analysis.CrossRef |
National Interagency Coordination Center (NICC) (2016) National interagency mobilization guide. NICC. (Boise, ID) Available at http://www.nifc.gov/nicc/mobguide/Mobilization_Guide.pdf [Verified 1 July 2016]
NICC (2017) Wildland fire summaries 2000–2015. National Interagency Coordination Center (Boise, ID) Available at https://www.nifc.gov/fireInfo/fireInfo_statistics.html [Verified 23 January 2017]
National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) (2016) Interagency standards for fire and fire aviation operations. Interagency Standards for Fire and Fire Aviation Operations Group (Boise, ID) Available at https://www.nifc.gov/policies/pol_ref_redbook.html [Verified 1 July 2016]
National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) (2008) NWCG data standard: fire resource kind, category, and type. National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Available at http://www.nwcg.gov/sites/default/files/stds/fire_resource_kct/values.pdf [Verified 1 July 2016]
US Department of Homeland Security (2008) National incident management system. (Federal Emergency Management Agency: Washington, DC) Available at http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/NIMS_core.pdf [Verified 8 July 2016]
USDA Forest Service (2013) National rappel operations guide. Fire and Aviation Management (Boise, ID) Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/aviation/av_library/NROG/USFS%20NROG%202013.pdf [Verified 1 July 2016]