International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Relationships among burn severity, forest canopy structure and bat activity from spring burns in oak–hickory forests

Michael J. Lacki A F , Luke E. Dodd B , Nicholas S. Skowronski C , Matthew B. Dickinson D and Lynne K. Rieske E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

B Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475, USA.

C USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

D USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Forestry Sciences Lab, Delaware, OH 43015, USA.

E Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA.

F Corresponding author. Email: mlacki@uky.edu

International Journal of Wildland Fire 26(11) 963-972 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF16159
Submitted: 20 August 2016  Accepted: 10 August 2017   Published: 27 October 2017

Abstract

The extent to which prescribed fires affect forest structure and habitats of vertebrate species is an important question for land managers tasked with balancing potentially conflicting objectives of vegetation and wildlife management. Many insectivorous bats forage for insect prey in forested habitats, serving as the primary predators of nocturnal forest insects, and are potentially affected by structural changes in forests resulting from prescribed fires. We compared forest-stand characteristics of temperate oak–hickory forests, as measured with airborne laser scanning (light detection and ranging, LiDAR), with categorical estimates of burn severity from prescribed fires as derived from Landsat data and field-based Composite Burn Indices, and used acoustic monitoring to quantify activity of insectivorous bats in association with varying degrees of burn severity (unburned habitat, low severity and medium severity). Forest-stand characteristics showed greatest separation between low-severity and medium-severity classes, with gap index, i.e. open-air space, increasing with degree of burn severity. Greater mid-storey density, over-storey density and proportion of vegetation in the understorey occurred in unburned habitat. Activity of bats did not differ with burn severity for high-frequency (clutter-adapted or closed-space foragers) or low-frequency (edge or open-space foragers) bats. Results indicate that differing degrees of burn severity from prescribed fires produced spatial variation in canopy structure within stands; however, bats demonstrated no shifts in activity levels to this variation in canopy structure, suggesting prescribed fire during the dormant season, used as a management practice targeting desired changes in vegetation, is compatible with sustaining foraging habitat of insectivorous bats.

Additional keywords: clutter-adapted foragers, Eptesicus, foraging activity, habitat structure, insectivorous bats, Lasionycteris, Lasiurus, LiDAR, Myotis, Nycticeius, open-space foragers, Perimyotis, prescribed fire.


References

Adams MD, Law BS, French KO (2009) Vegetation structure influences the vertical stratification of open- and edge-space aerial-foraging bats in harvested forests. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 2090–2100.
Vegetation structure influences the vertical stratification of open- and edge-space aerial-foraging bats in harvested forests.CrossRef |

Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH, Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim J-H, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660–684.
A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests.CrossRef |

Armitage DW, Ober HK (2012) The effects of prescribed fire on bat communities in the longleaf pine sandhills ecosystem. Journal of Mammalogy 93, 102–114.
The effects of prescribed fire on bat communities in the longleaf pine sandhills ecosystem.CrossRef |

Bender MJ, Castleberry SB, Miller DA, Wigley TB (2015) Site occupancy of foraging bats on landscapes of managed pine forest. Forest Ecology and Management 336, 1–10.
Site occupancy of foraging bats on landscapes of managed pine forest.CrossRef |

Boyles JG, Aubrey DP (2006) Managing forests with prescribed fire: implications for a cavity-dwelling bat species. Forest Ecology and Management 222, 108–115.
Managing forests with prescribed fire: implications for a cavity-dwelling bat species.CrossRef |

Braun EL (1950) ‘Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America.’ (Blackstone Company: Philadelphia, PA, USA)

Britzke ER (2004) Designing monitoring programs using frequency-division bat detectors: active versus passive sampling. In ‘Bat Echolocation Research: Tools, Techniques and Analysis’. (Eds RM Brigham, EKV Kalko, G Jones, S Parsons, HJGA Limpens) pp. 79–82. (Bat Conservation International: Austin, TX, USA)

