International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
REVIEW (Open Access)

Air quality policy and fire management responses addressing smoke from wildland fires in the United States and Australia

Joshua C. Hyde A G , Kara M. Yedinak A , Alan F. Talhelm A , Alistair M. S. Smith A , David M. J. S. Bowman B , Fay H. Johnston C , Peter Lahm D , Mark Fitch E and Wade T. Tinkham F
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Idaho Fire Institute for Research and Education (IFIRE), College of Natural Resources, University of Idaho, 709 South Deakin Street, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

B School of Biological Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas. 7000, Australia.

C Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas. 7000, Australia.

D Fire and Aviation Management, USDA Forest Service, 201 14th Street South West, Washington, DC 20250, USA.

E National Park Service Fire Management Program Center 3833 South Development Avenue, Boise, ID 83705, USA.

F Colorado State University, Forestry Rangeland Stewardship, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.

G Corresponding author. Email: jhyde@uidaho.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 26(5) 347-363 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF16154
Submitted: 1 May 2016  Accepted: 15 February 2017   Published: 4 April 2017

Abstract

Wildland fire emissions degrade air quality and visibility, having adverse economic, health and visibility impacts at large spatial scales globally. Air quality regulations can constrain the goals of landscape resilience and management of fire-dependent ecosystems. Here, we review the air quality regulatory framework in the United States, comparing this framework with that of Australia. In the United States, wildland fire management and air quality policies have evolved independently, yet interact to meet diverse public needs. Australian policy development is more recent and decentralised. We find that (1) for maxiumum effectiveness, smoke and fire regulatory frameworks must keep pace with scientific evidence, environmental and social change, and be accompanied by clear regulatory guidance; (2) episodic, non-stationary qualities of fire, and its role in ecosystems, pose specific challenges to regulators and policy-makers; and (3) the complexity of industry-focused air quality policies often leads to unintended consequences for fire management. More research is needed to create and implement more effective fire and air policies and better prepare social-ecological systems to address the challenges of climate change mitigation. These insights may be helpful for countries initially developing complementary fire and air policies, especially as the role of fire becomes more important geopolitically and globally.

Additional keywords: emissions, regulatory, smoke management.


References

Abatzoglou JT, Williams AP (2016) Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113, 11770–11775.
Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xhs1elur3K&md5=31fba046ed9ce3f66e307429597a31b7CAS | open url image1

Achtemeier GL (2002) ‘Super-fog’ –A combination of smoke and water vapor that produces zero visibility over roadways. In ‘12th joint conference on the applications of air pollution meteorology with A&WMA’, 20–24 May 2002, Norfolk, VA. pp. 15–16 (American Metrological Society: Boston, MA).

Achtemeier GL (2009) On the formation and persistence of superfog in woodland smoke Meteorological Applications 16, 215–225.
On the formation and persistence of superfog in woodland smokeCrossRef | open url image1

ACT (2003) ‘Inquiry into the Operational Response to the January 2003 Bushfires in the ACT’, pp. 1–296. (Department of Urban Services, ACT Government: Canberra)

Adetona C, Reinhardt TE, Domitrovich J, Broyles G, Adetona AM, Kleinman MT, Ottmar RD, Naeher LP (2016) Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public International Forum for Respiratory Research 28, 95–139.
Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the publicCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC28Xjt1yjtrg%3D&md5=c0d65856913a801dad624097e34b4d51CAS | open url image1

AFAC (2015) Risk management framework – Smoke hazard and greenhouse gas emissions. Report for National Burning project – Subproject 3, pp. 1–56. AFAC, Melbourne.

AFAC (2016) Fire danger ratings. Available at www.fireandbiodiversity.org.au/_literature../AFAC_Fire_Danger_Ratings_explained [Verified 30 July 2016]

Agee JK (1993) ‘Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests.’ (Island Press: Washington, DC)

Agee JK (1996) Achieving conservation biology objectives with fire in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Technology 10, 417–421.

Allen CD, Savage M, Falk DA, Suckling KF, Swetnam TW, Schulke T, Stacey PB, Morgan P, Hoffman M, Klingel JT (2002) Ecological restoration of south-western ponderosa pine ecosystems: a broad perspective. Ecological Applications 12, 1418–1433.
Ecological restoration of south-western ponderosa pine ecosystems: a broad perspective.CrossRef | open url image1

Arkle RS, Pilliod DS, Welty JL (2012) Pattern and process of prescribed fires influence effectiveness at reducing wildfire severity in dry coniferous forests. Forest Ecology and Management 276, 174–184.
Pattern and process of prescribed fires influence effectiveness at reducing wildfire severity in dry coniferous forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (1974) Environment Protection Act, No. 164. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2004A00220 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (1975a) National parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, No. 12. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2004A00234 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (1975b) Australian Heritage Commission Act, No. 57. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2005C00069 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (1994) National Environment Protection Council Act, No. 126. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2016C00844 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (1998) National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure, No. GN37. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/file/1998GN37 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Federal Register of Legislation (2016) National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure, F2016C00215. Available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2016c00215 [Verified 17 March 2017]

Australian Parliament (2015) National Clean Air Agreement: towards a clean air future for all Australians, pp. 1–13. (Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra).

Baty DW, Sune JM, Hinton DO (1977) The Pittsburgh air pollution episode of November 17–21, 1975: air quality, report no. EPA-600/1–77–014, pp. 1–41. (US EPA Office of Research and Development: Research Triangle Park, NC).

