International Journal of Wildland Fire International Journal of Wildland Fire Society
Journal of the International Association of Wildland Fire
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Short-term stem mortality of 10 deciduous broadleaved species following prescribed burning in upland forests of the Southern US

Tara L. Keyser A I , Virginia L. McDaniel B , Robert N. Klein C , Dan G. Drees D , Jesse A. Burton E G and Melissa M. Forder F H
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 1577 Brevard Road, Asheville, NC 28806, USA.

B US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Hot Springs, AR 71901, USA.

C US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, TN 37737, USA.

D US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Van Buren, MO 63965, USA.

E US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS 38804, USA.

F US Department of Interior National Park Service, Shenandoah National Park, Luray, VA 22835, USA.

G Present address: US Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Vian, OK 74962, USA.

H Present address: US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

I Corresponding author. Email: tkeyser@fs.fed.us

International Journal of Wildland Fire 27(1) 42-51 https://doi.org/10.1071/WF17058
Submitted: 25 March 2017  Accepted: 13 October 2017   Published: 22 December 2017

Abstract

In upland forests of the Southern US, management is increasingly focussed on the restoration and maintenance of resilient structures and species compositions, with prescribed burning being the primary tool used to achieve these goals and objectives. In this study, we utilised an extensive dataset comprising 91 burn units and 210 plots across 13 National Park Service lands to examine the relationships between the probability of stem mortality (P(m)) 2 years after prescribed fire and stem size and direct fire effects for 10 common deciduous broadleaved species. Post-fire stem mortality ranged from 6.9% for Quercus alba to 58.9% for Sassafras albidum. The probability of stem mortality was positively associated with maximum bole char height (CHAR) and inversely related to diameter at breast height (DBH) for all 10 deciduous broadleaved species. Model goodness-of-fit varied, with the poorest fit generally associated with fire-tolerant species and best fit generally associated with fire sensitive species. The information presented contributes to our understanding of post-fire stem mortality and may contribute to the development of fire-related stem mortality models following prescribed burning for eastern tree species. Models should be validated with independent datasets across upland forests types to test for spatial relationships before widespread application.

Additional keywords: logistic regression, oak–hickory forests, mixed pine–hardwood forests, post-fire stem mortality.


References

Alexander ME, Cruz MG (2012) Interdependencies between flame length and fireline intensity in predicting crown fire initiation and crown scorch height. International Journal of Wildland Fire 21, 95–113.
Interdependencies between flame length and fireline intensity in predicting crown fire initiation and crown scorch height.CrossRef |

Anderson LM, Levi DJ, Daniel TC, Dieterich JH (1982) The esthetic effects of prescribed burning: a case study. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note RM-413. (Fort Collins, CO, USA)

Arthur MA, Alexander HD, Dey DC, Schweitzer CJ, Loftis DL (2012) Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States. Journal of Forestry 110, 257–266.
Refining the oak-fire hypothesis for management of oak-dominated forests of the eastern United States.CrossRef |

Arthur MA, Blankenship BA, Schorgendorfer A, Loftis DL, Alexander HD (2015) Changes in stand structure and tree vigor with repeated prescribed fire in an Appalachian hardwood forest. Forest Ecology and Management 340, 46–61.
Changes in stand structure and tree vigor with repeated prescribed fire in an Appalachian hardwood forest.CrossRef |

Battaglia MA, Smith FW, Shepperd WD (2008) Can prescribed fire be used to maintain fuel treatment effectiveness over time in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 256, 2029–2038.
Can prescribed fire be used to maintain fuel treatment effectiveness over time in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.CrossRef |

Breece CR, Kolb TE, Dickson BG, McMillin JD, Clancy KM (2008) Prescribed fire effects on bark beetle activity and tree mortality in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 119–128.
Prescribed fire effects on bark beetle activity and tree mortality in southwestern ponderosa pine forests.CrossRef |

Brose PH, Gottschalk KW, Horsley SB, Knopp PD, Kochenderfer JN, McGuinness BJ, Miller GW, Ristau TE, Stoleson SH, Stout SL (2008) Prescribing regeneration treatments for mixed-oak forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-33. (Newtown, PA, USA)

Brose PH, Dey DC, Waldrop TA (2014) The fire-oak literature of eastern North America: synthesis and guidelines. USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-135. (Newtown, PA, USA)

Burrows ND (2001) Flame residence times and rates of weight loss of eucalypt forest fuel particles. International Journal of Wildland Fire 10, 137–143.
Flame residence times and rates of weight loss of eucalypt forest fuel particles.CrossRef |

