Australian Journal of Chemistry Australian Journal of Chemistry Society
An international journal for chemical science
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Single-molecule Photoswitching and Localization1

Sebastian van de Linde A , Steve Wolter A and Markus Sauer A B
+ Author Affliations
- Author Affliations

A Biotechnology and Biophysics, Julius–Maximilians University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

B Corresponding author. Email: m.sauer@uni-wuerzburg.de

Australian Journal of Chemistry 64(5) 503-511 https://doi.org/10.1071/CH10284
Submitted: 29 July 2010  Accepted: 4 November 2010   Published: 30 May 2011

Abstract

Within only a few years super-resolution fluorescence imaging based on single-molecule localization and image reconstruction has attracted considerable interest because it offers a comparatively simple way to achieve a substantially improved optical resolution down to ~20 nm in the image plane. Since super-resolution imaging methods such as photoactivated localization microscopy, fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy rely critically on exact fitting of the centre of mass and the shape of the point-spread-function of isolated emitters unaffected by neighbouring fluorophores, controlled photoswitching or photoactivation of fluorophores is the key parameter for resolution improvement. This review will explain the principles and requirements of single-molecule based localization microscopy, and compare different super-resolution imaging concepts and highlight their strengths and limitations with respect to applications in fixed and living cells with high spatio-temporal resolution.


References

[1]  J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd edn 2006 (Springer: Heidelberg).

[2]  I. Chen, A. Y. Ting, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2005, 16, 35.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhsFShs7g%3D&md5=3a67950c56d79307f6deeec381561577CAS | 15722013PubMed | open url image1

[3]  B. N. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, R. Y. Tsien, Science 2006, 312, 217.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjtlOjs70%3D&md5=6a74988b32e46995ea249df363ef8f8dCAS | 16614209PubMed | open url image1

[4]  J. Lippincott-Schwartz, G. H. Patterson, Trends Cell Biol. 2009, 19, 555.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtlChurnM&md5=3d0463d88c283a4f60f7edb20e874a33CAS | 19836954PubMed | open url image1

[5]  X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, S. Weiss, Science 2005, 307, 538.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmslOhtw%3D%3D&md5=be5fc27e060de79d88469c92ddadd0e3CAS | 15681376PubMed | open url image1

[6]  L. W. Miller, V. W. Cornish, Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2005, 9, 56.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtV2ksrk%3D&md5=ae8686ea141afbee7afe46d14287d484CAS | 15701454PubMed | open url image1

[7]  E. Abbe, Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 1873, 9, 413.
         | CrossRef | open url image1

[8]  M. Fernández-Suárez, A. Y. Ting, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2008, 9, 929.
         | CrossRef | 19002208PubMed | open url image1

[9]  M. Heilemann, P. Dedecker, J. Hofkens, M. Sauer, Laser Photonics Rev. 2009, 3, 180.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXksVWntLY%3D&md5=ca90b91a31642c7825be7b5daa46fa3bCAS | open url image1

[10]  S. W. Hell, Science 2007, 316, 1153.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXls1KitL4%3D&md5=34a9954e7dc71d5622e72c8c0348447bCAS | 17525330PubMed | open url image1

[11]  S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 2009, 6, 24.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFCku73L&md5=0e5474b498a3f5636847b773ca86d14cCAS | 19116611PubMed | open url image1

[12]  B. Huang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2009, 78, 993.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXos1Ghu7c%3D&md5=f35ec4a7eaa10bba698e3bf4f2299a5cCAS | 19489737PubMed | open url image1

[13]  N. Ji, H. Shroff, H. Zhong, E. Betzig, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2008, 18, 605.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmtVKksL4%3D&md5=d4e95125dfa16604a79e8122dd505ae9CAS | 19375302PubMed | open url image1

[14]  G. Patterson, M. Davidson, S. Manley, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2010, 61, 345.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmt1ahtLg%3D&md5=27d4776d7c1a0c861c2490333d4a427bCAS | 20055680PubMed | open url image1

[15]  B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, M. J. Schnitzer, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2009, 32, 435.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXpsV2nu7Y%3D&md5=a485e554e957aceb8a36379437d58158CAS | 19555292PubMed | open url image1

[16]  M. Dyba, S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2002, 88, 163901.
         | CrossRef | 11955234PubMed | open url image1

[17]  S. W. Hell, J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 1994, 19, 780.
         | CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BD1MjgsFGhsA%3D%3D&md5=acea88239f8930ad64d20e4af2908b23CAS | 19844443PubMed | open url image1

