Dietary fatty acids affect the growth, body composition and performance of post-weaning gilt progenyS. J. Wilkinson A B , J. A. Downing A , P. C. Thomson A and R. E. Newman A
A The University of Sydney, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Camden, NSW 2570, Australia.
B Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Animal Production Science 54(3) 339-346 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13128
Submitted: 2 April 2013 Accepted: 14 May 2013 Published: 20 June 2013
Gilt progeny are born lighter, have lower weaning weights and require more medication throughout their life time than do sow progeny. Therefore, strategies to improve their post-weaning performance are of importance to pork producers. Dietary fatty acids have been shown to be potent modulators of physiological processes. Studies in other species have reported that dietary fatty acids affect in utero development, cognitive behaviour, immune system function, carcass composition as well as feed efficiency of offspring. However, little information is available that details their use in gilt progeny and when fed throughout their lifetime. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding three different types of fat to gilts and their progeny on the growth, body composition and performance post-weaning. Diets were enriched with either saturated fatty acids (SFA; tallow), or n-3 (fish-oil extracts) or n-6 (safflower oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and were fed to gilts through gestation and to their progeny post-weaning. In Experiment 2, half of the female progeny from n-3 and n-6 PUFA litters were fed SFA post-weaning. For both studies, there was no significant difference in weaning bodyweights. However, in Experiment 1, pigs fed n-6 PUFA diets post-weaning were significantly lighter 7 days post-weaning than were pigs fed SFA- and n-3 PUFA-enriched diets. Despite feed intake of n-6 PUFA-fed pigs becoming comparable to that of the other groups during the finisher period, bodyweight for this group remained significantly lower than that of the other groups at the conclusion of the experiment. No effect of dietary fatty acid type on the carcass composition of finisher pigs, as determined by computed tomography, was found. The results of Experiment 2 showed that feeding pigs n-6 PUFA diets post-weaning through to slaughter significantly compromised their growth, being in agreement with those from Experiment 1. Feed consumption for this group was significantly less during the post-weaning and the finisher periods. However, pigs from n-6 PUFA litters that were fed SFA diets post-weaning showed no compromise in growth and performance and were comparable to pigs from the other treatment groups. During the grower and finisher periods, pigs fed n-6 PUFA diets had a significantly higher rate of mortality that was as much as 13 times that of pigs fed SFA diets. Pigs from n-6 PUFA litters that were fed SFA diets post-weaning were not affected in this manner. The results of the current study showed that feeding diets enriched with n-6 PUFA to pigs significantly compromised their growth and performance and that this fatty acid type may also have negative health effects with prolonged consumption. The data suggested that the type of fatty acid used in pig diets may be an important consideration for nutritionists when formulating diets to optimise post-weaning growth and performance.
ReferencesAzain MJ (2004) Role of fatty acids in adipocyte growth and development. Journal of Animal Science 82, 916–924.
Barker DJP, Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Osmond C (2002) Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis. International Journal of Epidemiology 31, 1235–1239.
| Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD3s%2FosVOksw%3D%3D&md5=9be715c92cc41e4ebcf980979c983a35CAS |
Bee G, Gebert S, Messikommer R (2002) Effect of dietary energy supply and fat source on the fatty acid pattern of adipose and lean tissues and lipogenesis in the pig. Journal of Animal Science 80, 1564–1574.
Bergen WG, Mersmann HJ (2005) Comparative aspects of lipid metabolism: Impact on contemporary research and use of animal models. The Journal of Nutrition 135, 2499–2502.
Boudry G, Douard V, Mourot J, Lalles JP, Le Huerou-Luron I (2009) Linseed oil in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation modifies fatty acid composition, mucosal architecture, and mast cell regulation of the ileal barrier in piglets. The Journal of Nutrition 139, 1110–1117.
| Linseed oil in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation modifies fatty acid composition, mucosal architecture, and mast cell regulation of the ileal barrier in piglets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtlWrtrfK&md5=ddca80c5330c7d40528fc3acd4988938CAS | 19403717PubMed |
Calder PC (1999) Dietary fatty acids and the immune system. Lipids 34, S137–S140.
| Dietary fatty acids and the immune system.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXksFOjtrY%3D&md5=4f41e2422145a4452e07c8b4792e1fc9CAS | 10419124PubMed |
Calder PC, Yaqoob P (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes. BioFactors 35, 266–272.
| Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXotVyrsr4%3D&md5=fde9c0485b34498b294703bc9e159a4dCAS | 19391122PubMed |
Calder PC, Krauss-Etschmann S, De Jong EC, Dupont C, Frick JS, Frokiaer H, Heinrich J, Garn H, Koletzko S, Lack G, Mattelio G, Renz H, Sangild PT, Schrezenmeir J, Stulnig TM, Thymann T, Wold AE, Koletzko B (2006) Early nutrition and immunity – progress and perspectives. The British Journal of Nutrition 96, 774–790.