Catry FX, Moreira RG, Fernandes PM, Pausas JG (2010) Post-fire tree mortality in mixed forests of central Portugal. Forest Ecology and Management 260, 1184–1192.
Post-fire tree mortality in mixed forests of central Portugal.CrossRef |

Cocking MI, Varner MJ, Sherriff RL (2012) California black oak responses to fire severity and native conifer encroachment in the Klamath Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 270, 25–34.
California black oak responses to fire severity and native conifer encroachment in the Klamath Mountains.CrossRef |

Dupuy JL, Maréchal J, Portier D, Valette JC (2011) The effects of slope and fuel bed width on laboratory fire behaviour. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20, 272–288.
The effects of slope and fuel bed width on laboratory fire behaviour.CrossRef |

Fettig CJ, McKelvey SR, Cluck DR, Smith SL, Ostrosina WJ (2010) Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on direct and indirect levels of tree mortality in Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine Forests in California, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 260, 207–218.
Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on direct and indirect levels of tree mortality in Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine Forests in California, USA.CrossRef |

Ganio LM, Progar RA (2017) Mortality predictions of fire-injured large Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in Oregon and Washington, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 390, 47–67.
Mortality predictions of fire-injured large Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in Oregon and Washington, USA.CrossRef |

Graves SJ, Rifai SW, Putz FE (2014) Outer bark thickness decreases more with height on stems of fire-resistant than fire-sensitive Floridian oaks (Quercus spp.; Fagacea). American Journal of Botany 101, 2183–2188.
Outer bark thickness decreases more with height on stems of fire-resistant than fire-sensitive Floridian oaks (Quercus spp.; Fagacea).CrossRef |

Grayson LM, Progar RA, Hood SM (2017) Predicting post-fire tree mortality for 14 conifers in the Pacific Northwest, USA: Model evaluation, development, and thresholds. Forest Ecology and Management 399, 213–226.
Predicting post-fire tree mortality for 14 conifers in the Pacific Northwest, USA: Model evaluation, development, and thresholds.CrossRef |

Hammond DH, Varner JM, Kush JS, Fan Z (2015) Contrasting sapling bark allocation of five southeastern USA hardwood tree species in a fire prone ecosystem. Ecosphere 6, art112
Contrasting sapling bark allocation of five southeastern USA hardwood tree species in a fire prone ecosystem.CrossRef |

Harmon ME (1984) Survival of trees after low-intensity surface fires in Great Smoky Mountain National Park. Ecology 65, 796–802.
Survival of trees after low-intensity surface fires in Great Smoky Mountain National Park.CrossRef |

Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB (1996) Multivariate prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Statistics in Medicine 15, 361–387.
Multivariate prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors.CrossRef |

Hély H, Flannigan M, Bergeron Y (2003) Modeling tree mortality following wildfire in the southeastern Canadian mixed-wood boreal forest. Forest Science 49, 566–576.

Hengst GE, Dawson JO (1994) Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the Central Hardwood Region of North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24, 688–696.
Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the Central Hardwood Region of North America.CrossRef |

Hood SM, Bentz B (2007) Predicting post-fire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 1058–1069.
Predicting post-fire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the Northern Rocky Mountains.CrossRef |

Hood SM, Cluck DR, Smith SL, Ryan KC (2008) Using bark char codes to predict post-fire cambium mortality. Fire Ecology 4, 57–73.
Using bark char codes to predict post-fire cambium mortality.CrossRef |

Hood SM, Smith SL, Cluck DR (2010) Predicting mortality for five California conifers following wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 260, 750–762.
Predicting mortality for five California conifers following wildfire.CrossRef |

Hosmer D, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant R (2013) ‘Applied Logistic Regression’, 3rd edn. (Wiley: Hoboken, NJ, USA)

Hutchinson TF, Sutherland EK, Yaussy DA (2005) Effects of repeated prescribed fires on the structure, composition, and regeneration of mixed-oak forests in Ohio. Forest Ecology and Management 218, 210–228.
Effects of repeated prescribed fires on the structure, composition, and regeneration of mixed-oak forests in Ohio.CrossRef |

Jenkins MA, Klein RN, McDaniel VL (2011) Yellow pine regeneration as a function of fire severity and post-burn stand structure in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management 262, 681–691.
Yellow pine regeneration as a function of fire severity and post-burn stand structure in the southern Appalachians.CrossRef |

Jerman JL, Gould PJ, Fulé PZ (2004) Slash compression treatment reduced tree mortality from prescribed fire in southwestern ponderosa pine. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 19, 149–153.

