Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
FOREWORD

Bernard Michael Bindon — reproductive physiologist, animal scientist, research leader

K. W. Entwistle A I , L. J. Cummins B , M. A. Hillard C , J. E. Kinder D , T. O’Shea E , L. R. Piper F , J. Thimonier G and J. F. Wilkins H
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A ‘Studley’, Uralla, NSW 2358, Australia.

B ‘Ivanhoe’, Cavendish, Victoria 3314, Australia.

C Chemicon Australia Ltd., Locked Bag 1, Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia.

D Department of Animal Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

E University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia.

F CSIRO Livestock Industries, Locked Bag 1, Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia.

G 44 Enclos Galilée, Mauguio, 34130, France.

H NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

I Corresponding author. Email: kentwis2@une.edu.au

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46(2) i-xii https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05222
Submitted: 25 August 2005  Accepted: 19 September 2005   Published: 3 March 2006

Abstract

This paper is a foreword to a series of papers commissioned on ‘the impact of science on the beef industry’, where the Beef CRC-related collaborative scientific work of Professor Bernard Michael Bindon will be reviewed. These papers will be presented in March 2006, as part of a ‘festschrift’ to recognise his wider contributions to the Australian livestock industries for over 40 years. Bindon’s career involved basic and applied research in many areas of reproductive physiology, genetics, immunology, nutrition, meat science and more recently genomics, in both sheep and cattle. Together with his collaborators, he made large contributions to animal science by improving the knowledge of mechanisms regulating reproductive functions and in elucidating the physiology and genetics of high fecundity livestock. His collaborative studies with many colleagues of the reproductive biology and genetics of the Booroola Merino were amongst the most extensive ever conducted on domestic livestock. He was instrumental in the development of immunological techniques to control ovulation rate and in examining the application of these and other techniques to increase beef cattle reproductive output. This paper tracks his investigations and achievements both within Australia and internationally. In the later stages of his career he was the major influence in attracting a large investment in Cooperative Research Centres for the Australian cattle industry, in which he directed a multi-disciplinary approach to investigate, develop and disseminate science and technology to improve commercial cattle productivity.


Acknowledgments

We thank a large number of colleagues for their comments and contributions to this review of the achievements of Professor Bernard Michael Bindon. The work described in this paper has been supported by many industry funding bodies and by the employers of the scientists, too numerous to mention individually but gratefully acknowledged.


References


An electronic version containing a full list of the 280 plus publications of Bernie Bindon is currently being prepared and will be available from the Beef CRC in the near future. The following references are those quoted in this Foreword.