Calder PC, Albers R, Antoine JM, Blum S, Bourdet-Sicard R, Ferns GA, Folkerts G, Friedmann PS, Frost GS, Guarner F, Lvik M, Macfarlane S, Meyer PD, M’Rabet L, Serafini M, Van Eden W, Van Loo J, Vas Dias W, Vidry S, Winklhofer-Roob BM, Zhao J (2009) Special issue: inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition. The British Journal of Nutrition 101, S1–S45.
| Special issue: inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition.CrossRef | 19586558PubMed |
Calder PC, Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Noakes PS, Miles EA (2010) Is there a role for fatty acids in early life programming of the immune system? The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69, 373–380.
| Is there a role for fatty acids in early life programming of the immune system?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXovFCjs74%3D&md5=0000af979e0beab54f4eb3c56e8bb91dCAS | 20462467PubMed |
Christie WW (1982) A simple procedure for rapid transmethylation of glycerolipids and cholesteryl esters. Journal of Lipid Research 23, 1072–1075.
Close WH, Cole DJA (2000) ‘Nutrition of sows and boars.’ (Nottingham University Press: Nottingham)
Collins CL, Philpotts AC, Henman DJ (2009) Improving growth performance of finisher pigs with high fat diets. Animal Production Science 49, 262–267.
| Improving growth performance of finisher pigs with high fat diets.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXisFSnt70%3D&md5=9abf5355edb84f2eef3044115940742eCAS |
Enke U, Seyfarth L, Schleussner E, Markert UR (2008) Impact of PUFA on early immune and fetal development. The British Journal of Nutrition 100, 1158–1168.
| Impact of PUFA on early immune and fetal development.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsV2lsr3M&md5=7d49a8febbefc68e2323b32e60625a8dCAS | 18590581PubMed |
Fortin A, Clowes EJ, Schaefer AL (2003) Gestational and lactational feeding strategies for gilts: Growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the progeny. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 83, 205–211.
| Gestational and lactational feeding strategies for gilts: Growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the progeny.CrossRef |
Giles LR, Eamens GJ, Arthur PF, Barchia IM, James KJ, Taylor RD (2009) Differential growth and development of pigs as assessed by X-ray computed tomography. Journal of Animal Science 87, 1648–1658.
| Differential growth and development of pigs as assessed by X-ray computed tomography.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXlt1Ontro%3D&md5=67f778a9aa4b92dad1c08a5beba0a887CAS | 19098250PubMed |
Ibrahim A, Ghafoorunissa , Basak S, Ehtesham NZ (2009) Impact of maternal dietary fatty acid composition on glucose and lipid metabolism in male rat offspring aged 105 d. The British Journal of Nutrition 102, 233–241.
| Impact of maternal dietary fatty acid composition on glucose and lipid metabolism in male rat offspring aged 105 d.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXptleitbo%3D&md5=c8f74122e580f8d099cf82f05118c56fCAS | 19166630PubMed |
Innis SM (1991) Essential fatty-acids in growth and development. Progress in Lipid Research 30, 39–103.
| Essential fatty-acids in growth and development.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38Xht1OnsLs%3D&md5=17ecc3cd828fb6c3d37a6a1bd8eaf8f9CAS | 1771170PubMed |
Innis SM, Jacobson K (2007) Dietary lipids in early development and intestinal inflammatory disease. Nutrition Reviews 65, S188–S193.
| Dietary lipids in early development and intestinal inflammatory disease.CrossRef | 18240547PubMed |
Johnson RW (1997) Inhibition of growth by pro-inflammatory cytokines: an integrated view. Journal of Animal Science 75, 1244–1255.
Koletzko B, Lien E, Agostoni C, Bohles H, Campoy C, Cetin I, Decsi T, Dudenhausen JW, Dupont C, Forsyth S, Hoesli I, Holzgreve W, Lapillonne A, Putet G, Secher NJ, Symonds M, Szajewska H, Willatts P, Uauy R (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 36, 5–14.
| The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXktlyhsbg%3D&md5=5f793a6ee0c57816b1d65c9ac22a4b4fCAS | 18184094PubMed |
Lafourcade M, Larrieu T, Mato S, Duffaud A, Sepers M, Matias I, De Smedt-Peyrusse V, Labrousse VF, Bretillon L, Matute C, Rodriguez-Puertas R, Laye S, Manzoni OJ (2011) Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions. Nature Neuroscience 14, 345–350.
| Nutritional omega-3 deficiency abolishes endocannabinoid-mediated neuronal functions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht12msbo%3D&md5=c0128abdce910c39e458bdcf69057aeeCAS | 21278728PubMed |
Lopez-Pedrosa JM, Ramirez M, Torres MI, Gil A (1999) Dietary phospholipids rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the repair of small intestine in previously malnourished piglets. The Journal of Nutrition 129, 1149–1155.
