Australian Journal of Zoology Australian Journal of Zoology Society
Evolutionary, molecular and comparative zoology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Demographic parameters of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) in an urban forest remnant

David J. Sharpe A B C and Ross L. Goldingay A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.

B Present address: SMEC Australia, PO Box 953, Nerang, Qld 4211, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: davidsharpe3@bigpond.com

Australian Journal of Zoology - https://doi.org/10.1071/ZO17004
Submitted: 7 February 2017  Accepted: 19 July 2017   Published online: 4 September 2017

Abstract

The effective management of species requires detailed knowledge of key population parameters. A capture–mark–recapture study of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) was conducted in an urban forest remnant in Brisbane, south-east Queensland. A total of 187 adult gliders (96 females, 91 males) was captured 620 times, in 19 sessions over a 4-year period. A Cormack–Jolly–Seber model was employed to estimate adult survival and abundance. Factors that may affect survival (e.g. sex, year, season) were included in population models. The overall probability of annual apparent survival was 0.49 ± 0.08. The capture probability over the duration of the study was 0.38 ± 0.03. The size of the local population was highest in the first year of the study (70–113 individuals) but then declined and generally remained low in the last two years. Apparent survival may include an unknown component of dispersal. However, our study area was mostly surrounded by a hostile urban matrix, so the effect of dispersal may have been minimal. Further studies that assess the survival of squirrel gliders are needed to assess the extent to which this parameter varies among localities.

Additional keywords: AIC, population density, population model, program MARK, urban ecology.


References

Akaike, H. (1973). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In ‘International Symposium on Information Theory’. (Eds B. H. Petran, and F. Csáki.) pp. 267–281. (Akadémiai Kiadi: Budapest.)

Bailey, L. L., Kendall, W. L., Church, D. R., and Wilbur, H. M. (2004). Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design. Ecology 85, 2456–2466.
Estimating survival and breeding probability for pond-breeding amphibians: a modified robust design.CrossRef |

Ball, S. J., Ramsey, D., Nugent, G., Warburton, B., and Efford, M. (2005). A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Wildlife Research 32, 217–227.
A method for estimating wildlife detection probabilities in relation to home-range use: insights from a field study on the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).CrossRef |

Brisbane City Council (2000). Brisbane City Plan 2000. Brisbane City Council, Brisbane.

Brisbane City Council (2005). Squirrel Glider Conservation Action Statement. Brisbane City Council, Brisbane.

Bennett, A. F., and Saunders, D. A. (2010). Habitat fragmentation and landscape change. In ‘Conservation Biology for All’. (Eds N. S. Sodhi and P. R. Ehrlich.) pp. 73–87. (Oxford University Press: Oxford.)

Beyer, G. L., Goldingay, R. L., and Sharpe, D. J. (2008). The characteristics of squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) den trees in subtropical Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 56, 13–21.
The characteristics of squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) den trees in subtropical Australia.CrossRef |

Brearley, G., McAlpine, C., Bell, S., and Bradley, A. (2011). Squirrel glider home ranges near urban edges in eastern. Australian Journal of Zoology 285, 256–265.
Squirrel glider home ranges near urban edges in eastern.CrossRef |

Brodie, J. F., Giordano, A. J., Zipkin, E. F., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J., and Ambu, L. (2015). Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 29, 110–121.
Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals.CrossRef |

Brook, B. W. (2000). Pessimistic and optimistic bias in population viability analysis. Conservation Biology 14, 564–566.
Pessimistic and optimistic bias in population viability analysis.CrossRef |

Broome, L. S. (2001). Intersite differences in population demography of mountain pygmy-possums Burramys parvus (1986–1998): implications for metapopulation conservation and ski resorts in Kosciusko National Park, Australia. Biological Conservation 102, 309–323.
Intersite differences in population demography of mountain pygmy-possums Burramys parvus (1986–1998): implications for metapopulation conservation and ski resorts in Kosciusko National Park, Australia.CrossRef |

Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (2002). ‘Model Selection and muLtimodel Inference: a Practical Information-theoretic Approach.’ (Springer-Verlag: New York.)

Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (2004). Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods & Research 33, 261–304.
Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection.CrossRef |

Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R., White, G. C., Brownie, C., and Pollock, K. H. (1987). Design and analysis methods for fish survival experiments based on release–recapture. American Fisheries Society Monographs 5, 1–437.

Caryl, F. M., Thomson, K, and van der Ree, R (2013). Permeability of the urban matrix to arboreal gliding mammals: sugar gliders in Melbourne, Australia. Austral Ecology 38, 609–616.

Claridge, A. W., and van der Ree, R. (2004). Recovering endangered populations in fragmented landscapes: the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis on the south-west slopes of New South Wales. In ‘Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna’. 2nd edn. (Ed. D. Lunney.) pp. 678–687. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Cooch, E., and White, G. E. (2007). ‘Program MARK: A Gentle Introduction.’ 5th edn. (Colorado State University: Fort Collins, CO.)

Corn, J. L., and Conroy, M. J. (1998). Estimation of density of mongooses with capture–recapture and distance sampling. Journal of Mammalogy 79, 1009–1015.
Estimation of density of mongooses with capture–recapture and distance sampling.CrossRef |

Didham, R. K. (2010). ‘Ecological Consequences of Habitat Fragmentation.’ (Wiley: Chichester, UK.)

Dobson, M., Goldingay, R., and Sharpe, D. (2005). Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider in remnant habitat in Brisbane. Australian Mammalogy 27, 27–35.
Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider in remnant habitat in Brisbane.CrossRef |

Eyre, T. J. (2004). Distribution and conservation status of the possums and gliders of southern Queensland. In ‘The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliders’. (Eds R. L. Goldingay and S. M. Jackson.) pp. 1–25. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

Frederiksen, M., Harris, M. P., and Wanless, S. (2005). Inter-population variation in demographic parameters: a neglected subject? Oikos 111, 209–214.
Inter-population variation in demographic parameters: a neglected subject?CrossRef |

Getz, L. L., Oli, M. K., Hofmann, J. E., and McGuire, B. (2006). Vole population dynamics: factors affecting peak densities and amplitudes of annual Microtus ochrogaster population fluctuations. Basic and Applied Ecology 7, 97–107.
Vole population dynamics: factors affecting peak densities and amplitudes of annual Microtus ochrogaster population fluctuations.CrossRef |

Goldingay, R. L., and Sharpe, D. J. (2004). How do we conserve the squirrel glider in Brisbane’s urban matrix? In ‘Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna’. 2nd edn. (Ed. D. Lunney.) pp. 663–677. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Goldingay, R. L., Sharpe, D. J., Dobson, M., and Beyer, G. L. (2006). Using ecological studies to understand the conservation requirements of the squirrel glider in Brisbane’s urban forest remnants. Australian Mammalogy 28, 173–184.
Using ecological studies to understand the conservation requirements of the squirrel glider in Brisbane’s urban forest remnants.CrossRef |

Goldingay, R. L., Sharpe, D. J., and Dobson, M. D. J. (2010). Variation in the home-range size of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis). Australian Mammalogy 32, 183–188.
Variation in the home-range size of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis).CrossRef |

Goldingay, R. L., Harrisson, K. A., Taylor, A. C., Ball, T. M., Sharpe, D. J., and Taylor, B. D. (2013). Fine-scale genetic response to landscape change in a gliding mammal. PLoS One 8, e80383.
Fine-scale genetic response to landscape change in a gliding mammal.CrossRef |

Hammond, E. L., and Anthony, R. G. (2006). Mark–recapture estimates of population parameters for selected species of small mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 87, 618–627.
Mark–recapture estimates of population parameters for selected species of small mammals.CrossRef |

Hanski, I., Alho, J., and Moilanen, A. (2000). Estimating the parameters of survival and migration of individuals in metapopulations. Ecology 81, 239–251.
Estimating the parameters of survival and migration of individuals in metapopulations.CrossRef |

Hurvich, C. M., and Tsai, C.-L. (1989). Regression and time series model selection in small samples. Biometrika 76, 297–307.
Regression and time series model selection in small samples.CrossRef |

Jackson, S. M. (2000). Population dynamics and life history of the mahogany glider, Petaurus gracilis, and the sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps, in north Queensland. Wildlife Research 27, 21–37.
Population dynamics and life history of the mahogany glider, Petaurus gracilis, and the sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps, in north Queensland.CrossRef |

Kavanagh, R. P. (2004). Distribution and conservation status of possums and gliders in New South Wales. In ‘Conservation of Australia’s Forest Fauna’. 2nd edn. (Ed. D. Lunney.) pp. 130–148. (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Sydney.)