Broders HG, Findlay CS, Zheng L (2004) Effects of clutter on echolocation call structure of Myotis septentrionalis and M. lucifugus. Journal of Mammalogy 85, 273–281.
Effects of clutter on echolocation call structure of Myotis septentrionalis and M. lucifugus.CrossRef |

Brose PH, Dey DC, Waldrop TA (2014) The fire-oak literature of eastern North America: synthesis and guidelines. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-135. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Brown DJ, Nowlin WH, Ozel E, Mali I, Episcopo D, Jones MC, Forstner MRJ (2014) Comparison of short term low, moderate and high severity fire impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem components of a southern USA mixed pine/hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 312, 179–192.
Comparison of short term low, moderate and high severity fire impacts to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem components of a southern USA mixed pine/hardwood forest.CrossRef |

Buchalski MR, Fontaine JB, Heady PA, Hayes JP, Frick WF (2013) Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA. PLoS One 8, e57884
Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3sXktlSqurs%3D&md5=02d6e59bc0b49e4107849b1455b58516CAS |

Carter TC, Ford WM, Menzel MA (2000) Fire and bats in the southeast and mid-Atlantic: more questions than answers? In ‘The Role of Fire in Nongame Wildlife Management and Community Restoration: Traditional Uses and New Directions: Proceedings of a Special Workshop’, 15 September 2000, Nashville, TN. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NE-288, pp. 139–143. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Cawson JG, Sheridan GJ, Smith HG, Lane PNJ (2013) Effects of fire severity and burn patchiness on hillslope-scale surface runoff, erosion, and hydrologic connectivity in a prescribed burn. Forest Ecology and Management 310, 219–233.
Effects of fire severity and burn patchiness on hillslope-scale surface runoff, erosion, and hydrologic connectivity in a prescribed burn.CrossRef |

Chen Q, Gong P, Baldocci DD, Xie G (2007) Filtering airborne laser scanning data with morphological methods. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 73, 175–185.
Filtering airborne laser scanning data with morphological methods.CrossRef |

Cox MR, Willcox EV, Keyser PD, Vander Yacht AL (2016) Bat response to prescribed fire and overstory thinning in hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee. Forest Ecology and Management 359, 221–231.
Bat response to prescribed fire and overstory thinning in hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee.CrossRef |

Dickinson MB (Ed.) (2006) Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers. In ‘Proceedings of a Conference’, 15–17 November 2005, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-P-1. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Dickinson MB, Lacki MJ, Cox DR (2009) Fire and the Indiana bat. In ‘Proceedings of the 3rd Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference’, pp. 51–75. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NRS-P-46. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Dickinson MB, Norris JC, Bova AS, Kremens RL, Young V, Lacki MJ (2010) Effects of wildland fire smoke on a tree-roosting bat: integrating a plume model, field measurements, and mammalian dose-response relationships. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40, 2187–2203.
Effects of wildland fire smoke on a tree-roosting bat: integrating a plume model, field measurements, and mammalian dose-response relationships.CrossRef |

Dodd LE, Skowronski NS, Dickinson MB, Lacki MJ, Rieske LK (2013) Using LiDAR to link forest canopy structure with bat activity and insect occurrence: preliminary findings. In ‘Mammoth Cave National Park’s 10th Research Symposium: Celebrating the Diversity of Research in the Mammoth Cave Region’. pp. 50–57. (Mammoth Cave National Park: Mammoth Cave, KY, USA)

Duchamp JE, Arnett EB, Larson MA, Swihart RK (2007) Ecological considerations for landscape-level management of bats. In ‘Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management’. (Eds MJ Lacki, JP Hayes, A Kurta) pp. 237–261. (Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD, USA)

Elangovan V, Marimuthu G (2001) Effect of moonlight on the foraging behaviour of a megachiropteran bat Cynopterus sphinx. Journal of Zoology 253, 347–350.
Effect of moonlight on the foraging behaviour of a megachiropteran bat Cynopterus sphinx.CrossRef |

Engstrom RT (2010) First-order fire effects on animals: review and recommendations. Fire Ecology 6, 115–130.
First-order fire effects on animals: review and recommendations.CrossRef |

Faure PA, Fullard JH, Dawson JW (1993) The gleaning attacks of the northern long- eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths. The Journal of Experimental Biology 178, 173–189.