Al-Obaidi SAR, Bindon BM, Hillard MA, O’Shea T, Piper LR (1986) Suppression of ovine plasma FSH by bovine follicular fluid: neutralization by plasma from ewes immunized against an inhibin enriched preparation from bovine follicular fluid. Journal of Endocrinology 111, 1–5.
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Al-Obaidi SAR, Bindon BM, Findlay JK, Hillard MA, O’Shea T (1987a) Plasma follicle stimulating hormone in Merino ewes immunized with an inhibin-enriched fraction from bovine follicular fluid. Animal Reproduction Science 14, 39–51.
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Al-Obaidi SAR, Bindon BM, Hillard MA, O’Shea T (1987b) Reproductive characteristics of lambs actively immunized early in life with inhibin-enriched preparations from follicular fluid of cows. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 81, 403–414.
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Anderson ST, Bindon BM, Hillard MA, O’Shea T (1998) Increased ovulation rate in Merino ewes immunized against small synthetic peptide fragments of the inhibin a subunit. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 10, 421–433.
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Bindon BM (1969a) Blood flow in the reproductive organs of the mouse after hypophysectomy after gonadotrophin treatment, during the oestrus cycle and during early pregnancy. Journal of Endocrinology 44, 23–36.
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Bindon BM (1969b) Fate of the unfertilized sheep ovum. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 20, 183–184.
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Bindon BM (1969c) Follicle stimulating hormone content of the pituitary gland before implantation in the mouse and rat. The Journal of Endocrinology 44, 349–356.
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Bindon BM (1969d) Mechanism of inhibition of implantation in suckling mice. Journal of Endocrinology 44, 357–362.
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Bindon BM (1969e) Role of the pituitary gland in implantation in the mouse: delay of implantation by hypophysectomy and neurodepressive drugs. Journal of Endocrinology 43, 225–235.
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Bindon BM (1969f) The incorporation of 131iodinated human serum albumin in the ovary and uterus before implantation in the mouse. Journal of Endocrinology 45, 543–548.
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Bindon BM (1971a) Systematic study of pre-implantation stages of pregnancy in the sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 24, 131–147.
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Bindon BM (1971b) The role of progesterone in implantation in the sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 24, 149–158.
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Bindon BM (1972) Genetic differences in ovarian response to gonadotrophin by the Merino ewe. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 28, 145–146.
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Bindon BM (1973a) Pituitary and ovarian mechanisms in implantation. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 18(Supplement), 167–175.
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Bindon BM (1973b) Genetic differences in plasma luteinizing hormone of the prepubertal lamb. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 32, 347–348.
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Bindon BM (1975) Ovulation in ewes selected for fecundity. Effect of synthetic GnRH injected on the day of oestrus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 44, 325–328.
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Bindon BM (1984) Reproductive biology of the Booroola Merino sheep. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 37, 163–189.
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Bindon BM (2001) Genesis of the Cooperative Research Centre for the Cattle and Beef Industry: integration of resources for beef quality research (1993–2000). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 843–854.
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Bindon BM, Anderson ST, Cummins LJ, Findlay JK, Hillard MA, O’Shea T, Paull D, Tsonis CG, Wilkins JF (1994) Manipulation of reproduction in sheep and cattle by vaccination against inhibin-related peptides. In ‘Vaccines in agriculture. Immunological applications to animal health and production’. (Eds PR Wood, P Willadsen, JE Vercoe, RM Hoskinson, D Demeyer) pp. 85–96. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Bindon BM, Blanc MR, Pelletier J, Terqui M, Thimonier J (1975) Preovulatory gonadotrophin and ovarian steroid changes in French sheep breeds different in fecundity. Does FSH stimulate follicles? Proceedings of the Endocrine Society of Australia 18, 64. open url image1

Bindon BM, Blanc MR, Pelletier J, Terqui M, Thimonier J (1979) Periovulatory gonadotrophin and ovarian steroid patterns in sheep of breeds with differing fecundity. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 55, 15–25.
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Bindon BM, Blanc MR, Pelletier J, Terqui M, Thimonier J (1976) Oestrus and ovulation following luteolysis by prostaglandin analogue in sheep of four breeds of different prolificacy. Réunion S.S.F. - S.F.E.S.F., Tours-Nouzilly, Annales. Biologica Animale Biochemestry Biophysics 16, 169. open url image1

Bindon BM, Burrow HM, Kinghorn BP (2001) Delivery of CRC outcomes to beef industry stakeholders. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 1073–1087.
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Bindon BM, Ch’ang TS, Turner HN (1971) Ovarian response to gonadotrophin by Merino ewes selected for fecundity. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 809–820.
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Bindon BM, Ch’ang TS, Evans RE (1974) Genetic effects of LH release by oestradiol and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in prepubertal lambs. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 36, 477.
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Bindon BM, Emmens CW, Smith MSR (1973) Research related to the control of fertility. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 18 (Supplement), 235. open url image1

Bindon BM, Findlay JK, Piper LR (1985) Plasma FSH and LH in prepubertal Booroola ewe lambs. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 38, 215–220.
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Bindon BM, Hillard MA (1992) Hormonal induction of twins in beef cattle. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 19, 439–440. open url image1

Bindon BM, Jones NM (2001) Cattle supply, production systems and markets for Australian beef. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 861–877.
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Bindon BM, Lamond DR (1966a) Description of a mouse colony used for research in reproductive physiology. Journal of the Institute of Animal Technicians 17, 6–15. open url image1