Bell T, Adams M (2009) Smoke from wildfires and prescribed burning in Australia: effects on human health and ecosystems. In ‘Developments in environmental science, volume 8: wildland fires and air pollution’. (Eds A Bytnerowicz, M Arbaugh, A Riebau and C Andersen) Ch. 8, pp. 289–316. (Elsevier: Amsterdam).

Bell T, Oliveras I (2006) Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Management 38, 867–878.
Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Biswell HH (1963) Research in wildland fire ecology in California. In ‘Proceedings of the second annual tall timbers fire ecology conference’, Tallahassee, FL. pp. 63–97. (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

Blades JJ, Shook SR, Hall TE (2014) Smoke management of wildland and prescribed fire: understanding public preferences and trade-offs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44, 1344–1355.
Smoke management of wildland and prescribed fire: understanding public preferences and trade-offs.CrossRef | open url image1

Booz Allen Hamilton (2015) 2014 Quadrennial Fire Review Final Report. Prepared for the USDA Forest Service Fire & Aviation Management and Department of the Interior Office of Wildland Fire, pp. 1–96. (Washington, DC).

Bowman DMJS, Balch JK, Artaxo P, Bond WJ, Carlson JM, Cochrane MA, D’Antonio CM, DeFries RS, Doyle JC, Harrison SP, Johnston FH, Keeley JE, Krawchuk MA, Kull CA, Marston JB, Moritz MA, Prentice IC, Roos CI, Scott AC, Swetnam TW, van der Werf GR, Pyne SJ (2009) Fire in the Earth system. Science 324, 481–484.
Fire in the Earth system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXkvVGmtb8%3D&md5=96f7dafa4667da9a81da3ac8af295e1bCAS | open url image1

Bowman DMJS, Murphy BP, Boer MM, Bradstock RA, Cary GJ, Cochrane MA, Fensham RJ, Krawchuk MA, Price OF, Williams RJ (2013) Forest fire management, climate change, and the risk of catastrophic carbon losses Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, 66–67.
Forest fire management, climate change, and the risk of catastrophic carbon lossesCrossRef | open url image1

Bradstock RA, Boer M, Cary GJ, Price OF, Williams RJ, Barrett D, Cook G, Gill AM, Hutley LBW, Keith H, Maier SW, Meyer M, Roxburgh SH, Russell-Smith J (2012) Modelling the potential for prescribed burning to mitigate carbon emissions from wildfires in fire-prone forests of Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 629–639.
Modelling the potential for prescribed burning to mitigate carbon emissions from wildfires in fire-prone forests of Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtlGmsrfE&md5=ae5c740aa8037bb44e237dedfe0c697bCAS | open url image1

Caamano-Isorna F, Figueiras A, Sastre I, Montes-Martínez A, Taracido M, Piñeiro-Lamas M (2011) Respiratory and mental health effects of wildfires: an ecological study in Galician municipalities (north-west Spain). Environmental Health 10, 48
Respiratory and mental health effects of wildfires: an ecological study in Galician municipalities (north-west Spain).CrossRef | open url image1

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) (2012) Guidance document on achievement determination Canadian ambient air quality standards for fine particulate matter and ozone. Document no. PN 1483, 978–1-896997–91–9 Available at http://www.ccme.ca/files/Resources/air/aqms/pn_1483_gdad_eng.pdf [Verified 17 March 2017]

California Air Resources Board (2015) Key events in the history of air quality in California. (California Environmental Protection Agency – Air Resources Board) Available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/html/brochure/history.htm [Verified 5 December 2016]

Chambers DM, Sinclair GG, McArthus AG, Burbury DL (1967) Fire prevention and suppression – Report of committee appointed by His Excellency the Administrator-in-Council to make recommendations with respect to future measures in consequences of the bush fire disaster of 7th February, 1967. Tasmanian Parliament, No. 28, pp. 1–38. Tasmanian Government, Hobart.)

Clark JS, Royall PD (1996) Local and regional sediment charcoal evidence for fire regimes in presettlement north-eastern North America. Journal of Ecology 84, 365–382.
Local and regional sediment charcoal evidence for fire regimes in presettlement north-eastern North America.CrossRef | open url image1

Clark P (2016) The great land rush. Indonesia: saving the earth. Financial Times. Available at https://ig.ft.com/sites/land-rush-investment/indonesia/ [Verified 20 February 2017]

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) (2010) Clean air management profile: Indonesia. (Clean Air Initiative – Asia Center: Manila, Philippines)

Crutzen PJ, Andreae MO (1990) Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science 250, 1669–1678.
Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmsF2htQ%3D%3D&md5=6addf649fcdee2a704d325829d57eb85CAS | open url image1

CSIRO (2016) Our history. Available at http://www.csiro.au/en/About/History-achievements/Our-history [Verified 5 December 2016]

CWFS (2005) Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: a vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks. Catalogue no. Fo134-1/2005E-PDF. A report to the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, prepared by the Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy assistant deputy ministers task group, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, pp. 1–25. (Edmonton, AB)

Damoah R, Spichtinger N, Forster C, James P, Mattis I, Wandinger U, Beirle S, Wagner T, Stohl A (2004) Around the world in 17 days – hemispheric-scale transport of forest fire smoke from Russia in May 2003. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4, 1311–1321.
Around the world in 17 days – hemispheric-scale transport of forest fire smoke from Russia in May 2003.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXnvFaqt7c%3D&md5=bf635e01f2f9f0aa42fb90193b39f454CAS | open url image1

Dees CS, Clark JD, VanManen FT (2001) Florida panther habitat use in response to prescribed fire. The Journal of Wildlife Management 65, 141–147.
Florida panther habitat use in response to prescribed fire.CrossRef | open url image1

Dennekamp M, Abramson MJ (2011) The effects of bushfire smoke on respiratory health. Respirology 16, 198–209.
The effects of bushfire smoke on respiratory health.CrossRef | open url image1

Dodge M (1972) Forest fuel accumulation – a growing problem. Science 177, 139–142.
Forest fuel accumulation – a growing problem.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvgslGmsQ%3D%3D&md5=1d03778c5638381e4ba047357940066aCAS | open url image1

Ellis S, Kanowski P, Whelan R (2004) National inquiry on bushfire mitigation and management, pp. 1–451. (Council of Australian Governments, Commonwealth of Australia: Canberra).

