Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
REVIEW

New perspectives on the mineral nutrition of livestock grazing cereal and canola crops

H. Dove A D , D. G. Masters B and A. N. Thompson C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A CSIRO Agriculture, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

B CSIRO Agriculture, Private Bag 5, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia.

C School of Veterinary and Life Science, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: hughdove@netspeed.com.au

Animal Production Science 56(8) 1350-1360 https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15264
Submitted: 29 May 2015  Accepted: 12 November 2015   Published: 5 April 2016

Abstract

The grazing of cereal and canola crops during winter is an increasing component of grazing systems in southern Australia. The capacity of such crops to meet the requirements of young livestock and reproducing animals for sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) is reviewed. The growth responses of young stock to Na and/or Mg supplements when grazing wheat are discussed. These responses differ from ‘literature expectation’ in that they are rapid in onset and involve no clinical signs. We demonstrate that more insight about the variability in supplement response, both between and between crops species, is obtained when mineral contents are viewed from the perspective of their frequency distributions, rather than their mean values. The pivotal importance of high K concentration, low Na and the resultant K : Na ratio of forage is stressed, as is the interaction of these minerals in relation to Mg absorption. We also present frequency distributions for a range of mineral indices that ‘capture’ mineral interactions, including the ‘tetany index’, forage K :  (Na+Mg) ratio and dietary cation–anion difference. It is concluded that the last two indices warrant a much closer investigation. Possible effects of forage aluminium and organic acid contents are briefly discussed; these also deserve closer examination. As research in this area continues, it would be prudent to provide Na and/or Mg supplements for livestock grazing wheat and possibly oats and barley, and calcium supplements for livestock grazing oats or for reproducing animals grazing all three cereals.

Additional keywords: barley, dual-purpose crop, hypomagnesaemia, oats.


References

Allen VG (1984) Influence of dietary aluminium on nutrient utilization in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 59, 836–844.

Bell L, Dove H (2012) Feed mineral supplements when grazing cereals. In ‘GRDC grower updates’, Coolah, NSW, 27 February 2012. pp. 16–20. (ICAN: Hornsby, NSW)

Bhanugopan MS, Fulkerson WJ, Hyde M, Fraser DR (2015) Effect of dietary potassium supplementation on the calcium absorption capacity in the rumen and abomasum and fractional excretion of urinary minerals in sheep. Animal Production Science 55, 508–514.
Effect of dietary potassium supplementation on the calcium absorption capacity in the rumen and abomasum and fractional excretion of urinary minerals in sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjvVOns70%3D&md5=2d45e7296c7cf11d1199f2e3545bef8eCAS |

Caple IW, Babacan E, Pham TT, Heath JA, Grant IM, Vizard AL, Cameron SJ, Allworth MB (1988a) Seasonal vitamin D deficiency in sheep in south-eastern Australia. Animal Production in Australia 17, 379

Caple IW, Heath JA, Grant IM (1988b) Calcium requirements of sheep during pregnancy, lactation and growth. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia 13, 33–40.

Coventry DR, Morrison GR, Reeves TG, Hirth JR, Fung KKH (1987) Mineral composition and responses to fertiliser of wheat grown on a limed and deep ripped soil in north-eastern Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 27, 687–694.
Mineral composition and responses to fertiliser of wheat grown on a limed and deep ripped soil in north-eastern Victoria.CrossRef |

CSIRO (2007) ‘Nutrient requirements of domesticated ruminants.’ (Eds M Freer, H Dove, JV Nolan) (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Dove H, Kelman WM (2015a) Responses of young sheep grazing dual-purpose wheat to supplementary sodium and magnesium supplied as direct supplement, or to magnesium supplied as fertiliser. Animal Production Science 55, 1217–1229.
Responses of young sheep grazing dual-purpose wheat to supplementary sodium and magnesium supplied as direct supplement, or to magnesium supplied as fertiliser.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXhsVyqu7fK&md5=40a1530e9e3cd686f279b8f68a456050CAS |

Dove H, Kelman WM (2015b) Comparison of the alkane-based herbage intakes and the liveweight gains of young sheep grazing forage oats, dual-purpose wheat or phalaris-based pasture. Animal Production Science 55, 1230–1240.
Comparison of the alkane-based herbage intakes and the liveweight gains of young sheep grazing forage oats, dual-purpose wheat or phalaris-based pasture.CrossRef |