Bindon BM, Lamond DR (1966b) Diurnal component in the response by the mouse to gonadotrophin. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 21, 249–261. open url image1

Bindon BM, Lamond DR (1969) Effect of hypophysectomy on implantation in the mouse. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 18, 43–50.
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Bindon BM, Piper LR (1976a) Seasonality of ovulation rate in Merino ewes differing in fecundity. Theriogenology 6, 621.
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Bindon BM, Piper LR (1976b) Assessment of new and traditional techniques of selection for reproduction rate. In ‘Sheep breeding. Proceedings of 1976 International Congress, Muresk, WA’. (Eds GJ Tomes, DE Robertson, RJ Lightfoot) pp. 357–372. (West Australian Institute of Technology: Perth)

Bindon BM, Piper LR (1977) Induction of ovulation in sheep and cattle by injection of PMSG and ovine anti-PMSG immune serum. Theriogenology 8, 171.
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Bindon BM, Piper LR, Evans R (1982) Reproductive biology of the Booroola Merino. In ‘The Booroola Merino. Proceedings of a Workshop held in Armidale, August 1980’. (Eds LR Piper, BM Bindon, RD Nethery) pp. 21–34. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Bindon BM, Piper LR, Ch’ang TS (1984a) Reproductive performance of crossbred ewes derived from Booroola and control Merinos and joined to rams of two terminal sire breeds. In ‘Reproduction in sheep’. (Eds DR Lindsay, DT Pearce) pp. 243–246. (Australian Academy of Science: Canberra)

Bindon BM, Piper LR, Thimonier J (1984b) Pre-ovulatory LH characteristics and time of ovulation in Booroola and control Merinos and in cattle selected for twinning. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 71, 519–523.
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Bindon BM, Piper LR, Cahill LP, Driancourt MA, O’Shea T (1986) Genetic and hormonal factors affecting superovulation. Theriogenology 25, 53–70.
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Bindon BM, Roberts EM (1964) Control of ovarian activity in ewes with progestagens. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 7, 397–399.
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Bindon BM, Tassell R (1969) Losses of FSH activity due to fractionation and lypophilization of sheep and rat pituitary tissue. Journal of Endocrinology 44, 131–132.
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Bindon BM, Thimonier J, Piper LR (1978) Timing of the pre-ovulatory LH discharge in high fecundity sheep. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Reproductive Biology 10, 82. open url image1

Bindon BM, Turner HN (1974) Plasma LH of the prepubertal lamb: a possible early indicator of fertility. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 39, 85–88.
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Bindon BM, Waites GMH (1968) Discrepancy in weight and blood flow in the left and right testis and epididymis of the mouse before and after hypophysectomy. Journal of Endocrinology 40, 333–334. open url image1

Corbet NJ, Miller RG, Bindon BM, Burrow HM, D’Occhio MJ, Entwistle KW, Fitzpatrick LA, Wilkins JF, Kinder JE (1999) Synchronization of estrus and fertility in Zebu beef heifers treated with three estrus synchronization protocols. Theriogenology 51, 647–659.
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Cornu C, Bindon BM, Piper LR (1982) Artificial rearing of lambs: evaluation of French techniques and equipment in New South Wales. Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding 30, 171–174. open url image1

Cummins LJ (1992) Twinning in cattle (Contract review). Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 19, 438–447. open url image1

Cummins LJ (1994) Beef cattle twinning (Contract review). Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 20, 27–36. open url image1

Cummins LJ, Clark AJ, McLeod IK, Wilkins JF, Williamson PJ, Hennessy DW, Hillard MA, Pashen RL, Darrow MD (1992) Induced twins by embryo transfer. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 19, 440–441. open url image1

Cummins LJ, De Knegt L, Clark AJ, McLeod IK (1994) The effect of twinning and stocking rate on calf growth at Hamilton. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 20, 32–33. open url image1