Emergency Management Victoria (2015) Scoping a new national fire danger rating system. Available at https://www.emv.vic.gov.au/news/scoping-a-new-national-fire-danger-rating-system [Verified 17 March 2017].

Engel KH (2013) Perverse incentives: the case of wildfire smoke regulation. Ecology Law Quarterly 40, 623–672.

Esplin B, Gill A, Enright N (2003) ‘Report of the inquiry into the 2002–2003 Victorian bushfires.’ (State Government of Victoria: Melbourne).

European Environment Agency (EEA) (2012) Particulate matter from natural sources and related reporting under the EU Air Quality Directive in 2008 and 2009. EEA Technical Report Number 10/2012. (Copenhagen)

Executive Office of the President (2013a) The President’s climate action plan. (Executive Office of the President: Washington, DC) Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/image/president27sclimateactionplan.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Executive Office of the President (2013b) Executive order 13653 of November 1, 2013. Preparing the United States for the impacts of climate change. (Executive Office of the President: Washington, DC) Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/11/01/executive-order-prEPAring-united-states-impacts-climate-change [Verified 5 December 2016]

Fensterstock JC, Frankhauser RK (1968) Thanksgiving 1966 Air pollution episode in the eastern United States, US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, National Air Pollution Control Administration, Publication No. AP-45, pp. 1–52. (Durham, NC).

Fox-Hughes P, Harris R, Lee G, Grose M, Bindoff N (2014) Future fire danger climatology for Tasmania, Australia, using a dynamically downscaled regional climate model. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 309–321.
Future fire danger climatology for Tasmania, Australia, using a dynamically downscaled regional climate model.CrossRef | open url image1

Frost CC (1998) Presettlement fire frequency regimes of the United States: a first approximation. In ‘Proceedings of the 20th tall timbers fire ecology conference’, 7–10 May, Boise, ID. (Eds TL Pruden, LA Brennan) pp. 70–81. (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

Gazzard R, McMorrow J, Aylen J (2016) Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from fire and rescue services, forestry and cross-sector groups. Philosophical Transactions B: Biological Sciences 371, 20150341
Wildfire policy and management in England: an evolving response from fire and rescue services, forestry and cross-sector groups.CrossRef | open url image1

GCVTC (1996) Report of the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. June 1996. Available at http://www.wrapair.org/WRAP/reports/GCVTCFinal.PDF [Verified 5 December 2016]

Godwin D, Long A, Lahm P (2014) Basic smoke management practices for prescribed burning. Available at http://southernfireexchange.org/SFE_Publications/factsheets/2014-1.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Grant TA, Madden EM, Shaffer TL, Dockens JS (2010) Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and passerine birds in northern mixed-grass prairie. The Journal of Wildlife Management 74, 1841–1851.
Effects of prescribed fire on vegetation and passerine birds in northern mixed-grass prairie.CrossRef | open url image1

Haikerwal A, Akram M, Del Monaco A, Smith K, Sim MR, Meyer M, Tonkin AM, Abramson MJ, Dennekamp M (2015) Impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure during wildfires on cardiovascular health outcomes. Journal of the American Heart Association 4, e001653
Impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure during wildfires on cardiovascular health outcomes.CrossRef | open url image1

Hardy CC, Arno SF (Eds) (1996) The use of fire in forest restoration. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-GTR-341, pp. 1–11. (Ogden, UT)

Hardy CC, Ottmar RD, Peterson JL, Core JE, Seamon P (2001) ‘Smoke management guide for prescribed and wildland fire, 2001 edn.’ (National Wildfire Coordinating Group: Boise, ID)

Helfand WH, Lazarus J, Theerman P (2001) Donora, Pennsylvania: an environmental disaster of the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health 91, 553
Donora, Pennsylvania: an environmental disaster of the 20th century.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3M3ivVKisQ%3D%3D&md5=23932c7db2c9415b134032b36aac8c31CAS | open url image1

Hope ES, McKenney DW, Pedlar HG, Stocks BJ, Gauthier S (2016) Wildfire suppression costs for Canada under a changing climate PLoS One 11, e0157425
Wildfire suppression costs for Canada under a changing climateCrossRef | open url image1

Hunt G (2014) Agreed statement: environment ministers meeting. Commonwealth of Australia. Available at http://www.environment.gov.au/minister/hunt/2014/pubs/mr20140429.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Hurteau M, Brooks ML (2011) Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems. BioScience 61, 139–146.
Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems.CrossRef | open url image1

Hurteau M, North M (2009) Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7, 409–414.
Fuel treatment effects on tree-based forest carbon storage and emissions under modeled wildfire scenarios.CrossRef | open url image1

Hyde JC, Blades J, Hall TE, Ottmar RD, Smith AMS (2016) Smoke management photographic guide: a visual aid for communicating impacts. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-925. (Portland, OR)