Koskimäki, J., Huitu, O., Kotiaho, J. S., Lampila, S., Mäkelä, A., Sulkava, R., and Mönkkönen, M. (2014). Are habitat loss, predation risk and climate related to the drastic decline in a Siberian flying squirrel population? A 15-year study. Population Ecology 56, 341–348.
Are habitat loss, predation risk and climate related to the drastic decline in a Siberian flying squirrel population? A 15-year study.CrossRef |

Krebs, K. C. (1985). ‘Ecology: the Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance.’ 3rd edn. (Harper & Row: New York.)

Lacy, R. C. (1993). VORTEX: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis. Wildlife Research 20, 45–65.
VORTEX: a computer simulation model for population viability analysis.CrossRef |

Lebreton, J.-D., Burnham, K. P., Clobert, J., and Anderson, D. R. (1992). Modelling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies. Ecological Monographs 62, 67–118.
Modelling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies.CrossRef |

Lehmkuhl, J. F., Kistler, K. D., Begley, J. S., and Boulanger, J. (2006). Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests. Ecological Applications 16, 584–600.
Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests.CrossRef |

Lindenmayer, D. B., Lacy, R. C., and Viggers, K. L. (1998). Modelling survival and capture probabilities of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus caninus) in the forests of south-eastern Australia using trap–recapture data. Journal of Zoology 245, 1–13.
Modelling survival and capture probabilities of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus caninus) in the forests of south-eastern Australia using trap–recapture data.CrossRef |

Luo, Z., Jiang, Z., and Tang, S. (2015). Impacts of climate change on distributions and diversity of ungulates on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecological Applications 25, 24–38.
Impacts of climate change on distributions and diversity of ungulates on the Tibetan Plateau.CrossRef |

McCall, S. C., McCarthy, M. A., van der Ree, R, Harper, M. J., Cesarini, S, and Soanes, K (2010). Evidence that a highway reduces apparent survival rates of squirrel gliders. Ecology and Society 15, 27.

McClintock, B. T., and White, G. C. (2009). A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with mark–resight data. Ecology 90, 313–320.
A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with mark–resight data.CrossRef |

Melton, J. (2007). Corridor and matrix use by the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, in urban south-east Queensland. B.Sc.(Honours) Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore.

Newbold, T., Hudson, L. N., Phillips, H. R. P., Hill, S. L. L., Contu, S., Lysenko, I., Blandon, A., Butchart, S. H. M., Booth, H. L., Day, J., De Palma, A., Harrison, M. L. K., Kirkpatrick, L., Pynegar, E., Robinson, A., Simpson, J., Mace, G. M., Scharlemann, J. P. W., and Purvis, A. (2014). A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281, 20141371.
A global model of the response of tropical and sub-tropical forest biodiversity to anthropogenic pressures.CrossRef |

O’Grady, J. J., Reed, D. H., Brook, B. W., and Frankham, R. (2004). What are the best correlates of predicted extinction risk? Biological Conservation 118, 513–520.
What are the best correlates of predicted extinction risk?CrossRef |

Ozgul, A., Getz, L. L., and Oli, M. K. (2004). Demography of fluctuating populations: temporal and phase-related changes in vital rates of Microtus ochrogaster. Journal of Animal Ecology 73, 201–215.
Demography of fluctuating populations: temporal and phase-related changes in vital rates of Microtus ochrogaster.CrossRef |

Possingham, H. P., and Davies, I. (1995). ALEX: a model for the viability analysis of spatially structured populations. Biological Conservation 73, 143–150.
ALEX: a model for the viability analysis of spatially structured populations.CrossRef |

Quin, D. G. (1995). Population ecology of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and the sugar glider (P. breviceps) (Marsupialia: Petauridae) at Limeburners Creek, on the central north coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 22, 471–505.
Population ecology of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and the sugar glider (P. breviceps) (Marsupialia: Petauridae) at Limeburners Creek, on the central north coast of New South Wales.CrossRef |