[18]  K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, S. W. Hell, Nature 2006, 440, 935.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XjsVWktLY%3D&md5=06af46a7bd41d1b947afa5884facf7f8CAS | 16612384PubMed | open url image1

[19]  M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microscopy 2000, 198, 82.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXktVOgt7o%3D&md5=0f7e41bf29735366529417716fecf9a5CAS | open url image1

[20]  P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, M. G. Gustafsson, Nat. Methods 2009, 6, 339.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXltFymt7g%3D&md5=1da04b5ffdcc16d9eee6ffe6b88fd602CAS | 19404253PubMed | open url image1

[21]  L. Schermelleh, P. M. Carlton, S. Haase, L. Shao, L. Winoto, P. Kner, B. Burke, M. C. Cardoso, D. A. Agard, M. G. Gustafsson, H. Leonhardt, J. W. Sedat, Science 2008, 320, 1332.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmslWgtbw%3D&md5=15666575083cb9892d67f82f7613ac41CAS | 18535242PubMed | open url image1

[22]  P. Dedecker, J. Hotta, C. Flors, M. Sliwa, H. Uji-i, M. B. Roeffaers, R. Ando, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, J. Hofkens, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 16132.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtlOgsr3P&md5=fae5e1db04c243e79f13ae078eb3eb7dCAS | 18047340PubMed | open url image1

[23]  J. Enderlein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 87, 095105. open url image1

[24]  S. Hennig, S. van de Linde, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, Nano Lett. 2009, 9, 2466.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmtVGrsLg%3D&md5=85242e3fe12e4559ebd07c0059cb1437CAS | 19453186PubMed | open url image1

[25]  E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, H. F. Hess, Science 2006, 313, 1642.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XpsVOktL0%3D&md5=4090b503b73d57012c93b841414d9827CAS | 16902090PubMed | open url image1

[26]  H. Shroff, C. G. Galbraith, J. A. Galbraith, E. Betzig, Nat. Methods 2008, 5, 417.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXlt1ahtbc%3D&md5=3dcb26bbfa588b8c29030bc3d4c66f68CAS | 18408726PubMed | open url image1

[27]  S. T. Hess, T. P. Girirajan, M. D. Mason, Biophys. J. 2006, 91, 4258.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28Xht1Khur%2FN&md5=db2d5224e68cf7ba60cb0d5dad3c06ebCAS | 16980368PubMed | open url image1

[28]  S. T. Hess, T. J. Gould, M. V. Gudheti, S. A. Maas, K. D. Mills, J. Zimmerberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 17370.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1ymtrjE&md5=5e95b50d0c6bc9442ed2bb7a71929ac5CAS | open url image1

[29]  M. Bates, B. Huang, G. T. Dempsey, X. Zhuang, Science 2007, 317, 1749.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtVGmsLnE&md5=1cc234141dfb68efc28178e49ecefa81CAS | 17702910PubMed | open url image1

[30]  M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 2006, 3, 793.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XpvVCmtLY%3D&md5=9aec11cf7b482ee17c23cc020e8bb0f9CAS | 16896339PubMed | open url image1

[31]  M. Heilemann, S. van de Linde, A. Mukherjee, M. Sauer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 6903.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtVOrtrrO&md5=80c41eb22437cd757c0724e341aee101CAS | open url image1

[32]  M. Heilemann, S. van de Linde, M. Schuttpelz, R. Kasper, B. Seefeldt, A. Mukherjee, P. Tinnefeld, M. Sauer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 6172.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXpvFSgtro%3D&md5=33d16b96bf19b3c15f24ff280e96b771CAS | open url image1

[33]  J. S. Biteen, M. A. Thompson, N. K. Tselentis, G. R. Bowman, L. Shapiro, W. E. Moerner, Nat. Methods 2008, 5, 947.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtlSktrfI&md5=35d42770e28ae10e1822b60b004d34e8CAS | 18794860PubMed | open url image1

[34]  C. Flors, J. Hotta, H. Uji-i, P. Dedecker, R. Ando, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, J. Hofkens, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 13970.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXht1Sgtb%2FK&md5=235ef24a9756d5f8b3a2bc195b5d71d0CAS | 17956094PubMed | open url image1

[35]  C. Flors, C. N. Ravarani, D. T. Dryden, ChemPhysChem 2009, 10, 2201.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtV2itrzE&md5=d47eace13ddd394094a3c86516c0b019CAS | 19554598PubMed | open url image1