IPCC (2013) ‘Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.’ (Eds TF Stocker, D Qin, G-K Plattner, MMB Tignor, SK Allen, J Boschung, A Nauels, Y Xia, V Bex, PM Midgley) (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK)

Jaffe DA, Wigder NL (2012) Ozone production from wildfires: a critical review. Atmospheric Environment 51, 1–10.
Ozone production from wildfires: a critical review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XjtFGqtbo%3D&md5=6d8257406a33ddc13932b0e005823895CAS | open url image1

Johnson AS, Hale PE (2002) The historical foundations of prescribed burning for wildlife: a south-eastern perspective. In ‘Proceedings: the role of fire for non-game wildlife management and community restoration: traditional uses and new directions’. (Eds FW Mark, KR Russell and CE Moorman) USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, General Technical Report NE-288. (Newtown Square, PA)

Keiter R (2006) The law of fire: reshaping public land policy in an era of ecology and litigation. Environmental Law 36, 301–386.

Kiester E (1999) A darkness in Donora: when smog killed 20 people in a Pennsylvania mill town in 1948, the clean air movement got its start. Available at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-darkness-in-donora-174128118/?no-ist [Verified 5 December 2016]

Komarek EV (1971) Controlled burning and air pollution: an ecological review. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th tall timbers fire ecology conference’, 20–21 August 1970, Fredericton, NB. pp. 141–174. (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

Korontzi S, Justice CO, Scholes RJ (2003) Influence of timing and spatial extent of vegetation fires in southern Africa on atmospheric emissions. Journal of Arid Environments 54, 395–404.
Influence of timing and spatial extent of vegetation fires in southern Africa on atmospheric emissions.CrossRef | open url image1

Kozlowski TT (1974) ‘Fire and ecosystems.’ (Academic Press Inc.:New York, NY)

Lahm P (2015) Wildland fire air quality response program. Narrated presentation. Available at http://www.frames.gov/catalog/22895 [Verified 5 December 2016]

Lannom KO, Tinkham WT, Smith AMS, Abatzoglou J, Newingham BA, Hall TE, Morgan P, Strand EK, Paveglio TB, Anderson JW, Sparks AM (2014) Defining extreme wildland fires using geospatial data and ancillary metrics. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23, 322–377.
Defining extreme wildland fires using geospatial data and ancillary metrics.CrossRef | open url image1

Larkin NK, Strand TM, Drury SA, Raffuse SM, Solomon RC, O’Neill SM, Wheeler N, Huang SM, Rorig M, Hafner HR (2012) Final report to the JFSP for project no. 08–1-7–10: Phase 1 of the smoke and emissions model intercomparison project. Joint Fire Science Program, Boise, ID.

Lazaridis M, Latos M, Aleksandropoulou V, Hov Ø, Papayannis A, Tørseth K (2008) Contribution of forest fire emissions to atmospheric pollution in Greece. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 1, 143–158.
Contribution of forest fire emissions to atmospheric pollution in Greece.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsFejsbjJ&md5=e26a3836f08ae7e9c20c8dbb123ca3d6CAS | open url image1

Leenhouts B (1998) Assessment of biomass burning in the conterminous United States. Conservation Biology 2, ART 1

Leopold A, Cain SA, Cottam CM, Gabrielson IN, Kimball TL (1963) Wildlife management in the national parks. American Forestry 69, 32–35.

LeQuire E, Hunter M (2012) Smoke science plan: the path forward. Fire Science Digest 14, 1–12.

Lewis HT (1985) Why Indians burned: specific versus general reasons. In ‘Symposium and workshop on wilderness fire’, 15–18 November 1983, Missoula, MT. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report INT-GTR-182, pp. 75–80.

Lipsett M, Materna B, Stone SL, Therriault S, Blaisdell R, Cook J (2012) Wildfire smoke: a guide for public health officials (revised). Available at http:// oehha.ca.gov/air/risk_assess/wildfirev8.pdf [Verified 2 December 2016]

Liu JC, Pereira G, Uhl SA, Bravo MA, Bell ML (2015) A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke. Environmental Research 136, 120–132.
A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXhvVSms7bJ&md5=2aa6287450fc45c7b3a2132369663d6eCAS | open url image1

Long A, Weiss J, Princevac M, Bartolome C (2014) Superfog: state of the science. Southern Fire Exchange Fact Sheet 2014–2. Available at http://southernfireexchange.org/SFE_Publications/factsheets/2014-2.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Loveridge EW (1944) The fire suppression policy of the US Forest Service. Journal of Forestry 42, 549–554.

Lynn DA, Steigerwald BJ, Ludwig JH (1964) The November–December 1962 air pollution episode in the eastern United States. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Division of Air Pollution, Public Health Service Publication No 999-AP-7, pp. 1–35. (Cincinnati, OH).