Schwarz, C. J., and Arnason, A. N. (1996). A general methodology for the analysis of capture–recapture experiments in open populations. Biometrics 52, 860–873.
A general methodology for the analysis of capture–recapture experiments in open populations.CrossRef |

Schwarz, C. J., and Seber, G. A. F. (1999). Estimating animal abundance: review III. Statistical Science 14, 427–456.
Estimating animal abundance: review III.CrossRef |

Seber, G. A. F. (1992). A review of estimating animal abundance II. International Statistical Review 60, 129–166.
A review of estimating animal abundance II.CrossRef |

Sharpe, D. (1996). Foraging ecology of the squirrel glider. B.Sc.(Honours) Thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore.

Sharpe, D. J. (2004). Effect of flowering patterns on a population of squirrel gliders Petaurus norfolcensis in north-east New South Wales. In ‘The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliding Possums’. (Eds R. L. Goldingay and S. M. Jackson.) pp. 339–349. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

Sharpe, D. J., and Goldingay, R. L. (1998). Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider at Bungawalbin Nature Reserve, north-eastern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 25, 243–254.
Feeding behaviour of the squirrel glider at Bungawalbin Nature Reserve, north-eastern New South Wales.CrossRef |

Sharpe, D. J., and Goldingay, R. L. (2010). Population ecology of the nectar-feeding squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) in remnant forest in subtropical Australia. Wildlife Research 37, 77–88.
Population ecology of the nectar-feeding squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) in remnant forest in subtropical Australia.CrossRef |

Smith, A. P., and Murray, M. (2003). Habitat requirements of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and associated possums and gliders on the New South Wales central coast. Wildlife Research 30, 291–301.
Habitat requirements of the squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) and associated possums and gliders on the New South Wales central coast.CrossRef |

Soanes, K. (2014). Evaluating the success of road-crossing mitigation for arboreal mammals: How does monitoring effort influence the detection of population-level effects? Ph.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Suckling, G. C. (1984). Population ecology of the sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps, in a system of fragmented habitats. Australian Wildlife Research 11, 49–75.

van der Ree, R. (2002). The population ecology of the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, within a network of remnant linear habitats. Wildlife Research 29, 329–340.
The population ecology of the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, within a network of remnant linear habitats.CrossRef |

van der Ree, R., Ward, S. J., and Handasyde, K. A. (2004). Distribution and conservation status of possums and gliders in Victoria. In ‘The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliders’. (Eds R. L. Goldingay, and S. M. Jackson.) pp. 91–110. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)

van der Ree, R., Harper, M. J., and Crane, M. (2006). Longevity in wild populations of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis. Australian Mammalogy 28, 239–242.
Longevity in wild populations of the squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis.CrossRef |

van der Ree, R., Cesarini, S., Sunnucks, P., Moore, J. L., and Taylor, A. (2010). Large gaps in canopy reduce road crossing by a gliding mammal. Ecology and Society 15, 35.
Large gaps in canopy reduce road crossing by a gliding mammal.CrossRef |

Vermeulen, E., and Bräger, S. (2015). Demographics of the disappearing bottlenose dolphin in Argentina: a common species on its way out? PLoS One 10, e0119182.
Demographics of the disappearing bottlenose dolphin in Argentina: a common species on its way out?CrossRef |

White, G. C., and Burnham, K. P. (1999). Program Mark: survival estimation from population of marked animals. Bird Study 46, S120–S139.
Program Mark: survival estimation from population of marked animals.CrossRef |

Williams, B. K., Nichols, J. D., and Conroy, M. J. (2001). ‘Analysis and Management of Animal Populations: Modeling, Estimation, and Decision Making.’ (Academic Press: San Diego.)

Winter, J. W., Dillewaard, H. A., Williams, S. E., and Bolitho, E. E. (2004). Possums and gliders of north Queensland: distribution and conservation status. In ‘The Biology of Australian Possums and Gliders’. (Eds R. L. Goldingay, and S. M. Jackson.) pp. 26–50. (Surrey Beatty: Sydney.)



Export Citation