[36]  J. Fölling, M. Bossi, H. Bock, R. Medda, C. A. Wurm, B. Hein, S. Jakobs, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, Nat. Methods 2008, 5, 943.
         | CrossRef | 18794861PubMed | open url image1

[37]  M. Gunkel, F. Erdel, K. Rippe, P. Lemmer, R. Kaufmann, C. Hormann, R. Amberger, C. Cremer, Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 927.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXos1aqsbo%3D&md5=0e45d43ca07ba62b1383562db2d967e1CAS | 19548231PubMed | open url image1

[38]  M. B. Roeffaers, G. De Cremer, J. Libeert, R. Ameloot, P. Dedecker, A. J. Bons, M. Buckins, J. A. Martens, B. F. Sels, D. E. De Vos, J. Hofkens, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 9285.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVKhtr3E&md5=687a3218f7436311a49b790fbc10129eCAS | open url image1

[39]  A. Sharonov, R. M. Hochstrasser, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 18911.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtlChu77N&md5=d332a96b56c096ca5fabc94943a667f5CAS | open url image1

[40]  C. Steinhauer, C. Forthmann, J. Vogelsang, P. Tinnefeld, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 16840.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsVWrtbnP&md5=3971dc8369d11783363c7b2651b2c374CAS | 19053449PubMed | open url image1

[41]  J. Vogelsang, T. Cordes, C. Forthmann, C. Steinhauer, P. Tinnefeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 8107.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXmvVWmsLw%3D&md5=37069903a39f4a98c8adeb5453dda1e7CAS | open url image1

[42]  M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, W. H. Guilford, Biophys. J. 2001, 81, 2378.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXntlSnt70%3D&md5=ceeb7c08b2705a6e666f981d83c4ffc5CAS | 11566807PubMed | open url image1

[43]  R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, W. W. Webb, Biophys. J. 2002, 82, 2775.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjtlKjtrY%3D&md5=2eed52844261778fcc75ef022781c067CAS | 11964263PubMed | open url image1

[44]  A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, P. R. Selvin, Science 2003, 300, 2061.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXkvVOrsLg%3D&md5=00e312b77e1a5c1ec7be02923491e6b6CAS | 12791999PubMed | open url image1

[45]  A. Yildiz, P. R. Selvin, Acc. Chem. Res. 2005, 38, 574.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXisVyms74%3D&md5=eb501a39c06e0cb0fddf4eedc0935addCAS | 16028892PubMed | open url image1

[46]  R. M. Dickson, A. B. Cubitt, R. Y. Tsien, W. E. Moerner, Nature 1997, 388, 355.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXkvVCjtbo%3D&md5=3e1370b61da47722aeeb9de69fa18b3eCAS | 9237752PubMed | open url image1

[47]  M. Bates, T. R. Blosser, X. Zhuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 108101.
         | CrossRef | 15783528PubMed | open url image1

[48]  M. Tokunaga, N. Imamoto, K. Sakata-Sogawa, Nat. Methods 2008, 5, 159.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsV2ks7c%3D&md5=1c46d8b9d211403330708c5d88131532CAS | 18176568PubMed | open url image1

[49]  S. Wolter, M. Schuttpelz, M. Tscherepanow, S. Van de Linde, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, J. Microscopy 2010, 237, 12.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtFKkt7o%3D&md5=f6c158c9961e0f58553606f4c1fd846fCAS | open url image1

[50]  P. N. Hedde, J. Fuchs, F. Oswald, J. Wiedenmann, G. U. Nienhaus, Nat. Methods 2009, 6, 689.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtF2kurbN&md5=27895ae2ae627d1f82099472607ec417CAS | 19789527PubMed | open url image1

[51]  R. Henriques, M. Lelek, E. F. Fornasiero, F. Valtorta, C. Zimmer, M. M. Mhlanga, Nat. Methods 2010, 7, 339.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlsVWjsLk%3D&md5=b72c9788c5d8d111679dfd9b0650efe4CAS | 20431545PubMed | open url image1

[52]  K. I. Mortensen, L. S. Churchman, J. A. Spudich, H. Flyvbjerg, Nat. Methods 2010, 7, 377.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXkt1aqu7k%3D&md5=0dcf504e60d317a8f941365adbc10a0aCAS | 20364147PubMed | open url image1

[53]  C. S. Smith, N. Joseph, B. Rieger, K. A. Lidke, Nat. Methods 2010, 7, 373.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXkt1aqsrY%3D&md5=3da012ca7c3bfc6a5d82936c1f3b8e29CAS | 20364146PubMed | open url image1

