Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Insulin secretion, body composition and pig performance are altered by feeding pattern

Ronald E. Newman A , Jeffery A. Downing A , Peter C. Thomson A , Cherie L. Collins B , David J. Henman B and Stuart J. Wilkinson A C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia.

B Rivalea Australia Pty Ltd, Corowa, NSW 2646, Australia.

C Corresponding author. Email: stuart.wilkinson@sydney.edu.au

Animal Production Science 54(3) 319-328 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13120
Submitted: 27 March 2013  Accepted: 8 July 2013   Published: 28 August 2013

Abstract

Three studies investigated the effect of feeding strategy on production performance and endocrine status of growing pigs. For Experiment 1, 20 entire male pigs (70.0 ± 4.6 kg) were allocated randomly to individual pens in one of four climate-controlled rooms. Pigs were fed for 23 days either ad libitum or entrained to feed bi-phasically for two 90-min periods. For Experiment 2, 20 entire male pigs (41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were housed as per Experiment 1. Pigs were fed for 49 days either ad libitum or fed bi-phasically for two 60-min periods. For Experiment 3, 100 female pigs (66.1 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated to individual pens within a commercial piggery and fed for 42 days either ad libitum or bi-phasically for two 60-min periods. Ear vein catheters were inserted into 10 pigs from each group and hourly blood samples were collected for 24 h in Experiments 1 and 2 and for 11 h in Experiment 3. Plasma insulin, non-esterified fatty acid and glucose concentrations were determined in Experiments 1 and 2, and glucose and insulin concentrations in Experiment 3. Feed intake and performance were recorded in all experiments and carcass composition was assessed by computed tomography for Experiment 2. There were no differences in final liveweight between the two treatment groups for all experiments. Pigs fed for two 90-min periods (Experiment 1) showed no difference in feed intake when compared with feeding ad libitum. Pigs in Experiment 2 fed for two 60-min intervals consumed 2.49 kg/pig.day compared with those fed ad libitum that consumed 2.68 kg/day (P = 0.057). In Experiment 3, pigs fed twice daily consumed 2.82 kg/pig.day compared with 2.91 kg/pig.day in ad libitum-fed pigs (P = 0.051). Bi-phasic fed pigs in Experiment 2 had improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency compared with pigs fed ad libitum. For all experiments, there was no difference in plasma glucose concentrations between the two treatments. In all three experiments, the circulating insulin concentrations for pigs fed ad libitum remained at a constant level throughout the sampling period. However, plasma insulin concentrations for the bi-phasic fed pigs significantly increased ~1 h after both feeding periods during all three experiments. Insulin secretion of pigs fed for two 90-min periods differed from that of pigs fed for two 60-min periods. Plasma insulin concentration increased five-fold following feeding for 60 min, compared with that in pigs fed for 90 min, which increased two-fold. Bi-phasic-fed pigs from Experiment 2 had reduced (P < 0.05) total carcass fat and significantly increased muscle when compared with pigs fed ad libitum. The data showed that feeding pigs at two succinct periods aligned insulin secretion to the time of feeding. Pigs fed for 60 min, unlike those fed for 90-min intervals, had reduced feed intake in comparison to those fed ad libitum. This may suggest that the duration of the feeding bout is important for this response and this may in turn influence both energy balance and the way energy is partitioned.

Additional keywords: carcass composition, feed efficiency, feed intake, pigs.


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