Mahan DC, Cromwell GL, Ewan RC, Hamilton CR, Yen JT (1998) Evaluation of the feeding duration of a Phase 1 nursery diet to three-week-old pigs of two weaning weights. Journal of Animal Science 76, 578–583.
Margioris AN (2009) Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 12, 129–137.
| Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsFKksLc%3D&md5=210c575d3ebb4a9fc2fffae66ede993cCAS | 19202384PubMed |
Micallef M, Munro I, Phang M, Garg M (2009) Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity. The British Journal of Nutrition 102, 1370–1374.
| Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are negatively associated with obesity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVyrtL3O&md5=0438c9714082c0201f5ca4803977f30dCAS | 19454127PubMed |
Morales J, Pineiro C (2006) Progeny of primiparous sows: lower health status and productive performance. Suis 32, 16–24.
National Health and Medical Research Council (2004) ‘Australian code of practice for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes.’ 7th edn. (Commonwealth Government of Australia: Canberra)
National Research Council (1998) ‘Nutrient requirements of swine.’ 10th revised edn . (National Academy of Sciences: Washington DC)
Newman RE, Bryden WL, Fleck E, Ashes JR, Buttemer WA, Storlien LH, Downing JA (2002) Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition. The British Journal of Nutrition 88, 11–18.
| Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XmsF2msrY%3D&md5=3b3cb917ee301d3dad11bc4ce0d4039dCAS | 12117423PubMed |
Pagotto U, Vicennati V, Pasquali R (2005) The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of obesity. Annals of Medicine 37, 270–275.
| The endocannabinoid system and the treatment of obesity.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlsVWmurg%3D&md5=f4ecdca7352a308778b0fb160b33c1fdCAS | 16019725PubMed |
Prunier A, Heinonen M, Quesnel H (2010) High physiological demands in intensively raised pigs: impact on health and welfare. Animal 4, 886–898.
| High physiological demands in intensively raised pigs: impact on health and welfare.CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC38vptFGgtw%3D%3D&md5=87af9064ef7508ed401b735edbc49c08CAS | 22444261PubMed |
Rooke JA, Bland IM, Edwards SA (1998) Effect of feeding tuna oil or soyabean oil as supplements to sows in late pregnancy on piglet tissue composition and viability. The British Journal of Nutrition 80, 273–280.
| Effect of feeding tuna oil or soyabean oil as supplements to sows in late pregnancy on piglet tissue composition and viability.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmvVeguro%3D&md5=481ce7b2296f6dc23f31987f72f344f4CAS | 9875067PubMed |
Rossi R, Pastorelli G, Cannata S, Corino C (2010) Recent advances in the use of fatty acids as supplements in pig diets: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 162, 1–11.
| Recent advances in the use of fatty acids as supplements in pig diets: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVWqt7nJ&md5=73f015c1c7b921da3c9295628135e327CAS |
SCA (1987) ‘Feeding standards for Australian livestock: pigs.’ (CSIRO: Melbourne)
Simopoulos AP (1991) Omega-3-fatty-acids in health and disease and in growth and development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 438–463.
Simopoulos AP (2004) Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio and chronic diseases. Food Reviews International 20, 77–90.
| Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acid ratio and chronic diseases.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXhsl2nsbc%3D&md5=432fc0fda0c398d719a024b0bb3c8263CAS |
Storlien LH, Jenkins AB, Chisholm DJ, Pascoe WS, Khouri S, Kraegen EW (1991) Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats – Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 40, 280–289.
| Influence of dietary fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats – Relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3 fatty acids in muscle phospholipid.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXit1Ortbc%3D&md5=f0356abd0e469c448d3b42cfc62e027fCAS | 1991575PubMed |
Watkins BA, Hutchins H, Li Y, Seifert MF (2010) The endocannabinoid signaling system: a marriage of PUFA and musculoskeletal health. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 21, 1141–1152.
| The endocannabinoid signaling system: a marriage of PUFA and musculoskeletal health.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsValtrvF&md5=2eba3ca0bde96e412e297f92ecca0c53CAS | 20934863PubMed |
Wood JT, Williams JS, Pandarinathan L, Janero DR, Lammi-Keefe CJ, Makriyannis A (2010) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation alters select physiological endocannabinoid-system metabolites in brain and plasma. Journal of Lipid Research 51, 1416–1423.
| Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation alters select physiological endocannabinoid-system metabolites in brain and plasma.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXms1altbw%3D&md5=d7d344e575cfc88a054b0c7e41c99c0fCAS | 20071693PubMed |
Zhao J, Harper AF, Webb KE, Kuehn LA, Gilbert E, Xiao X, Wong EA (2008) Cytokine mRNA expression in the small intestine of weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with specialized protein or peptide sources. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21, 1800–1806.