Cummins LJ, O’Shea T, Bindon BM, Lee VWK, Findlay JK (1983) Ovarian inhibin content and sensitivity to inhibin in Booroola and control strain Merino ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 67, 1–7.
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Cummins LJ, O’Shea T, Al-Obaidi SAR, Bindon BM, Findlay JK (1986) Increase in ovulation rate after immunization of Merino ewes with a fraction of bovine follicular fluid containing inhibin activity. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 77, 365–372.
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Cushman RA, Allan MF, Snowder GD, Thallman RM, Echternkamp SE (2005) Evaluation of ovulation rate and ovarian phenotype in puberal heifers from a cattle population selected for increased ovulation rate. Journal of Animal Science 83, 1839–1844.
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Davis GH (2003) Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep. In ‘Proceedings of an international workshop on major genes and QTL in sheep and goats. 8–11 December, 2003, Toulouse, France’. pp. 2–06. (INRA: Paris)

Driancourt MA, Jego Y, Cahill LP, Bindon BM (1985a) Follicle population dynamics in sheep with different ovulation rate potentials. Livestock Production Science 13, 21–33.
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Driancourt MA, Cahill LP, Bindon BM (1985b) Ovarian follicular populations and pre-ovulatory enlargement in Booroola and control Merino ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 73, 93–107.
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Driancourt MA, Castonguay F, Bindon BM, Piper LR, Quirke JF, Hanrahan JP (1990) Ovarian follicular dynamics in lines of sheep (Finn, Merinos) selected on ovulation rate. Journal of Animal Science 68, 2034–2041.
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Findlay JK, Bindon BM (1976) Plasma FSH in Merino lambs selected for fecundity. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 46, 515–516.
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Fry RC, Cahill LP, Cummins JT, Bindon BM, Piper LR, Clarke IJ (1987) The half life of follicle stimulating hormone in ovary-intact and ovariectomised Booroola and control Merino ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 81, 611–615.
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Fry RC, Simpson TL, Squires TJ, Harris SG, Findlay JK (1995) The effect of FSH, AIB and bST on follicular growth and oocyte recovery in young calves. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Reproductive Biology 27, 76. open url image1

Gordon I (1996) Induction of twin births in cattle. In ‘Controlled reproduction in cattle and buffaloes’. (Ed. I Gordon) pp. 372–416. (CAB International: Wallingford)

Gregory KE, Echternkamp SE, Cundiff LV (1996) Effects of twinning on dystocia, calf survival, carcass traits, and cow productivity. Journal of Animal Science 74, 1223–1233.
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Gregory KE, Bennett GL, Van Vleck LD, Echternkamp SE, Cundiff LV (1997) Genetic and environmental parameters for ovulation rate, twinning rate, and weight traits in a cattle population selected for twinning. Journal of Animal Science 75, 1213–1222.
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Guerra-Martinez P, Dickerson GE, Anderson GB, Green RD (1990) Embryo-transfer twinning and performance efficiency in beef production. Journal of Animal Science 68, 4039–4050.
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Hennessy DW, Wilkins JF, Williamson PJ, Andrews CM, Makings BJ (1994) Forage intake and efficiency of beef cows rearing single or twin calves and grazing irrigated pastures. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 20, 33–34. open url image1

