New records of leaf galls and arthropod oviposition scars in Permian–Triassic Gondwanan gymnospermsStephen McLoughlin
Department of Paleobotany, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Australian Journal of Botany 59(2) 156-169 https://doi.org/10.1071/BT10297
Submitted: 8 November 2010 Accepted: 24 January 2011 Published: 28 March 2011
Single, midrib-positioned galls and midrib-flanking oviposition scars are described from four species of Permian glossopterid foliage from Australia and South Africa. Several of these traces have been mistaken previously for glossopterid reproductive organs or fructification detachment scars. A single Early Triassic corystosperm leaf from Australia is reported bearing multiple disc-like galls on both the midrib and pinnules. A Middle Triassic taeniopterid gymnosperm leaf from Australia is described hosting oviposition scars between consecutive secondary veins flanking the midrib. These fossils attest to a much richer record of plant–arthropod interactions in the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic of high-latitude Gondwana than previously reported, and indicate that herbivory and reproductive strategies involving galling and foliar ovipositioning were re-established relatively soon after the end-Permian mass extinction event that saw major turnovers in both the flora and insect fauna.
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