Australian Journal of Botany Australian Journal of Botany Society
Southern hemisphere botanical ecosystems
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Molecular identification of the primary root fungal endophytes of Dipodium hamiltonianum (Orchidaceae)

J. D. W. Dearnaley A B and A. F. Le Brocque A

A Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.

B Corresponding author. Email: dearns@usq.edu.au

Australian Journal of Botany 54(5) 487-491 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT05149
Submitted: 2 September 2005  Accepted: 19 December 2005   Published: 3 August 2006

Abstract

We have identified the primary root fungal endophytes of Dipodium hamiltonianum F.M.Bailey, a species of orchid endangered in Victoria and uncommon in New South Wales and Queensland. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole colonised root portions from four orchid individuals and PCR amplified with ITS1F and ITS4 primers. Cloning and sequencing of the main amplicons produced from the PCR analysis revealed that the primary root fungal endophytes were Gymnomyces and Russula spp., both members of the Russulaceae. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of conservation of the orchid species.


Acknowledgments

We thank the Australian Orchid Foundation for their financial support, the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service and NSW National Parks and Wildlife service for granting us collection permits and Mr Wayne Harris (Queensland Herbarium), Mr Peter Haselgrove (QPWS), Mr David Jones (CPBR), Dr Martine Maron (USQ), Mr Pat McConnell (USQ), Mr Ian Milinovich and Ms Del Wham for help in locating the orchids. We thank Mr Ian Milinovich for use of his photograph of D. hamiltonianum.


References


Bishop I (1996) ‘Field guide to the orchids of New South Wales and Victoria.’ (University of New South Wales Press: Sydney)

Bougher NL (1995) Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with eucalypts in Australia. In ‘Mycorrhizas for plantation forestry in Asia’. (Eds M Brundrett, B Dell, N Malajczuk, G Mingqin) pp. 8–14. ACIAR Proceedings No. 62. (ACIAR: Canberra)

Bougoure JJ, Dearnaley JDW (2005) The fungal endophytes of Dipodium variegatum. Australasian Mycologist 24, 15–19. open url image1

Bougoure JJ, Bougoure DS, Cairney JWG, Dearnaley JDW (2005) ITS–RFLP and sequence analysis of endophytes from Acianthus, Caladenia and Pterostylis (Orchidaceae) in south eastern Queensland. Mycological Research 109, 452–460.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Brooker MIH , Kleinig DA (1999) ‘Field guide to the eucalypts. Vol. 1, south eastern Australia.’ (Blooming Books: Melbourne)

Claridge AW, May TW (1994) Mycophagy among Australian mammals. Australian Journal of Ecology 19, 251–275.
CrossRef |
open url image1

Conservation and Natural Resources (1994) ‘The Victorian flora species list (including vascular and non-vascular taxa).’ (Flora Section, Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources: Melbourne) [not viewed].

Department of Sustainability and Environment (2004) ‘Action Statement No. 82, yellow hyacinth orchid, Dipodium hamiltonianum.’ <http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/>, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment [accessed 4 June 2006[.

Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes—application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2, 113–118.
PubMed |
open url image1

Johnson CN (1996) Interactions between mammals and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11, 503–507.
CrossRef | open url image1

Jones DL (1988) ‘Native orchids of Australia.’ (Reed Books: Sydney)

Lebel T (2003) Australasian sequestrate (truffle-like) fungi. XIV. Gymnomyces (Russulales, Basidiomycota). Australian Systematic Botany 16, 401–426.
CrossRef | open url image1

McCormick MK, Whigham DF, O’Neill J (2004) Mycorrhizal diversity in photosynthetic terrestrial orchids. New Phytologist 163, 425–438.
CrossRef | open url image1

McKendrick SL, Leake JR, Read DJ (2000) Symbiotic germination and development of myco-heterotrophic plants in nature: transfer of carbon from ectomycorrhizal Salix repens and Betula pendula to the orchid Corallorhiza trifida through shared hyphal connections. New Phytologist 145, 539–548.
CrossRef | open url image1

Perkins AJ, Masuhara G, McGee PA (1995) Specificity of the associations between Microtis parviflora (Orchidaceae) and its mycorrhizal fungi. Australian Journal of Botany 43, 85–91.
CrossRef | open url image1

Rasmussen HN (2002) Recent developments in the study of orchid mycorrhiza. Plant and Soil 244, 149–163.
CrossRef | open url image1

Riley JJ , Banks DP (2002) ‘Orchids of Australia.’ (University of New South Wales Press: Sydney)

Sangtiean T, Schmidt S (2002) Growth of subtropical ECM fungi with different nitrogen sources using a new floating culture technique. Mycological Research 106, 74–85.
CrossRef | open url image1

Selosse M-A, Weiss M, Jany J-L, Tillier A (2002) Communities and populations of sebacinoid basidiomycetes associated with the achlorophyllous orchid Neottia nidus-avis (L.) L.C.M.Rich. and neighboring tree ectomycorrhizae. Molecular Ecology 11, 1831–1844.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Shefferson RP, Weiss M, Kull T, Taylor DL (2005) High specificity generally characterises mycorrhizal association in rare lady’s slipper orchids, genus Cypripedium. Molecular Ecology 14, 613–626.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Taylor AFS , Martin F , Read DJ (2000) Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in forests along north–south transects in Europe. In ‘Carbon and nitrogen cycling in European forest ecosystems. Ecological studies, Vol. 142’. (Ed. E-D Schultz) pp. 343–365. (Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany)

Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1997) Independent, specialized invasions of ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two nonphotosynthetic orchids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 4510–4515.
CrossRef | open url image1

Taylor DL, Bruns TD (1999) Population, habitat and genetic correlates of mycorrhizal specialization in the ‘cheating’ orchids Corallorhiza maculata and C. mertensiana. Molecular Ecology 8, 1719–1732.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Warcup JH (1971) Specificity of mycorrhizal association in some Australian terrestrial orchids. New Phytologist 70, 41–46.
CrossRef |
open url image1

Warcup JH (1985) Rhizanthella gardneri (Orchidaceae), its Rhizoctonia endophyte and close association with Melaleuca uncinata (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia. New Phytologist 99, 273–280.
CrossRef |
open url image1

White TJ , Bruns T , Lee S , Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In ‘PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications’. (Eds MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, TJ White) pp. 315–322. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA).

Zelmer CD, Cuthbertson L, Currah RS (1996) Fungi associated with terrestrial orchid mycorrhizas, seeds and protocorms. Mycoscience 37, 439–448. open url image1








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (7)