Fenton MB (1990) The foraging behaviour and ecology of animal-eating bats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68, 411–422.
The foraging behaviour and ecology of animal-eating bats.CrossRef |

Fenwick MA, Schuler JL, Schuler TM (2016) First year sprouting and growth dynamics in response to prescribed fire in a mesic mixed-oak forest. In ‘Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference’, 2–5 March 2015, Knoxville, TN. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-212, pp. 219–225. (Asheville, NC, USA)

Fontaine JB, Kennedy PL (2012) Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in US fire-prone forests. Ecological Applications 22, 1547–1561.
Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in US fire-prone forests.CrossRef |

Ford WM, Russell KR, Moorman CE (Eds) (2000) The role of fire in nongame wildlife management and community restoration: traditional uses and new directions. In ‘Proceedings of a Special Workshop’, 15 September 2000, Nashville, TN. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NE-288. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Frick WF, Pollock JF, Hicks AC, Langwig KE, Reynolds DS, Butchkoski CM, Kunz TH (2010) An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science 329, 679–682.
An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXps1ehtb4%3D&md5=08652d70397ec6d5dab2c3602b73eb6cCAS |

Green DS, Roloff GJ, Heath BR, Holekamp KE (2015) Temporal dynamics of the responses by African mammals to prescribed fire. The Journal of Wildlife Management 79, 235–242.
Temporal dynamics of the responses by African mammals to prescribed fire.CrossRef |

Green PE (1978) ‘Analyzing multivariate data.’ (Dryden Press: Hinsdale, IL, USA)

Greenberg CH, Tomcho AL, Lanham JD, Waldrop TA, Tomcho J, Phillips RJ, Simon D (2007) Short-term effects of fire and other fuel reduction treatments on breeding birds in a southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1906–1916.
Short-term effects of fire and other fuel reduction treatments on breeding birds in a southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest.CrossRef |

Greenberg CH, Waldrop TA, Tomcho J, Phillips RJ, Simon D (2013) Bird response to fire severity and repeated burning in upland hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 304, 80–88.
Bird response to fire severity and repeated burning in upland hardwood forest.CrossRef |

Harrod RJ, Peterson DW, Povak NA, Dodson EK (2009) Thinning and prescribed fire effects on overstory tree and snag structure in dry coniferous forests of the interior Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 712–721.
Thinning and prescribed fire effects on overstory tree and snag structure in dry coniferous forests of the interior Pacific Northwest.CrossRef |

Hecker KR, Brigham RM (1999) Does moonlight change vertical stratification of activity by forest-dwelling insectivorous bats? Journal of Mammalogy 80, 1196–1201.
Does moonlight change vertical stratification of activity by forest-dwelling insectivorous bats?CrossRef |

Hedenström A, Johansson LC (2015) Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology. The Journal of Experimental Biology 218, 653–663.
Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.CrossRef |

Hessburg PF, Povak NA, Salter RB (2010) Thinning and prescribed fire effects on snag abundance and spatial pattern in an eastern Cascade Range dry forest, Washington, USA. Forest Science 56, 74–87.