McMillan A, Foley G (2014) A history of air quality management. In ‘Air quality management: Canadian perspectives on a global issue’. (Eds E Taylor and A McMillan) pp. 19–28. (Springer: Dordrecht, Netherlands) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7557-2_2

Mell WE, Manzello SL, Maranghides A, Butry D, Rehm RG (2010) The wildland–urban interface fire problem – current approaches and research needs. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, 238–251.
The wildland–urban interface fire problem – current approaches and research needs.CrossRef | open url image1

Melvin MA (2012) 2012 national prescribed fire use survey report. (Coalition of Prescribed Fire Councils Inc.) Available at www.stateforesters.org/sites/default/files/publication-documents/2012_National_Prescribed_Fire_Survey.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Mobley HE, Barden CR, Crow AB, Fender DE, Jay DM, Winkworth RC (1976) Southern forestry smoke management guidebook. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report SE-10. (Asheville, NC)

Molenar J (2016) WinHaze. Available at https://www.air-resource.com/resources/downloads.html (Air Resource Specialists) [Verified 5 December 2016]

Morgan G, Sheppeard V, Khalaj B, Ayyar A, Lincoln D, Jalaludin B, Beard J, Corbett S, Lumley T (2010) Effects of bushfire smoke on daily mortality and hospital admissions in Sydney, Australia. Epidemiology 21, 47–55.
Effects of bushfire smoke on daily mortality and hospital admissions in Sydney, Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Moritz MA, Batllori E, Bradstock RA, Gill M, Handmer J, Hessburg PF, Leonard J, McCaffrey S, Odion DC, Schoennagel T, Syphard AD (2014) Learning to coexist with wildfire Nature 515, 58–66.
Learning to coexist with wildfireCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXitFanu77P&md5=ce36b298954e3e2e3ed54dc193decb5cCAS | open url image1

Murphy BP, Bradstock RA, Boer MM, Carter J, Cary GJ, Cochrane MA, Fensham RJ, Russell-Smith J, Williamson GJ, Bowman DMJS (2013) Fire regimes of Australia: a pyrogeographic model system. Journal of Biogeography 40, 1048–1058.
Fire regimes of Australia: a pyrogeographic model system.CrossRef | open url image1

National Environment Protection Council (NEPC) (2011) ‘Methodology for setting air quality standards in Australia: Part A.’ (NEPC: Adelaide).

New South Wales Parliament (1902) Smoke Nuisance Abatement, Act No. 77, 1902, pp. 555–556, New South Wales Parliament, Sydney.

New South Wales Parliament (1961) Clean Air Act, Act No. 69, 1961, pp. 475–500, New South Wales Parliament, Sydney.

New South Wales Parliament (1994) Select Committee on Bushfires. Chairman: P Cochrane, 1–50. Available at http://23.101.218.132/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/D807653D4E8307EDCA256CF6000A89AB?open&refnavid=X [Verified 17 March 2017]

New South Wales Parliament (2002) Report on the Inquiry into the 2001/2002 Bushfires. Joint Select Committee on Bushfires, Parliament of New South Wales, Legislative Assembly. Chairman: J Price, No 26, 1–149.

Northern Territory Parliament (2014) Bushfires Act (amended). Available at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nt/consol_act/ba119/notes.html#endnotes [Verified 23 July 2016]

National Science & Technology Council (2015) Wildland Fire Science and Technology Task Force Final Report, product of the Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction. National Science and Technology Council, Washington DC.

NWCG (2009) Guidance for implementation of federal wildland fire management policy. Available at https://www.nifc.gov/policies/policies_documents/GIFWFMP.pdf [Verified 2 December 2016]

National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) (2014) Ingeragency prescribed fire planning and implementation procedures guide PMS 484. Available at http://www.nwcg.gov/sites/default/files/products/pms484.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

NWCG SmoC (2014) Wildland fire personnel transportation safety guidebook. National Wildfire Coordination Group Smoke Committee and University of Idaho. Available at https://www.frames.gov/download_file/view/3373/2114/ [Verified 12/5/2016].

O’Neill SM, Lahm P (2011) Basic smoke management practices. Available at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1046311.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Ottmar RD (1986) Reducing smoke from prescribed fires: research solution to a management problem. In ‘Annual meeting Northwest Forest Fire Council’, Olympia, WA. Northwest Forest Fire Council, pp. 2–16.

Papanastasis VP (2015) Introduction to Leonidas G. Liacos’ article. Fire Ecology 11, 1–2.

Pechony O, Shindell DT (2010) Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 19167–19170.
Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVGru7rO&md5=facf627f868c57da5feb24ffdae5a067CAS | open url image1

Peterson DL, Hardy CC (2016) The RxCADRE study: a new approach to interdisciplinary fire research. International Journal of Wildland Fire 25, i
The RxCADRE study: a new approach to interdisciplinary fire research.CrossRef | open url image1

Pinchot G (1905) ‘A primer of forestry. Part 2: practical forestry.’ (Government Printing Office: Washington, DC)

POA (1999) Parliament of Australia, history of the Commonwealth’s environmental role. Available at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Completed_inquiries/1999-02/bio/report/c02 [Verified 5 December 2016]

Price OF, Penman TD, Bradstock RA, Boer M, Clarke H (2015) Fire leverage in south-east Australia: the biogeography of prescribed fire effectiveness. Journal of Biogeography 42, 2234–2245.
Fire leverage in south-east Australia: the biogeography of prescribed fire effectiveness.CrossRef | open url image1

Pyne SJ (1995) ‘World fire: the culture of fire on earth.’ (Henry Holt and Company: New York, NY)

Pyne SJ (1997) ‘Fire in America: a cultural history of wildland and rural fire.’ (University of Washington Press: Seattle, WA)

Pyne SJ, Andrews PL, Lave RD (1996) ‘Introduction to wildland fire.’ (John Wiley and Sons Inc.:New York, NY)

Ramanathan V, Carmichael G (2008) Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 1, 221–227.
Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXktVCisbo%3D&md5=a02940692dcbf7e8dd631db30970c291CAS | open url image1

Rappold AG, Cascio WE, Kilaru VJ, Stone SL, Neas LM, Devlin RB, Diaz-Sanchez D (2012) Cardio-respiratory outcomes associated with exposure to wildfire smoke are modified by measures of community health. Environmental Health 11, 71
Cardio-respiratory outcomes associated with exposure to wildfire smoke are modified by measures of community health.CrossRef | open url image1

Reid CE, Brauer M, Johnston F, Jerrett M, Balmes JR, Elliot CT (2016) Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives
Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure.CrossRef | open url image1

Reisen F, Duran SM, Flannigan M, Elliot C, Rideout K (2015) Wildfire smoke and public health risk International Journal of Wildland Fire 24, 1029–1044.
Wildfire smoke and public health riskCrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhvFKksr%2FM&md5=f30a3c81e70a419d3c23976fdc803c48CAS | open url image1

Republic of Indonesia (1999) Government Regulation (PP) No. 41/1999 on Air Pollution Control. Indonesian Government, Jakarta.

