Animal Production Science Animal Production Science Society
Food, fibre and pharmaceuticals from animals
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Concentrates based on sorghum grain provide a basis for a finishing system for crossbred lambs

M. K. Bowen A C D , P. M. Pepper B , J. Winkleman A and I. McConnel A
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, PO Box 519, Longreach, Qld 4730, Australia.

B Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Locked Mail Bag 4, Moorooka, Qld 4105, Australia.

C Present address: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, PO Box 6014, Rockhampton, Qld 4702, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: maree.bowen@dpi.qld.gov.au

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47(11) 1317-1325 https://doi.org/10.1071/EA06189
Submitted: 23 June 2006  Accepted: 2 May 2007   Published: 18 October 2007

Abstract

In parts of Australia, sorghum grain is a cheaper alternative to other cereal grains but its use and nutritive value in sheep feeding systems is not well understood. The aim of this work was to compare growth and carcass characteristics for crossbred lambs consuming several simple, sorghum-based diets. The treatments were: (1) whole sorghum grain, (2) whole sorghum grain + urea and ammonium sulfate, (3) cracked sorghum grain + urea and ammonium sulfate, (4) expanded sorghum grain + urea and ammonium sulfate, (5) whole sorghum grain + cottonseed meal, and (6) whole sorghum grain + whole cottonseed. Nine lambs were slaughtered initially to provide baseline carcass data and the remaining 339 lambs were gradually introduced to the concentrate diets over 14 days before being fed concentrates and wheaten hay ad libitum for 41, 56 or 76 days.

Neither cracking nor expanding whole sorghum grain with added non-protein nitrogen (N) resulted in significantly (P > 0.05) increased final liveweight, growth rates or carcass weights for lambs, or in decreased days on feed to reach 18-kg carcass weight, although carcass fat depth was significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared with the whole sorghum plus non-protein N diet. However, expanding sorghum grain significantly (P < 0.05) reduced faecal starch concentrations compared with whole or cracked sorghum diets with added non-protein N (79 v. 189 g/kg DM after 59 days on feed). Lambs fed whole sorghum grain without an additional N source had significantly (P < 0.05) lower concentrate intake and required significantly (P < 0.05) more days on feed to reach a carcass weight of 18 kg than for all diets containing added N. These lambs also had significantly (P < 0.05) lower carcass weight and fat depth than for lambs consuming whole sorghum plus true protein diets. Substituting sources of true protein (cottonseed meal and whole cottonseed) for non-protein N (urea and ammonium sulfate) did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect concentrate intakes or carcass weights of lambs although carcass fat depth was significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the days to reach 18-kg carcass weight were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for the whole sorghum plus cottonseed meal diet.

In conclusion, processing sorghum grain by cracking or expanding did not significantly improve lamb performance. While providing an additional N source with sorghum grain significantly increased lamb performance, there was no benefit in final carcass weight of lambs from substituting sources of true protein for non-protein N.


Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Australian Sheep Industry Cooperative Research Centre with in-kind contributions from the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland (DPI&F). We are grateful to the Health and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory of DPI&F for conducting laboratory analyses.


References


Anon.  (1975) ‘Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants.’ (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: London)

Anon.  (2001) ‘AUS-MEAT sheepmeat language.’ (AUS-MEAT Ltd: Woolloongabba)

AOAC (1975) ‘Official methods of analysis.’ (Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Washington DC)

Bell AK, Shands CG, Hegarty RS (2003) ‘Grain finishing of lambs.’ (Meat and Livestock Australia: North Sydney)

Beretta V, Kirby RM (2004) Nutritional characteristics of cereal grains. In ‘Feeding grain for sheep meat production’. (Ed. HM Chapman) pp. 33–39. (Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Sheep Industry CRC: Bentley)

Bird SH, Rowe JB, Choct M, Stachiw S, Tyler P, Thompson RD (1999) In vitro fermentation of grain and enzymatic digestion of cereal starch. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia 12, 53–61.

Bolleter WT, Bushman CJ, Tidwell PW (1961) Spectrophotometric determination of ammonia as indophenol. Analytical Chemistry 33, 592.
CrossRef |

Bowen MK, Ryan MP, Jordan DJ, Beretta V, Kirby RM, Stockman C, McIntyre BL, Rowe JB (2006) Improving sheep feedlot management. International Journal of Sheep and Wool Science 54, 27–34.

Bowen MK, Pepper PM, Patterson E, McConnel I, Jordan D (2007) Growth and carcass characteristics of cast-for-age Merino ewes fed sorghum-based feedlot diets. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 47, 1309–1316.

Davis C (1977) Limits to production of sheep fed diets based on cereal grains. Australian Meat Research Committee Final Report DAN11S. AMRC and NSW Department of Agriculture, NSW.

Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2006) DPI&F Note: livestock nutrition, supplementary feeding of sheep using cottonseed. Available at http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/sheep/8091.html [Verified 4 August 2007]

Foss Tecator (2002a) Application sub-note ASN 3805. The determination of neutral detergent fibre using the Fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.

Foss Tecator (2002b) Application sub-note ASN 3804. The determination of acid detergent fibre using the Fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.

Foss Tecator (2002c) Application sub-note ASN 3801. The determination of crude fibre in feed according to AOAC, ISO, AACC and AOCS standards using the Fibercap system. Foss Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden.

Genstat Committee (2005) ‘The guide to Genstat Part 2: statistics.’ (VSN International Ltd: Oxford)

Hadjipanayiotou M, Georghiades E (1985) Digestibility of triticale and barley grains given to sheep whole, ground or treated with urea. Technical Bulletin 74, Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia. pp. 1–5.

Huntington GB (1997) Starch utilization by ruminants: from basics to the bunk. Journal of Animal Science 75, 852–867.
PubMed |


Jones FM, Hegarty RS, Davis JJ (2004) Nutritional requirements of growing lambs: protein and energy requirements. In ‘Feeding grain for sheep meat production’. (Ed. HM Chapman) pp. 13–23. (Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Sheep Industry CRC: Bentley)

Kent-Jones DW, Amos AJ (1957) ‘Modern cereal chemistry.’ 5th edn. (Northern Publishing Co. Ltd: Liverpool)

Malik RC, Razzaque MA, Abbas S, Al-Khozam N, Sahni S (1996) Feedlot growth and efficiency of three-way cross lambs as affected by genotype, age and diet. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 21, 251–254.

McCleary BV, Gibson TS, Solah V (1992) A rapid procedure for total starch measurement in cereal grains and products. In ‘Proceedings of the 42nd RACI cereal chemistry conference. Christchurch, New Zealand, 7–11 September, 1992’. pp. 304–312.

McIntyre BL, Ryan MP (2005) Effect of three different grain feeding systems on growth and carcass characteristics of crossbred and Merino lambs. Final Experiment Report, Sheep CRC Project 1.5.1: Simple and profitable grain feeding systems for lamb. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia and Australian Sheep Industry CRC, Perth.

McLennan SR (1997) Developing profitable strategies for increasing growth rates of cattle grazing tropical pastures. Project DAQ.100 Final Report. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, The University of Queensland and Meat Research Corporation, Moorooka.

Meat and Livestock Australia (2005) ‘The lamb guide: a guide to Australian lamb production and marketing.’ (Meat and Livestock Australia Limited: North Sydney)

Neutze S (1991) Degradation of feed protein in the rumen: degradability of common feeds and factors affecting degradation. NSW Agriculture Advisory Bulletin, Agdex 400/54.

Ørskov ER (1979) Recent information on processing of grain for ruminants. Livestock Production Science 6, 335–347.
CrossRef |

Ørskov ER, Smart R, Mehrez AZ (1974) A method of including urea in whole grains. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 83, 299–302.

Rooney LW, Pflugfelder RL (1986) Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. Journal of Animal Science 63, 1607–1623.
PubMed |


Rowe JB, Choct M, Pethick DW (1999) Processing cereal grains for animal feeding. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 721–736.
CrossRef |

Ryan MP, McIntyre BL (2006) Effect of different systems of introducing lambs to grain feeding on subsequent production characteristics. Final Experiment Report, Sheep CRC Project 1.5.1: Simple and profitable grain feeding systems for lamb. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia and Australian Sheep Industry CRC, Esperance.

Searle TW, Graham NMcC (1970) Body composition of growing sheep and its relevance to pasture evaluation. Proceedings of the Australian Society of Animal Production 8, 472–475.

Searle TW, Graham NMcC (1972) Growth in sheep. I. The chemical composition of the body. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 79, 371–382.

Sweeney RA (1989) Generic combustion method for determination of crude protein in feeds. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 770–774.

Taylor J (1973) The analysis of designed experiments with censored observations. Biometrics 29, 35–43.
CrossRef |

Theurer CB, Huber JT, Delgado-Elorduy A, Wanderley R (1999) Invited review: summary of steam-flaking corn or sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82, 1950–1959.
PubMed |


Van Soest PJ (1963) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fibre and lignin. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 46, 825–829.

Van Soest PJ, Wine RH (1967) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell-wall constituents. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 50, 50–55.

Wiese SC, White CL, Masters DG, Milton JTB, Davidson RH (2003) Growth and carcass characteristics of prime lambs fed diets containing urea, lupins or canola meal as a crude protein source. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43, 1193–1197.
CrossRef |

Wiese SC, Pethick DW, Milton JTB, Davidson RH, McIntyre BL, Souza DND (2005) Effect of teeth eruption on growth performance and meat quality of sheep. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 45, 509–515.
CrossRef |

Ziggers D (2003) Expanding and structurizing. In ‘Feed tech’. pp. 8–11.








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (2)