Australasian Plant Pathology Australasian Plant Pathology Society
Research in all branches of plant pathology

Suppression of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) after incorporation of Indian mustard cv. Nemfix as green manure and seed meal in vineyards

Loothfar Rahman A B D and Tony Somers A C

A National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

B NSW Department of Primary Industries, NWGIC, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

C Present address: NSW Department of Primary Industries, CB Alexander College, Tocal Road, Paterson, NSW 2421, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email:

Australasian Plant Pathology 34(1) 77-83
Submitted: 12 January 2004  Accepted: 23 August 2004   Published: 22 March 2005


Suppression of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in soil within the vine row was assessed between 14–36 weeks after incorporation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) cv. Nemfix as green manure and as seed meal in a 3-year-old and a 15-year-old vineyard. Application of mustard green manure and seed meal either to the inter-row or the vine row soil reduced nematode population densities significantly in the vine row soil in both vineyards. However, the reduction of M. javanica J2 population densities was greater when the vine row soil was treated with mustard green manure (9.0–11.5 t DM/ha) and seed meal (2 t/ha treated area) compared with inter-row treatments. At 36 weeks after treatment, there was 13- to 14-fold reduction of nematode population densities in plots having green manure or seed meal to the vine row soil in the 3-year-old vineyard compared with 4-fold reduction in the 15-year-old vineyard.

Additional keywords: biofumigation, brassicas, glucosinolate, grapevine, isothiocyanate, Semillon.


We would like to thank the growers of Hunter Valley districts who have permitted us to conduct this research in their vineyards, and David Shearer and Scott Richards, NSW Agriculture, for providing field assistance. Thanks to Yandilla Mustard Oil Enterprise Pty Ltd for providing Indian mustard seed meal; Julie Stanton, Department of Queensland Primary Industry, for species confirmation through mtDNA analysis; Brian Cullis and Beverley Orchard, Biometricians, NSW Agriculture, for statistical analysis of the data. We also thank Dr Melanie Weckert, Plant Pathologist, and Dr Rod McLeod, retired nematologist, NSW Agriculture, for their valuable suggestions and comments in improving this manuscript. The project was funded by the R & D initiative account from NSW Agriculture.


Al-Rehiayani S, Hafez SL, Thornton M, Sundararaj P (1999) Effects of Pratylenchus neglectus, Bacillus megaterium and oil radish or rapeseed green manure on reproductive potential of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potato. Nematropica 29, 37–49.

Borek V, Morra MJ, Brown PD, McCaffrey JP (1995) Transformation of the glucosinolate-derived allelochemicals allyl isothiocyanate and allylnitrile in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 1935–1940.

Brown PD, Morra MJ (1997) Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolate-containing plants. Advances in Agronomy 61, 167–231.

Doncaster CC (1962) A counting dish for nematodes. Nematologica 7, 334–336.

Donkin SG, Eiteman MA, Williams PL (1995) Toxicity of glucosinolates and their enzymatic decomposition products to Cenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Nematology 27, 258–262.

Edwards M (1991) Control of plant parasitic nematodes in sultana grapevines (Vitis vinifera) using systemic nematicides. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 31, 579–584.

Ferris H, McKenry MV (1976) Nematode community structure in a vineyard soil. Journal of Nematology 8, 131–137.

Gilmour AR, Cullis BR, Welham SJ, Thompson R (1999) ASREML reference manual. NSW Agriculture Biometrics Bulletin No. 3 NSW Agriculture, Orange, NSW.

Hardie WJ , Cirami RM (1988) Grapevine rootstocks. In 'Viticulture. Vol. 1. Resources'. (Eds BG Coombe, PR Dry) pp. 155–176. (Winetitles: Adelaide)

Harris AR (1986) Comparison of some nematicides on Vitis vinifera cv. Sultana in Victoria, Australia. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 37, 224–227.

Hough A, Thomason IJ (1975) Effects of aldicarb on the behaviour of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne javanica. Journal of Nematology 7, 221–229.

Johnson AW (1998) Degradation of fenamiphos in agricultural production soil. Journal of Nematology 30, 40–44.

Kirkegaard JA, Sarwar M (1998) Biofumigation potential of brassicas. 1. Variation in glucosinolate profiles of diverse field-grown brassicas. Plant and Soil 201, 71–89.
CrossRef |

Kirkegaard JA, Wong PTW, Desmarchelier JM (1996) In vitro suppression of fungal root pathogens of cereals by Brassica tissues. Plant Pathology 45, 593–603.
CrossRef |

Loubser JL, Meyer AJ (1986) Strategies for chemical control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in established vineyards. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 7, 84–89.

Matthiessen J, Kirkegaard J (2002) Biofumigation: maceration and incorporation techniques. Good Fruit and Vegetables 12, 25–27.