Riebau AR, Fox DG (2010) Joint Fire Science Program smoke science plan – version 1.0. Available at http://www.firescience.gov/documents/smoke/2010_JFSP_Smoke_Science_Plan_Final_Version_without_Appendix_B_1.0.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

Rodger GJ (1961) Bush fires of December, 1960 and January, February and March, 1961 in Western Australia. Report of the Royal Commission, pp. 2129–2190. Western Australian Parliament, Perth.

Roth L (2014) Crown land management. NSW Parliamentary Research Service, e-brief 14/2014, 1–16. (New South Wales Parliament, Sydney.

Rothman HK (2005) ‘A test of adversity and strength: wildland fire in the National Park system.’ (USDI: Washington, DC)

Ruckelshaus WD (1970) EPA Order 1110.2 Initial organization of the EPA. 4 December 1970, EPA, Washington, DC.

Sandberg DV (1986) Progress in reducing emissions from prescribed forest burning in western Washington and western Oregon. In ‘Annual meeting of the Pacific Northwest International Section, Air Pollution Control Association’, 19–21 November 1986, Eugene, OR. pp. 24–33.

Sandberg DV, Dost FN (1990) Effects of prescribed fire on air quality and human health. In ‘Natural and prescribed fire’. (Eds JD Walstad, SR Radoseich, DV Sandberg) pp. 191–218. (Oregon State University Press: Corvallis, OR).

Schweizer DW, Cisneros R (2016) Forest fire policy: change conventional thinking of smoke management to prioritize long-term air quality and public health. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 9, 33–36.
Forest fire policy: change conventional thinking of smoke management to prioritize long-term air quality and public health.CrossRef | open url image1

Seinfeld JH (2004) Air pollution: a half century of progress. AIChE Journal. American Institute of Chemical Engineers 50, 1096–1108.
Air pollution: a half century of progress.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXks12isLk%3D&md5=7177d0071355a411fb24c18877eacadaCAS | open url image1

Shumway JM, Otterstrom SM (2001) Spatial patterns of migration and income change in the mountain West: the dominance of service-based, amenity-rich counties The Professional Geographer 53, 492–502.
Spatial patterns of migration and income change in the mountain West: the dominance of service-based, amenity-rich countiesCrossRef | open url image1

Silcox FA (1935) Memorandum to regional foresters, 25 May 1935. USDA Forest Service, Office of Fire and Aviation Management. (Washington, DC)

Simorangkir D, Sumantri (2002) A review of legal, regulatory and institutional aspects of forest and land fires in Indonesia. Available at http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/ff_legal_indonesia.pdf [Verified 17 March 2017]

Simpson IJ, Akahi SK, Barletta B, Blake NJ, Choi Y, Diskin GS, Fried A, Fuelberg HE, Meinardi S, Rowland FS, Vay SA, Weinheimer AJ, Wennberg PO, Wiebring P, Wisthaler A, Yang M, Yokelson RJ, Blake DR (2011) Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C-1–C-10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 6445–6463.
Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C-1–C-10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1yksL3J&md5=164d726e8c21769330fc0effcd6c7747CAS | open url image1

Smith AMS, Kolden CA, Tinkham WT, Talhelm A, Marshall JD, Hudak AT, Boschetti L, Falkowski MJ, Greenberg JA, Anderson JW, Kliskey A, Alessa L, Keefe RF, Gosz J (2014) Remote-sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems Remote Sensing of Environment 154, 322–337.
Remote-sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystemsCrossRef | open url image1

Smith AMS, Kolden CA, Paveglio T, Cochrane MA, Mortitz MA, Bowman DMJS, Hoffman CM, Lutz J, Queen LP, Hudak AT, Alessa L, Kliskey AD, Goetz S, Yedinak KM, Boschetti L, Higuera PE, Flannigan M, Strand EK, van Wagtendonk JW, Anderson JW, Stocks BJ, Abatzoglou JT (2016) The science of firescapes: achieving fire-resilient communities. Bioscience 66, 130–146.
The science of firescapes: achieving fire-resilient communities.CrossRef | open url image1

Sneeuwjagt RJ, Kline TS, Stephens SL (2013) Opportunities for improved fire use and management in California: lessons from Western Australia. Fire Ecology 9, 14–25.
Opportunities for improved fire use and management in California: lessons from Western Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Sodemann H, Pommier M, Arnold SR, Monks SA, Stebel K, Burkhart JF, Hair JW, Diskin GS, Clerbaux C, Coheur PF, Hurtmans D, Schlager H, Blechschmidt AM, Kristjansson JE, Stohl A (2011) Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 3631–3651.
Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXosFeqs7o%3D&md5=c13601028079fd05007f402576807211CAS | open url image1

State of California (2014) California smoke information. Available at http://californiasmokeinfo.blogspot.com/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