Humes ML, Hayes JP, Collopy MW (1999) Bat activity in thinned, unthinned, and old- growth forests in western Oregon. The Journal of Wildlife Management 63, 553–561.
Bat activity in thinned, unthinned, and old- growth forests in western Oregon.CrossRef |

Hutchinson TF, Boerner REJ, Sutherland S, Sutherland EK, Ortt M, Iverson LR (2005a) Prescribed fire effects on the herbaceous layer of mixed-oak forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 877–890.
Prescribed fire effects on the herbaceous layer of mixed-oak forests.CrossRef |

Hutchinson TF, Sutherland EK, Yaussy DA (2005b) Effects of repeated prescribed fires on the structure, composition, and regeneration of mixed-oak forests in Ohio. Forest Ecology and Management 218, 210–228.
Effects of repeated prescribed fires on the structure, composition, and regeneration of mixed-oak forests in Ohio.CrossRef |

Inkster-Draper TE, Sheaves M, Johnson CN, Robson SKA (2013) Prescribed fire in eucalypt woodlands: immediate effects on a microbat community of northern Australia. Wildlife Research 40, 70–76.
Prescribed fire in eucalypt woodlands: immediate effects on a microbat community of northern Australia.CrossRef |

Iverson LR, Hutchinson TF, Prasad AM, Peters MP (2008) Thinning, fire, and oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in the eastern US: 7-year results. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 3035–3050.
Thinning, fire, and oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in the eastern US: 7-year results.CrossRef |

Johnson JB, Edwards JW, Ford WM, Gates JE (2009) Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 233–242.
Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest.CrossRef |

Johnson JB, Ford WM, Rodrigue JL, Edwards JW, Johnson CM (2010) Roost selection by male Indiana myotis following forest fires in central Appalachian hardwood forests. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 1, 111–121.
Roost selection by male Indiana myotis following forest fires in central Appalachian hardwood forests.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXisVCjs7s%3D&md5=dc553601ffdb0f592630ca67910ed073CAS |

Kalcounis M, Brigham RM (1995) Intraspecific variation in wing loading affects habitat use by little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 73, 89–95.
Intraspecific variation in wing loading affects habitat use by little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).CrossRef |

Key CH, Benson NC (2006) Landscape assessment: remote sensing of severity, the Normalized Burn Ratio. In ‘FIREMON: Fire Effects Monitoring and Inventory System’. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-164-CD: LA1–LA51, pp. 1–55. (Ogden, UT, USA)

Knapp EE, Estes BL, Skinner CN (2009) Ecological effects of prescribed fire season: a literature review and synthesis for managers. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-224. (Redding, CA, USA)

Lacki MJ, Cox DR, Dodd LE, Dickinson MB (2009) Response of northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to prescribed fires in eastern Kentucky forests. Journal of Mammalogy 90, 1165–1175.
Response of northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) to prescribed fires in eastern Kentucky forests.CrossRef |

Lacki MJ, Dodd LE, Toomey RS, Thomas SC, Couch ZL, Nichols BS (2015) Temporal changes in body mass and body condition of cave-hibernating bats during staging and swarming. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 6, 360–370.
Temporal changes in body mass and body condition of cave-hibernating bats during staging and swarming.CrossRef |

Lanham JD, Keyser PD, Brose PH, Van Lear DH (2000) Management options for songbirds using the oak–shelterwood burn technique in upland forests of the southeastern United States. In ‘The Role of Fire in Nongame Wildlife Management and Community Restoration: Traditional Uses and New Directions: Proceedings of a Special Workshop’, 15 September 2000, Nashville, TN. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NE-288, pp. 65–72. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Latta G, Temesgen H, Adams D, Barrett T (2010) Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 720–729.
Analysis of potential impacts of climate change on forests of the United States Pacific Northwest.CrossRef |

Lesak AA, Radeloff VC, Hawbaker TJ, Pidgeon AM (2011) Modeling forest songbird species richness using LiDAR-derived measures of forest structure. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 2823–2835.
Modeling forest songbird species richness using LiDAR-derived measures of forest structure.CrossRef |

Lima SL, O’Keefe JM (2013) Do predators influence the behaviour of bats? Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 88, 626–644.
Do predators influence the behaviour of bats?CrossRef |

Loeb SC, Waldrop TA (2008) Bat activity in relation to fire and fire surrogate treatments in southern pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 3185–3192.
Bat activity in relation to fire and fire surrogate treatments in southern pine stands.CrossRef |