[54]  T. Fukaminato, T. Sasaki, T. Kawai, N. Tamai, M. Irie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 14843.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXoslSgsbs%3D&md5=38fa2fe5c5a7c68e5ff4c2610deb8189CAS | 15535710PubMed | open url image1

[55]  M. Irie, T. Fukaminato, T. Sasaki, N. Tamai, T. Kawai, Nature 2002, 420, 759.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XpsFygtrg%3D&md5=c212acdde5c276d84b2367ed87b18dabCAS | 12490936PubMed | open url image1

[56]  B. Seefeldt, R. Kasper, M. Beining, J. Mattay, J. Arden-Jacob, N. Kemnitzer, K. H. Drexhage, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2010, 9, 213.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsVGqtLs%3D&md5=ea12b392c8dcecbe56004815e4aea9ddCAS | 20126797PubMed | open url image1

[57]  M. Heilemann, E. Margeat, R. Kasper, M. Sauer, P. Tinnefeld, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3801.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhslajsLw%3D&md5=938bdbd4b6e2e98450d76d69ebe0e764CAS | 15771514PubMed | open url image1

[58]  V. N. Belov, C. A. Wurm, V. P. Boyarskiy, S. Jakobs, S. W. Hell, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 3520.
         | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlsFCntLs%3D&md5=de406c8028999bc50e6c3df862f98866CAS | open url image1

[59]  S. J. Lord, N. R. Conley, H. L. Lee, R. Samuel, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 9204.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXns1elur8%3D&md5=fdf87f0c7c5124048e423a619eb9c198CAS | 18572940PubMed | open url image1

[60]  M. Andresen, A. C. Stiel, J. Folling, D. Wenzel, A. Schonle, A. Egner, C. Eggeling, S. W. Hell, S. Jakobs, Nat. Biotechnol. 2008, 26, 1035.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtVygtLnP&md5=b9e0aff8ebaa8d5be601ba17f5226210CAS | 18724362PubMed | open url image1

[61]  N. C. Shaner, G. H. Patterson, M. W. Davidson, J. Cell Sci. 2007, 120, 4247.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXns1GktQ%3D%3D&md5=667308ae26e142fd31da0c9769a133bcCAS | 18057027PubMed | open url image1

[62]  J. Wiedenmann, F. Oswald, G. U. Nienhaus, IUBMB Life 2009, 61, 1029.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsVyrtrzJ&md5=91428d2fee691f6f53ed237e5b186994CAS | 19859977PubMed | open url image1

[63]  C. E. Shannon, Proc. Inst. Radio Eng. 1949, 37, 10. open url image1

[64]  J. Tang, J. Akerboom, A. Vaziri, L. L. Looger, C. V. Shank, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 10068.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXnslGlt70%3D&md5=f65debdaeaf7f1cf4a0e831318879418CAS | open url image1

[65]  R. Wombacher, M. Heidbreder, S. van de Linde, M. Sheetz, M. Heilemann, V. W. Cornish, M. Sauer, Nat. Methods 2010, 7, 717.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXpvVWgsLo%3D&md5=3b3513c648f5cc8950d34b24582e696cCAS | 20693998PubMed | open url image1

[66]  J. N. Henderson, R. Gepshtein, J. R. Heenan, K. Kallio, D. Huppert, S. J. Remington, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 4176.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjtVSjs7c%3D&md5=b2a4675152894034e3224f21de169322CAS | 19278226PubMed | open url image1

[67]  K. Nienhaus, G. U. Nienhaus, J. Wiedenmann, H. Nar, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 9156.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlvF2kurk%3D&md5=5e3e5013df299a040c5553d7e72d0407CAS | open url image1

[68]  S. Habuchi, P. Dedecker, J. Hotta, C. Flors, R. Ando, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, J. Hofkens, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2006, 5, 567.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XltlKqsLo%3D&md5=6f8dda35add12c24fbdad4554bd68753CAS | 16761085PubMed | open url image1

[69]  S. Habuchi, R. Ando, P. Dedecker, W. Verheijen, H. Mizuno, A. Miyawaki, J. Hofkens, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 9511.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmsVaktro%3D&md5=db08fd4c07b62ae7e0c712ef39b97b8dCAS | open url image1