State of Idaho (2014) Idaho smoke information. Available at http://idsmoke.blogspot.com/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

State of Montana, State of Idaho, USDI, USDA (2015) Montana–Idaho interagency smoke management integration strategy for the mitigation of public health and welfare impacts caused by smoke from unplanned ignitions. pp. 1–12. Available at http://www.fs.fed.us/r1/fire/nrcg/Op_plans/2015FINALSmokeStrategy.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

State of Oregon (2013) Oregon wildfire response protocol for severe smoke episodes. Available at http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/burning/docs/WFresponse.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

State of Oregon (2014) Oregon smoke information. Available at http://oregonsmoke.blogspot.com/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

State of Washington (2014) Washington smoke information. Available at http://wasmoke.blogspot.com/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

Stebbings JH, Fogleman DG, McClain KE, Townsend MC (1976) Effect of the Pittsburg air pollution episode upon pulmonary function in school children. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 26, 547–553.
Effect of the Pittsburg air pollution episode upon pulmonary function in school children.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaE283htl2ktQ%3D%3D&md5=724eb085fc43d449948391ab36ef7c05CAS | open url image1

Stephens SL, Ruth LW (2005) Federal forest-fire policy in the United States. Ecological Applications 15, 532–542.
Federal forest-fire policy in the United States.CrossRef | open url image1

Stern AC (1982) History of air pollution legislation in the United States. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 32, 44–61.
History of air pollution legislation in the United States.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaL38%2FpvV2gsA%3D%3D&md5=d7a8678b4f21e14035c896a9cb6bfc09CAS | open url image1

Sullivan JL (1965) Australian air pollution legislation. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 15, 429–432.
Australian air pollution legislation.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaF28%2Fgt1eqtw%3D%3D&md5=df480a4b56833bc626fb443490cb503eCAS | open url image1

Tasmanian Government (2013) 2013 Tasmanian Bushfires Inquiry, 1–263. Tasmanian Government, Hobart.

Tasmanian Government (2016) An inquiry into the response to recent fire in the remote Tasmanian wilderness affecting the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area and the lessons learnt from those fires.(Tasmanian Government, Hobart) Available at http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Environment_and_Communications/Tasmanian_Bushfires/Submissions [Verified 5 December 2016]

Theobald DM, Romme WH (2007) Expansion of the US wildland–urban interface. Landscape and Urban Planning 83, 340–354.
Expansion of the US wildland–urban interface.CrossRef | open url image1

Urbanski S (2014) Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: emission factors. Forest Ecology and Management 317, 51–60.
Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: emission factors.CrossRef | open url image1

Urbanski SP, Hao WM, Nordgren B (2011) The wildland fire emission inventory: western United States emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainly. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 12973–13000.
The wildland fire emission inventory: western United States emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainly.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XjsV2ru7c%3D&md5=c7846e4ce9d379e1acf33d227d5b2033CAS | open url image1

US Congress (1955) Air Pollution Control Act. PL 84–159. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC)

US Congress (1963) The Clean Air Act. PL 88–206. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

US Congress (1970) Clean Air Act Amendments. PL91–604. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

US Congress (1977) Clean Air Act Amendments. PL 95–95. (US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

US Congress (1990) Clean Air Act Amendments. PL 101–549. (US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

US Congress (2009) Federal Land Assistance Management and Enhancement Act. PL 111–88.

US EPA (1978) Impact of forestry burning upon air quality: a state-of-the-art-knowledge characterization in Washington and Oregon. US EPA, document no. EPA 910/9–78–052, pp. 1–272. Seattle, WA.

US EPA (1986) Guideline on the identification and use of air quality data affected by exceptional events. US EPA, document no. EPA-450/4–85–007, pp. 1–43. Washington, DC,

US EPA (1992) Prescribed burning background document and technical information document for prescribed burning best available control measures. US EPA, document no. EPA-450/2–92–003, pp. 1–346. Washington, DC.

US EPA (1996) Memorandum from Nichols, MD. Assistant administrator for air and radiation re: areas affected by PM-10 natural events (US EPA: Washington DC) Available at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/aqmguide/collection/cp2/19960530_nichols_pm10_natural_events.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016].

US EPA (1998) Interim air quality policy on wildland and prescribed fires, pp. 1–46. US EPA, Washington, DC.

US EPA (2012) Report to Congress on black carbon, US EPA, document no. EPA-450/R-12–001, pp. 1–388. Washington, DC.

US EPA (2014) Inventory of US greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2014. US EPA, document no. EPA 430-R-14–003, pp. 1–494. Washington, DC.

US EPA (2015a) Draft guidance on the preparation of exceptional events demonstrations for wildfire events that may influence ozone concentrations. Available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-11/documents/o3_draft_wildfire_guidance.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016].

US EPA (2015b) 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) data. Available at https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/2011-national-emissions-inventory-nei-data [Verified 5 December 2016]

US EPA (2016a) National ambient air quality standards table. Available at https://www.epa.gov/criteria-air-pollutants/naaqs-table [Verified 5 December 2016].

US EPA (2016b) Treatment of data influence by exceptional events. Federal Register 81, 68216–68282. . Available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/exceptional_events_rule_revisions_2060-as02_final.pdf [Verified 17 March 2017]

US EPA (2016c) AirNow. Available at http://www.airnow.gov/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

US EPA (2016d) National emissions inventory. Available at https://www.epa.gov/air-emissions-inventories/national-emissions-inventory [Verified 5 December 2016]

US Federal Register (1999) 40 CFR Part 51: regional haze regulations; final rule. Federal Register 64, 35714–35774.