Maslo B, Valent M, Gumbs JF, Frick WF (2015) Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome. Ecological Applications 25, 1832–1840.
Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome.CrossRef |

Ma S, Concilio A, Oakley B, North M, Chen J (2010) Spatial variability in microclimate in a mixed-conifer forest before and after thinning and burning treatments. Forest Ecology and Management 259, 904–915.
Spatial variability in microclimate in a mixed-conifer forest before and after thinning and burning treatments.CrossRef |

McCune B, Keon D (2002) Equations for potential annual direct incident radiation and heat load. Journal of Vegetation Science 13, 603–606.
Equations for potential annual direct incident radiation and heat load.CrossRef |

Menzel MA, Carter TC, Menzel JM, Ford WM, Chapman BR (2002) Effects of group selection silviculture in bottomland hardwoods on the spatial activity patterns of bats. Forest Ecology and Management 162, 209–218.
Effects of group selection silviculture in bottomland hardwoods on the spatial activity patterns of bats.CrossRef |

Mitchell RJ, Liu Y, O’Brien JJ, Elliott KJ, Starr G, Ford Miniat C, Hiers JK (2014) Future climate and fire interactions in the southeastern region of the United States. Forest Ecology and Management 327, 316–326.
Future climate and fire interactions in the southeastern region of the United States.CrossRef |

Morrison DF (1976) ‘Multivariate statistical methods.’ (McGraw-Hill, NY, USA)

Myers JA, Harms KE (2011) Seed arrival and ecological filters interact to assemble high-diversity plant communities. Ecology 92, 676–686.
Seed arrival and ecological filters interact to assemble high-diversity plant communities.CrossRef |

Nowacki GJ, Abrams MD (2008) The demise of fire and ‘mesophication’ of forests in the eastern United States. Bioscience 58, 123–138.
The demise of fire and ‘mesophication’ of forests in the eastern United States.CrossRef |

Owen SF, Menzel MA, Edwards JW, Ford WM, Menzel JM, Chapman BR, Wood PB, Miller KV (2004) Bat activity in harvested and intact forest stands in the Allegheny Mountains. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 21, 154–159.

Patriquin KJ, Barclay RMR (2003) Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and unharvested boreal forest. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 646–657.
Foraging by bats in cleared, thinned and unharvested boreal forest.CrossRef |

Perry RW (2012) A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oaks region. In ‘Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference’, 17–19 May 2011, Springfield, MO. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-P-102, pp. 170–191. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Reichard JD, Fuller NW, Bennett AB, Darling SR, Moore MS, Langwig KE, Preston ED, von Oettingen S, Richardson CS, Reynolds DS (2014) Interannual survival of Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) near the epicenter of white-nose syndrome. Northeastern Naturalist 21, 56–59.

Roberts SL, van Wagtendonk JW, Miles AK, Kelt DA, Lutz JA (2008) Modeling the effects of fire severity and spatial complexity on small mammals in Yosemite National Park, California. Fire Ecology 4, 83–104.
Modeling the effects of fire severity and spatial complexity on small mammals in Yosemite National Park, California.CrossRef |

Russell RE, Lehmkuhl JF, Buckland ST, Saab VA (2010) Short-term responses of red squirrels to prescribed burning in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA. The Journal of Wildlife Management 74, 12–17.
Short-term responses of red squirrels to prescribed burning in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA.CrossRef |

Ryan KC, Knapp EE, Varner JM (2013) Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, e15–e24.
Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges.CrossRef |

Schnitzler H-U, Kalko EKV (2001) Echolocation by insect-eating bats. Bioscience 51, 557–569.
Echolocation by insect-eating bats.CrossRef |

Schuler TM, Thomas-Van Gundy M, Adams MB, Ford WM (2012) Analysis of two pre-shelterwood prescribed fires in a mesic mixed oak forest in West Virginia. In ‘Proceedings of the 18th Central Hardwood Forest Conference’, 26–28 March 2012, Morgantown, WV. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-P-117, pp. 430–446. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Silvis A, Gehrt SD, Williams RA (2016) Effects of shelterwood harvest and prescribed fire in upland Appalachian hardwood forests on bat activity. Forest Ecology and Management 360, 205–212.
Effects of shelterwood harvest and prescribed fire in upland Appalachian hardwood forests on bat activity.CrossRef |