Dove H, Kirkegaard J (2014) The use of dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94, 1276–1283.
The use of dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2cXht1ygsLs%3D&md5=752c9894bfe2f695eed0368992e1bdc2CAS | 24323974PubMed |

Dove H, McMullen G (2009) Diet selection, herbage intake and liveweight gain in young sheep grazing dual-purpose wheats and their responses to mineral supplements. Animal Production Science 49, 749–758.
Diet selection, herbage intake and liveweight gain in young sheep grazing dual-purpose wheats and their responses to mineral supplements.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtFelsbvL&md5=536541cdbd71ad578e0b50bb47449fadCAS |

Dove H, Holst PJ, Stanley DF, Flint PW (2002) Grazing value of dual-purpose winter wheats for young sheep. Animal Production in Australia 24, 53–56.

Dove H, Kelman WM, Kirkegaard JA, Sprague SJ (2012) Impact of sodium/magnesium supplementation on liveweight gains of young sheep grazing dual-purpose cereal or canola crops. Animal Production Science 52, 1027–1035.
Impact of sodium/magnesium supplementation on liveweight gains of young sheep grazing dual-purpose cereal or canola crops.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhsVCgtbrO&md5=1fc2c598129756a359f633a4b6ccc32cCAS |

Dove H, Kirkegaard JA, Kelman WM, Sprague SJ, McDonald SE, Graham JM (2015) Integrating dual-purpose wheat and canola into high-rainfall livestock systems in south-eastern Australia. 2. Pasture and livestock production. Crop and Pasture Science 66, 377–389.
Integrating dual-purpose wheat and canola into high-rainfall livestock systems in south-eastern Australia. 2. Pasture and livestock production.CrossRef |

Edmonstone B (2011) Rickets in lambs on grazing cereal crops. Flock and herd case notes. http://www.flockandherd.net.au/sheep/reader/rickets%20lambs%20cereals.html [Verified 7 May 2015]

Fontenot JP, Allen VG, Bunce GE, Goff JP (1989) Factors influencing magnesium absorption and metabolism in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 67, 3445–3455.

Gorham J, Hardy C, Wyn Jones RG, Joppa LR, Law CN (1987) Chromosomal location of a K/Na discrimination character in the D genome of wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 74, 584–588.
Chromosomal location of a K/Na discrimination character in the D genome of wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXjsV2iug%3D%3D&md5=462afa6b78cfb88bfba65e3c143abc1eCAS | 24240213PubMed |

Grant IM, Foot JZ, Brockhus MA, Bingham AM, Caple IW (1988) Factors affecting plasma calcium and phosphorus concentrations in grazing ewes in spring and autumn lambing flocks in Victoria. Animal Production in Australia 17, 194–197.

Grant IM, Bingham AM, Caple IW (1992) Acid–base balance and susceptibility of ewes to hypocalcaemia. Animal Production in Australia 19, 412–415.

Greene LW, Fontenot JP, Webb KE (1983) Effect of dietary potassium on absorption of magnesium and other macroelements in sheep fed different levels of magnesium. Journal of Animal Science 56, 1208–1213.

Grunes DL, Welch RM (1989) Plant contents of magnesium, calcium and potassium in relation to ruminant nutrition. Journal of Animal Science 67, 3485–3494.

Jacobs JL, Rigby SE (1999) ‘Minerals in dairy pastures in Victoria.’ (Department of Natural Resources and Environment: Warrnambool, Vic.)

Kemp A, ‘t Hart JL (1957) Grass tetany in grazing milking cows. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 4–17.