US Federal Register (2007) 40 CFR Parts 50 and 51: treatment of data influenced by exceptional events; final rule. Federal Register 72, 13560–13581.

US Federal Register (2010) 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93: revisions to the general conformity regulations; final rule. Federal Register 75, 17253–17279.

USDA, UDI and US EPA (2016) Wildland fire and air quality. US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-04/documents/2016_04_04_joint_wildland_fire_air_quality_messages.epa_usda_doi.final_.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

USDA and USDI (2010) Federal land managers’ air quality related values work group (FLAG): phase I report – revised. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR-2010/232. (Denver, CO)

USDA and USDI (2014) The National Strategy: the final phase in the development of the national cohesive wildland fire management strategy. Available at http://www.forestsandrangelands.gov/strategy/documents/strategy/CSPhaseIIINationalStrategyApr2014.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016]

USDI, USDA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, US EPA, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Association of State Foresters (2001) Review and update of the 1995 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy. Available at https://www.nifc.gov/PIO_bb/Policy/FederalWildlandFireManagementPolicy_2001.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016)

USDI and USDA (1995) Federal wildland fire management and policy and program review final report. Available at http://www.forestsandrangelands.gov/strategy/documents/foundational/1995_fed_wildland_fire_policy_program_report.pdf [Verified 5 December 2016].

Vaillant NM, Kolden CA, Smith AMS (2016) Assessing landscape vulnerability to wildfire in the USA. Current Forestry Reports 2, 201–213.
Assessing landscape vulnerability to wildfire in the USA.CrossRef | open url image1

van Wagtendonk JW (2007) The history and evolution of wildland fire use. Fire Ecology 3, 3–17.
The history and evolution of wildland fire use.CrossRef | open url image1

Victoria Parliament (1939) Transcript of evidence and report of the Royal Commission to inquire into the causes of and measures taken to prevent the bush fires of January, 1939, and to protect life and property and the measures to be taken to prevent bush fires in Victoria and to protect life and property in the event of future bush fires, pp. 1–34. (Victorian Government Printer: Melbourne)

Victoria Parliament (1957) An act to make provision for abating the pollution of the air, No. 6125, 1008–1015. Available at http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/hist_act/caa195876.pdf [Verified 17 March 2017]

Victoria Parliament (2010) Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission Final Report, vols 1–4. Available at http://www.royalcommission.vic.gov.au/Commission-Reports/Final-Report.html [Verified 15 March 2017]

Victoria Parliament (2016) Hazelwood mine fire inquiry. Vols 1–4. Available at http://hazelwoodinquiry.vic.gov.au/ [Verified 1 August 2016]

Vincent CH, Janson LA, Bjelopera JP (2014) Federal land ownership: overview and data. Congressional Research Service, 7–5700, R42346, pp. 1–28. Available at https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42346.pdf [Verified 17 March 2017]

Wade D (2014) A need for accurate national prescribed fire statistics. The Forestry Source, January 2014, p. 7.

Ward DE, Lamb RC (1971) Prescribed burning and air quality – current research in the south. In ‘Proceedings of the 10th tall timbers fire ecology conference’, 20–21 August 1970, Fredericton, NB. pp. 129–140. (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

Weaver H (1968) Fire and its relationship to ponderosa pine. In ‘Proceedings of the 7th tall timbers fire ecology conference’, 1967, Lake County, CA. pp. 127–149 (Tall Timbers Research Station: Tallahassee, FL)

WESTAR (2015a) Western States Air Resources Council: about Western States Air Resources Council. Available at http://www.westar.org/about.html [Verified 5 December 2016]

Westerling AL, Swetnam TW (2003) Interannual to decadal drought and wildfire in the western United States. Eos 84,
Interannual to decadal drought and wildfire in the western United States.CrossRef | open url image1

Westerling AL, Hidalgo HG, Cayan DR, Swetnam TW (2006) Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313, 940–943.
Warming and earlier spring increase western US forest wildfire activity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XotFCitbo%3D&md5=cbcea74aa07cca2474f3f7a57e8a12acCAS | open url image1

Wiedinmyer C, Hurteau MD (2010) Prescribed fire as a means of reducing forest carbon emissions in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 44, 1926–1932.
Prescribed fire as a means of reducing forest carbon emissions in the western United States.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhvVGqurY%3D&md5=0ef8685cdc633ae43895ccf2ff71ff99CAS | open url image1

Williamson GJ, Bowman DMJS, Price OF, Henderson SB, Johnston FH A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the health effects of wildfire and prescribed fire smoke regimes. Environmental Research Letters

World Bank (2016) The cost of fire: an economic analysis of Indonesia’s 2015 fire crisis. Available at http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/776101467990969768/The-cost-of-fire-an-economic-analysis-of-Indonesia-s-2015-fire-crisis [Verified 20 February 2017]

WRAP (2015a) Western Regional Air Partnership. Available at http://www.wrapair2.org/ [Verified 5 December 2016]

WRAP (2015b) Welcome to the WRAP Fire Emissions Tracking System (FETS). Available at http://wrapfets.org/index.cfm [Verified 5 December 2016]

Xanthopoulos G (2008) Who should be responsible for forest fires? Lessons from the Greek experience. In ‘Proceedings of the second international symposium on fire economics, planning, and policy: a global view’, 19–22 April 2004, Cordoba, Spain. (Ed. A González-Cabán) USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-208, pp. 189–201.


Full Text PDF (690 KB) Export Citation

View Altmetrics