Hillard MA, Wilkins JF, Cummins LJ, Bindon BM, Tsonis CG, Findlay JK, O’Shea T (1995) Immunological manipulation of ovulation rate for twinning in cattle. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Supplement 49, 351–364.
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Holland EJ, Bindon BM, Piper LR, Thimonier J, Cornish KA, Radford HM (1981) Endoscopy in cattle: techniques for ovarian examination by the paralumbar and mid-ventral routes. Animal Reproduction Science 4, 127–135.
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Kind K, Bindon BM, Hilllard MA, O′Shea T (1988) Plasma follicle stimulating hormone, ovulation rate and fertility in Merino ewes treated with bovine follicular fluid. Animal Reproduction Science 16, 27–38.
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Lamond DR, Bindon BM (1962) Oestrus, ovulation and fertility following suppression of ovarian cycles in Merino ewes by progesterone. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 4, 57–66.
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Lamond DR, Bindon BM (1966a) Biological assay of follicle-stimulating hormone in hypophysectomized immature mice. Journal of Endocrinology 34, 365–376.
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Lamond DR, Bindon BM (1966b) The effect of gonadotrophins on uterine growth of hypophysectomized mice. Nature 209, 512–513.
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Lloyd HM, Bindon BM, Lamond DR, Meares DJ (1968) Starch gel electrophoresis of mouse pituitary gonadotrophins. Journal of Endocrinology 40, 313–323.
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Martin FIR, Bindon BM, Lamond DR (1969) Collaborative bioassay of follicle stimulating hormone in hypophysectomized mice. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 47, 281–282.
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McGuirk BJ, Killeen ID, Piper LR, Bindon BM, Caffery G, Langford D (1982) Evaluation of Booroola-Collinsville Merino crosses in southern NSW. In ‘The Booroola Merino. Proceedings of a workshop held in Armidale, August 1980’. (Eds LR Piper, BM Bindon, RD Nethery) pp. 69–76. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

McNatty KP, Henderson KM, Fleming JS, Clarke IJ, Bindon BM, Piper LR, O’Shea T, Hillard MA, Findlay JK (1991) The physiology of the Booroola ewe. In ‘Major genes for reproduction in sheep. 2nd International workshop, Toulouse, France, July 1990’. (Eds J Melsen, L Bodin, J Thimonier) pp. 105–124. (INRA: Paris)

Mulsant P, Lecerf F, Fabre S, Schibler L, Monget P , et al. (2001) Mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor-1B is associated with increased ovulation rate in Booroola Merino ewes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 5104–5109.
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Mulsant P, Lecerf F, Fabre S, Bodin L, Thimonier J, Monget P, Lanneluc I, Monniaux D, Teyssier J, Elsen JM (2003) Prolificacy genes in sheep: the French genetic programs. In ‘Proceedings of the 6th international symposium on reproduction in domestic ruminants. August 14–17, 2002, Crieff, Scotland, UK. Supplément 61’. pp. 353–359. (Society for Reproduction and Fertility: Scotland)

O’Shea T, Bindon BM, Forage RG, Findlay JK, Tsonis CG (1993) Active immunization of Merino ewe lambs with recombinant inhibin advances puberty and increases ovulation rate. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 5, 173–180.
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O’Shea T, Cummins LJ, Bindon BM, Findlay JK (1982) Increased ovulation rate in ewes vaccinated with an inhibin-enriched fraction from bovine follicular fluid. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Reproductive Biology 14, 85. open url image1

O’Shea T, Hillard MA, Anderson ST, Bindon BM, Findlay JK, Tsonis CG, Wilkins JF (1994) Inhibin immunization for increasing ovulation rate and superovulation. Theriogenology 41, 3–17.
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Owens JL, Bindon BM, Edey TN, Piper LR (1984) Effect of litter size on blood haematocrit and liveweight in Booroola Merino and Merino ewes during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Theriogenology 22, 579–586.
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Owens JL, Bindon BM, Edey TN, Piper LR (1985a) Behaviour at parturition and lamb survival of Booroola Merino sheep. Livestock Production Science 13, 359–372.
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Owens JL, Edey TN, Bindon BM, Piper LR (1985b) Parturient behaviour and calf survival in a herd selected for twinning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 13, 321–333.
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Piper LR, Allison AJ, Bindon BM, Gheradi P, Kelly RW, Killeen ID, Lindsay DR, Oldham C, Robertson D, Stevenson JR (1976) Ovulation rate in high fecundity Merino crosses. Theriogenology 6, 622.
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Piper LR, Bindon BM (1982) The Booroola Merino and the performance of medium non-Peppin crosses at Armidale. In ‘The Booroola Merino. Proceedings of a workshop held in Armidale, August 1980’. (Eds LR Piper, BM Bindon, RD Nethery) pp. 9–20. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