McKenry MV (1992) Nematodes. In 'Grape pest management'. 2nd edn. (Eds DL Flaherry, LP Christensen, WT Lanini, JJ Marois, PA Phillips, LT Wilson) pp. 281–293. (University of California: Oakland)

McLeod RW, Gendy MY (1996) Seasonal behaviour of Meloidogyne javanica and host race identity of root-knot nematodes and citrus nematodes (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) associated with grapevines. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 390a, 95–99.

McLeod RW, Gendy MY, Steel CC (1998) Observations on brassicas as cover crops and testing of biofumigation in vineyards. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 414a, 83–86.

McLeod RW, Kirkergaard JA, Steel CC (2001) Invasion, development, growth and egg laying by Meloidogyne javanica in Brassicaceae crops. Nematology 3, 463–472.
CrossRef |

McLeod RW, Somers T, Gendy M (1995) Cover crops and nematodes — some field observations. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 381, 53–57.

McLeod RW, Steel CC (1999) Effects of brassica-leaf green manures and crops on activity and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica. Nematology 1, 613–624.
CrossRef |

Meagher JW (1969) Nematodes and their control in vineyards in Victoria, Australia. International Pest Control 5, 14–18.

Mojtahedi H, Santo GS, Wilson JH, Hang AN (1993) Managing Meloidogyne chitwoodi on potato with rapeseed as green manure. Plant Disease 77, 42–46.

Nicol JM, Stirling GR, Rose BJ, May P, Van Heeswijck R (1999) Impact of nematodes on grapevine growth and productivity: current knowledge and future directions, with special reference to Australian viticulture. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 5, 109–127.

Potter MJ, Davies K, Rathjen AJ (1998) Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24, 67–80.
CrossRef |

Quader M, Riley IT, Walker GE (2001) Distribution pattern of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in South Australian vineyards. Australasian Plant Pathology 30, 357–360.
CrossRef |

Rahman L, Somers T, Creecy H (2000) Distribution of nematodes in vineyards and relationship of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) to vine growth and yield. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 438a, 53–57.

Rajendran G, Naganathan TG (1978) Control of root-knot nematode in grapes. Vitis 17, 271–273.

Raski DJ, Jones NO, Hafez SL, Kissler JJ, Luvisi DA (1981) Systemic nematicides tested as alternatives to DBCP. California Agriculture (May–June), 10–12.

Rumberger A, Marschner P (2003) 2-Phenylethyl isothiocyanate concentration and microbial community composition in the rhizosphere of canola. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35, 445–452.
CrossRef |

Sang JP, Minchinton IR, Johnstone PK, Truscott JW (1984) Glucosinolate profiles in the seed, root and leaf tissue of cabbage, mustard, rapeseed, radish and swede. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 64, 77–93.

Sarwar M, Kirkegaard JA, Wong PTW, Desmarchelier JM (1998) Biofumigation potential of brassicas. III. In vitro toxicity of isothiocyanates to soil-borne fungal pathogens. Plant and Soil 201, 103–112.
CrossRef |

Seinhorst JW, Sauer MR (1956) Eelworm attacks on vines in the Murray Valley irrigation area. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 22, 296–299.

Smelt JH, Crum SJH, Teunissen W (1989) Accelerated transformation of the fumigant methyl isothiocyanate in soil after repeated application of metham-sodium. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 24, 437–455.

Stanton JM, Hugall A, Moritz C (1997) Nucleotide polymorphisms and an improved PCR-based mtDNA diagnostic of parthenogenetic root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Fundamental and Applied Nematology 20, 261–268.

Stirling GR (1976) Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in South Australian vineyards. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 16, 588–591.

Stirling GR (1991) ‘Biological control of nematodes’. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Stirling G, Potter M (1998) Brassicas may play minor role in biofumigation. Good Fruit and Vegetables 9, 48–49.

Stirling GR, Stirling AM (2003) The potential of Brassica green manure crops for controlling root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on horticultural crops in a subtropical environment. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43, 623–630.
CrossRef |

Walker GE (1989) Post plant use of Nemacur for control of citrus and root knot nematodes in grapevines 1985–1988. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 44, 149.

Walker GE, Morey BG (1999) Effect of brassica and weed manures on abundance of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and fungi in citrus orchard soil. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39, 65–72.
CrossRef |

Warton B, Matthiessen JN, Shackleton MA (2003) Cross-enhancement: enhanced biodegradation of isothiocyanates in soils previously treated with metham sodium. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35, 1123–1127.
CrossRef |

Whitehead AG, Hemming JR (1965) A comparison of some quantitative methods of extracting some small vermiform nematodes from soil. Annals of Applied Biology 55, 25–38.

Full Text PDF (117 KB) Export Citation

View Altmetrics