Johnson FL, Risser PG (1975) A quantitative comparison between an oak forest and an oak savannah in central Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 20, 75–84.
A quantitative comparison between an oak forest and an oak savannah in central Oklahoma.CrossRef |

Keyser TL, Smith FW, Lentile LB, Shepperd WD (2006) Modeling post-fire mortality of ponderosa pine following a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills: the role of tree morphology and direct fire effects. Forest Science 52, 530–539.

Kobziar L, Moghaddas JJ, Stephens S (2006) Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fires in a mixed conifer forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36, 3222–3238.
Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fires in a mixed conifer forest.CrossRef |

Lafon CW, Naito AT, Grissino-Mayer HD, Horn SP, Waldrop TA (2017) Fire history of the Appalachian region: a review and synthesis. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-219. (Asheville, NC, USA)

McHugh CW, Kolb TE (2003) Ponderosa pine mortality following fire in northern Arizona. International Journal of Wildland Fire 12, 7–22.
Ponderosa pine mortality following fire in northern Arizona.CrossRef |

Melvin MA (2015) 2015 National prescribed fire use survey report. National Association of State Foresters and the Coalition of Prescribed Fire Councils, Inc., Technical Report 02–15. Available at http://stateforesters.org/sites/default/files/publication-documents/2015%20Prescribed%20Fire%20Use%20Survey%20Report.pdf [Verified 15 January 2017]

Morrison DA, Renwich JA (2000) Effects of variation in fire intensity on regeneration of co-occurring species of small trees in the Sydney region. Australian Journal of Botany 48, 71–79.
Effects of variation in fire intensity on regeneration of co-occurring species of small trees in the Sydney region.CrossRef |

O’Brien JJ, Hiers JK, Mitchell RJ, Varner JM, Mordecai K (2010) Acute physiological stress and mortality following fire in a long-unburned longleaf pine ecosystem. Fire Ecology 6, 1–12.
Acute physiological stress and mortality following fire in a long-unburned longleaf pine ecosystem.CrossRef |

Rebain, S.W. 2010. The fire and fuels extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator. USDA Forest Service, Forest Management Service Center (Fort Collins, CO, USA) Available at https://www.fs.fed.us/fmsc/ftp/fvs/docs/gtr/FFEguide.pdf [Verified 21 December 2016]

Regelbrugge JC, Smith DWm (1994) Post-fire tree mortality in relation to wildfire severity in mixed oak forests in the Blue Ridge of Virginia. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 11, 90–97.

Reinhardt E 2003. Using FOFEM 5.0 to estimate tree mortality, fuel consumption, smoke production and soil heating from wildland fire. In ‘Proceedings of the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress and 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology’, 16–20 November 2003, Orlando, FL. pp. 16–20. (American Meteorological Society: Washington, DC, USA) Available at https://ams.confex.com/ams/FIRE2003/techprogram/paper_65232.htm [Verified 10 January 2017]

Reinhardt ED, Dickinson MB (2010) First-order fire effects models for land management: overview and issues. Fire Ecology 6, 131–150.
First-order fire effects models for land management: overview and issues.CrossRef |

Ryan KC, Knapp EE, Varner JM (2013) Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, e15–e24.
Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges.CrossRef |

Sackett SS, Haase SM, Harrington MG (1996) Lessons learned from fire use restoring south-western ponderosa pine ecosystems. In ‘Conference on Adaptive Ecosystem Restoration and Management: Restoration of Cordilleran Conifer Landscapes of North America’, 6–8 June 1995, Flagstaff, AZ, USA. (Eds WW Covington, PK Wagner) USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report RM-GTR-278, pp. 54–61. (Fort Collins, CO, USA)

SAS Institute (2015) SAS Version 9.4. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Soucy RD, Heitzman E, Spetich MA (2005) The establishment and development of oak forests in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 1790–1797.
The establishment and development of oak forests in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas.CrossRef |

Sparks JC, Masters RE, Engle DM, Palmer MW, Bukenhofer GA (1998) Effects of late growing-season and late dormant-season prescribed fire on herbaceous vegetation in restored pine-grassland communities. Journal of Vegetation Science 9, 133–142.
Effects of late growing-season and late dormant-season prescribed fire on herbaceous vegetation in restored pine-grassland communities.CrossRef |