Khorasani GR, Armstrong DG (1990) Effect of sodium and potassium level on the absorption of magnesium and other macro-minerals in sheep. Livestock Production Science 24, 223–235.
Effect of sodium and potassium level on the absorption of magnesium and other macro-minerals in sheep.CrossRef |

Kirkegaard JA, Sprague SJ, Dove H, Kelman WM, Marcroft SJ, Lieschke AK, Howe JN, Graham JM (2008) Dual-purpose canola: a new opportunity in mixed farming systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 59, 291–302.
Dual-purpose canola: a new opportunity in mixed farming systems.CrossRef |

Leiber F, Wettstein H-R, Kreuzer M (2009) Is the intrinsic potassium content of forages an important factor in intake regulation of dairy cows? Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 93, 391–399.
Is the intrinsic potassium content of forages an important factor in intake regulation of dairy cows?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtValsr7I&md5=d2b6c5155f5960a0443528383aaa1421CAS | 18484968PubMed |

Masters DG (2015) Mineral nutrition of sheep: new interactions when grazing young crops. Animal Production Science 55, 1215–1216.
Mineral nutrition of sheep: new interactions when grazing young crops.CrossRef |

Masters DG, Thompson AN (2016) Grazing crops: implications for reproducing sheep. Animal Production Science 56, 655–668.
Grazing crops: implications for reproducing sheep.CrossRef |

McGrath SR, Lievaart JJ, Virgona JM, Bhanugopan MS, Friend MA (2013) Factors involved in high ewe losses in winter lambing flocks grazing dual-purpose wheat in southern New South Wales: a producer survey. Animal Production Science 53, 458–463.
Factors involved in high ewe losses in winter lambing flocks grazing dual-purpose wheat in southern New South Wales: a producer survey.CrossRef |

McGrath SR, Bhanugopan MS, Dove H, Clayton EH, Virgona JM, Friend MA (2015) Mineral supplementation of lambing ewes grazing dual-purpose wheat. Animal Production Science 55, 526–534.
Mineral supplementation of lambing ewes grazing dual-purpose wheat.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC2MXjvVOns78%3D&md5=ddfdbe3aaa4ecffa39b79e4eb6d209cbCAS |

McNeill DM, Roche JR, McLachlan BP, Stockdale CR (2002) Nutritional strategies for the prevention of hypocalcaemia at calving for dairy cows in pasture-based systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53, 755–770.
Nutritional strategies for the prevention of hypocalcaemia at calving for dairy cows in pasture-based systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xmt1GmtL0%3D&md5=f79407aef1e7a9a08578ac39c2e1d6aaCAS |

Moseley G, Jones DIH (1974) The effect of sodium chloride supplementation of a sodium adequate hay on digestion, production and mineral nutrition in sheep. The Journal of Agricultural Science 83, 37–42.
The effect of sodium chloride supplementation of a sodium adequate hay on digestion, production and mineral nutrition in sheep.CrossRef |

NRC (2005) ‘Mineral tolerance of animals.’ 2nd rev. edn. (The National Academies Press: Washington, DC)

NRC (2006). ‘Nutrient requirements of small ruminants.’ Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Research Council USA. (National Academy Press: Washington, DC)

Radcliffe JC, Dove H, McGrath D, Martin P, Wolfe EC (2012) ‘Review of the use and potential for dual purpose crops.’ Commissioned review for Grains Research and Development Corporation, February 2012. (GRDC: Canberra)

Roche JR, Dalley D, Moate P, Grainger C, Hannah M, O’Mara F, Rath M (2000) Variations in the dietary cation–anion difference and the acid–base balance of dairy cows on a pasture-based diet in south-eastern Australia. Grass and Forage Science 55, 26–36.
Variations in the dietary cation–anion difference and the acid–base balance of dairy cows on a pasture-based diet in south-eastern Australia.CrossRef |

Russell JB, van Soest PJ (1984) In vitro ruminal fermentation of organic acids common in forage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 47, 155–159.

Schwartz J, Topley M, Russell JB (1988) Effect of tricarballylic acid, a nonmetabolizable rumen fermentation product of trans-aconitic acid, on Mg, Ca and Zn utilization in rats. The Journal of Nutrition 118, 183–188.

Suttle NF (2010) ‘Mineral nutrition of livestock.’ 4th edn. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Takagi H, Block E (1991) Effects of manipulating dietary cation-anion balance on macromineral balance in sheep. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 4202–4214.
Effects of manipulating dietary cation-anion balance on macromineral balance in sheep.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK38XhsFSnu7o%3D&md5=a5f430d6f06311be83353c3e0429ce23CAS | 1664836PubMed |



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (1)