Skowronski NS, Clark KL, Duveneck M, Hom J (2011) Three-dimensional canopy fuel loading predicted using upward and downward sensing LiDAR systems. Remote Sensing of Environment 115, 703–714.
Three-dimensional canopy fuel loading predicted using upward and downward sensing LiDAR systems.CrossRef |

Smucker KM, Hutto RL, Steele BM (2005) Changes in bird abundance after wildfire: importance of fire severity and time since fire. Ecological Applications 15, 1535–1549.
Changes in bird abundance after wildfire: importance of fire severity and time since fire.CrossRef |

Starbuck CA, Amelon SK, Thompson FR (2015) Relationships between bat occupancy and habitat and landscape structure along a savanna, woodland, forest gradient in the Missouri Ozarks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39, 20–30.
Relationships between bat occupancy and habitat and landscape structure along a savanna, woodland, forest gradient in the Missouri Ozarks.CrossRef |

Stephens SL, Moghaddas JJ, Edminster C, Fiedler CE, Hasse S, Harrington M, Keeley JE, Knapp EE, McIver JD, Metlen K, Skinner CN, Youngblood A (2009) Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western US forests. Ecological Applications 19, 305–320.
Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western US forests.CrossRef |

Swengel AB (2001) A literature review of insect responses to fire, compared to other conservation managements of open habitat. Biodiversity and Conservation 10, 1141–1169.
A literature review of insect responses to fire, compared to other conservation managements of open habitat.CrossRef |

Tibbels AE, Kurta A (2003) Bat activity is low in thinned and unthinned stands of red pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33, 2436–2442.
Bat activity is low in thinned and unthinned stands of red pine.CrossRef |

Titchenell MA, Williams RA, Gehrt SD (2011) Bat response to shelterwood harvests and forest structure in oak–-hickory forests. Forest Ecology and Management 262, 980–988.
Bat response to shelterwood harvests and forest structure in oak–-hickory forests.CrossRef |

Titus K, Mosher JA, Williams BK (1984) Chance-corrected classification for use in discriminant analysis: ecological applications. American Midland Naturalist 111, 1–7.
Chance-corrected classification for use in discriminant analysis: ecological applications.CrossRef |

US Fish and Wildlife Service (2012a) North American bat death toll exceeds 5.5 million from white-nose syndrome. News release. (US Forest Service: Arlington, VA, USA) Available at https://www.batcon.org/pdfs/USFWS_WNS_Mortality_2012_NR_FINAL.pdf [Accessed 1 September 2014]

US Fish and Wildlife Service (2012b) The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s developing summer survey guidance for the Indiana bat. (US Forest Service) Available at www.fws.gov/midwest/Endangered/mammals/inba/inbasummersurveyguidance.html [Verified 1 September 2014]

Wimberly MC, Liu Z (2014) Interactions of climate, fire, and management in future forests of the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management 327, 270–279.
Interactions of climate, fire, and management in future forests of the Pacific Northwest.CrossRef |

Womack KM (2011) Habitat and management effects of foraging activity of Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in northern Missouri. Masters Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Womack KM, Amelon SK, Thompson FR (2013) Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season. The Journal of Wildlife Management 77, 707–715.
Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season.CrossRef |

Woods AJ, Omernik JM, Martin WH, Pond GJ, Andrews WM, Call SM, Comstock JA, Taylor DD (2002) ‘Ecoregions of Kentucky.’ (US Geological Survey: Reston, VA, USA)

Wund MA (2006) Variation in the echolocation calls of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in response to different habitats. American Midland Naturalist 156, 99–108.
Variation in the echolocation calls of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in response to different habitats.CrossRef |



Export Citation