Stephens SL, Finney MA (2002) Prescribed fire mortality of Sierra Nevada mixed conifer tree species: effects of crown damage and forest floor combustion. Forest Ecology and Management 162, 261–271.
Prescribed fire mortality of Sierra Nevada mixed conifer tree species: effects of crown damage and forest floor combustion.CrossRef |

Stephens SL, Moghaddas JJ, Edminster C, Fiedler CE, Haase S, Harrington M, Keeley JE, Knapp EE, McIver JD, Metlen K, Skinner CN, Youngblood A (2009) Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western US forests. Ecological Applications 19, 305–320.
Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western US forests.CrossRef |

Steyerberg EW, Harrell FE, Borsboom GJJM, Eijkemans MJC, Vergouwe Y, Habbema JDF (2001) Internal validation of predictive models: Efficiency of some procedures for logistic regression analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 54, 774–781.
Internal validation of predictive models: Efficiency of some procedures for logistic regression analysis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3MvitVOisQ%3D%3D&md5=af0487b06c9ff955eb698674823170efCAS |

Swezy DM, Agee JK (1991) Prescribed-fire effects on fine-root and tree mortality in old growth ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21, 626–634.
Prescribed-fire effects on fine-root and tree mortality in old growth ponderosa pine.CrossRef |

Thies WG, Westlind DJ, Loewen M, Brenner G (2006) Prediction of delayed mortality of fire-damaged ponderosa pine following prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15, 19–29.
Prediction of delayed mortality of fire-damaged ponderosa pine following prescribed fires in eastern Oregon, USA.CrossRef |

Thomas-Van Gundy MA, Nowacki GJ (2013) The use of witness trees as pyro-indicators for mapping past fire conditions. Forest Ecology and Management 304, 333–344.
The use of witness trees as pyro-indicators for mapping past fire conditions.CrossRef |

US Department of the Interior National Park Service (2003) Fire Monitoring Handbook. USDI National Park Service, Fire Management Program Center, National Interagency Fire Center. (Boise, ID, USA) Available at https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1965/upload/fire-effects-monitoring-handbook.pdf [Verified 22 November 2017]

van Mantgem PJ, Nesmith JCB, Keifer M, Knapp EE, Flint A, Flint L (2013) Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States. Ecology Letters 16, 1151–1156.
Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States.CrossRef |

Varner J, Hiers JK, Ottmar RD, Gordon DR, Putz FE, Wade DD (2007) Overstory tree mortality resulting from reintroducing fire to long-unburned longleaf pine forests: the importance of duff moisture. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 1349–1358.
Overstory tree mortality resulting from reintroducing fire to long-unburned longleaf pine forests: the importance of duff moisture.CrossRef |

Vaux JH, Jr, Gardner PD, Mills TJ (1984) Methods for assessing the impact of fire on forest recreation. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report PSW-79. (Berkeley, CA, USA)

Wade DD (1993) Thinning young loblolly pine stands with fire. International Journal of Wildland Fire 3, 169–178.
Thinning young loblolly pine stands with fire.CrossRef |

Wade DD, Lunsford JD (1989) A guide for prescribed fire in southern forests. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region, Technical Publication R8-TP 11. (Atlanta, GA, USA)

Waldrop TA (1997) Four site-preparation techniques for regeneration pine-hardwood mixtures in the Piedmont. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 21, 116–122.

Wiedenbeck JK, Schuler TM (2014) Effects of prescribed fire on the wood quality and marketability of four hardwood species in the central Appalachian region. In ‘Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference’, 10–12 March 2014, Carbondale, IL. (Eds JW Groninger, EJ Holzueller, CK Nielsen, DC Dey) USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, General Technical Report NRS-P-142, pp. 202–212. (Newtown Square, PA, USA)

Williams RJ, Gill AM, Moore PHR (1998) Seasonal changes in fire behaviour in a tropical savanna in Northern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire 8, 227–239.
Seasonal changes in fire behaviour in a tropical savanna in Northern Australia.CrossRef |

Yaussy DA, Waldrop TA (2008) Delayed mortality of eastern hardwoods after prescribed fire. In ‘Proceedings of the 14th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference’, 26 February – 1 March 2007, Athens, GA. (Ed. JA Stanturf) USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, General Technical Report SRS-121, pp. 609–612. (Asheville, NC, USA)



Supplementary MaterialSupplementary Material (170 KB) Export Citation