Piper LR, Bindon BM (1983) The Booroola Merino and the performance of medium non-Peppin crosses at Armidale. Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding 31, 14–19. open url image1

Piper LR, Bindon BM (1986) The reproductive biology of prolific sheep breeds. Oxford Reviews of Reproductive Biology 8, 414–451.
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Piper LR, Bindon BM (1990) Genetic and non-genetic approaches to increasing prolificacy in beef cattle. Proceedings of the Australian Association of Animal Breeding and Genetics 8, 381–388. open url image1

Piper LR, Bindon BM (1996) The Booroola Merino. In ‘Prolific sheep’. (Ed. MH Fahmy) pp. 152–160. (CAB International: Wallingford)

Piper LR, Bindon BM, Davis GH (1985) The single gene inheritance of the high litter size of the Booroola Merino. In ‘The genetics of reproduction in sheep’. (Eds RB Land, DW Robinson) pp. 115–26. (Butterworths: London)

Reverter A, Johnston DJ, Burrow HM, Oddy VH, Perry D, Ferguson DM, Thompson JM, Goddard ME, Bindon BM (2003) Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of live animal, carcass and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. IV. Correlations among live animal, abattoir carcass and meat quality traits. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54, 149–158.
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Roberts EM, Bindon BM, Houlahan PM (1963) Preliminary report on regulation of oestrus and fertility in cyclic ewes by oral administration of 6-methyl-17-acetoxy-progesterone. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 3, 78–80.
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Roberts EM, Bindon BM (1966) A study of the effect of short and long-acting progestagens on anoestrous Merino and Romney ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 12, 155–159.
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Robertson DM, Ellis S, Foulds LM, Findlay JK, Bindon BM (1984) Pituitary gonadotrophins in Booroola and control Merino sheep. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 71, 189–197.
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Scaramuzzi RJ, Geldard H, Beels CM, Hoskinson RM, Cox RI (1983) Increasing lambing percentages through immunization against steroid hormones. Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding 31, 87–97. open url image1

Souza CJ, MacDougall C, Campbell BK, McNeilly AS, Baird DT (2001) The Booroola (FecB) phenotype is associated with a mutation in the bone morphogenetic receptor type 1 B (BMPR1B) gene. The Journal of Endocrinology 169, R1–R6.
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Tassell RJ, Kennedy JP, Bindon BM, Piper LR (1983) Ovarian follicles from new-born Merino lambs from genetic lines which differ in fecundity. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 36, 351–355.
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Thimonier J, Bindon BM, Piper RL (1979) Ovarian response to PMSG in cattle selected for twinning. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Reproductive Biology 11, 5. open url image1

Thimonier J, Bindon BM, Piper LR, Curtis YM, Cheers MA, Farrell RM (1985) Seasonal changes in spontaneous oestrus and ovulation in Border Leicester × Merino and Dorset × Merino ewes. Wool Technology and Sheep Breeding 33, 28–31. open url image1

Turner HN (1982) Origins of the CSIRO Booroola. In ‘The Booroola Merino. Proceedings of a workshop held in Armidale, August 1980’. (Eds LR Piper, BM Bindon, RD Nethery) pp. 1–7. (CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne)

Wilkins JF, Fowler DG, Piper LR, Bindon BM (1982) Observations on litter size and reproductive wastage using ultrasonic scanning. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 14, 637. open url image1

Wilkins JF, Fowler DG, Bindon BM, Piper LR, Hall DG, Fogarty NM (1984) Measuring foetal loss with real time scanning. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 15, 768. open url image1

Wilkins JF, Hennessy DW, Cummins LJ, Hillard MA (1994) Embryo loss in multiple bearing cows. In Cummins LJ ‘Beef cattle twinning’ (Contract review). Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 20, 29–30. open url image1







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