[70]  R. Kasper, B. Harke, C. Forthmann, P. Tinnefeld, S. W. Hell, M. Sauer, Small 2010, 6, 1379.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXosVyqt74%3D&md5=f7f8248fd478360a36822974cfabf65fCAS | 20521266PubMed | open url image1

[71]  J. Vogelsang, R. Kasper, C. Steinhauer, B. Person, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, P. Tinnefeld, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 5465.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXovFymuro%3D&md5=04b516867f8b64b6c356145985d86088CAS | open url image1

[72]  S. van de Linde, R. Kasper, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, Appl. Phys. B 2008, 93, 725.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtl2qtLzL&md5=d9b09efa05097421e3f0bad72625c809CAS | open url image1

[73]  S. van de Linde, U. Endesfelder, A. Mukherjee, M. Schuttpelz, G. Wiebusch, S. Wolter, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2009, 8, 465.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXjvV2mtrY%3D&md5=d0917ecbf85985c2d104f6b4e118b62cCAS | 19337659PubMed | open url image1

[74]  S. van de Linde, S. Wolter, M. Heilemann, M. Sauer, J. Biotechnol. 2010, 149, 260.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXht1Wju7rM&md5=4fa9cfea83cfb4fd7b7918aca6c328deCAS | 20176060PubMed | open url image1

[75]  T. Cordes, M. Strackharn, S. W. Stahl, W. Summerer, C. Steinhauer, C. Forthmann, E. M. Puchner, J. Vogelsang, H. E. Gaub, P. Tinnefeld, Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 645.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhsFKksL7K&md5=41c7848a94b8c9187f8abf46a0807b73CAS | 20017533PubMed | open url image1

[76]  H. Sies, Free Radical Biol. Med. 1999, 27, 916.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXns1ymsrw%3D&md5=af23bb02173ea1b254b6e9262bfff5d7CAS | open url image1

[77]  H. M. O’Hare, K. Johnsson, A. Gautier, Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 2007, 17, 488.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhtFSltbvK&md5=6e238fa57c68ed6959e9283d5f4e88b3CAS | 17851069PubMed | open url image1

[78]  N. T. Calloway, M. Choob, A. Sanz, M. P. Sheetz, L. W. Miller, V. W. Cornish, ChemBioChem 2007, 8, 767.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXls1artrc%3D&md5=d66b1e8cc2bf99f5a43a63a0f5a8a291CAS | 17378009PubMed | open url image1

[79]  L. W. Miller, Y. Cai, M. P. Sheetz, V. W. Cornish, Nat. Methods 2005, 2, 255.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXisFejtbk%3D&md5=35664b2f749f6b8d3ca4b43a45ea7646CAS | 15782216PubMed | open url image1

[80]  S. S. Gallagher, J. E. Sable, M. P. Sheetz, V. W. Cornish, ACS Chem. Biol. 2009, 4, 547.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXnvFWktLc%3D&md5=7b708f95e42a4f23b7bd4246d544619fCAS | 19492849PubMed | open url image1

[81]  U. Endesfelder, S. van de Linde, S. Wolter, M. Sauer, M. Heilemann, ChemPhysChem 2010, 11, 836.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXjtFygsr4%3D&md5=2e6e678aacd35b708cc5f8906eb456fcCAS | 20186905PubMed | open url image1

[82]  S. R. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 2995.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXivFyqtb4%3D&md5=b082b689872eeef69146d7b3540e4aecCAS | open url image1

[83]  G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, H. F. Hess, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 3125.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXivFyqu7w%3D&md5=e3f830bdef997b7821a09949094b9f0bCAS | open url image1

[84]  M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, Nat. Methods 2008, 5, 527.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXmsVOjtL8%3D&md5=f1f082adf216557a5019d92067bb1b0bCAS | 18469823PubMed | open url image1

[85]  S. Ram, P. Prabhat, J. Chao, E. S. Ward, R. J. Ober, Biophys. J. 2008, 95, 6025.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXotFGm&md5=be4bdc20fb6418d8dbd9ea3bc52c6a47CAS | 18835896PubMed | open url image1

[86]  G. J. Schütz, M. Axmann, H. Schindler, Single Mol. 2001, 2, 69.
         | CrossRef | open url image1

[87]  G. J. Schütz, G. Kada, V. P. Pastushenko, H. Schindler, EMBO J. 2000, 19, 892.
         | CrossRef | 10698931PubMed | open url image1

[88]  M. Speidel, A. Jonas, E. L. Florin, Opt. Lett. 2003, 28, 69.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXotFGgtw%3D%3D&md5=306b73f4979b55f512c69976e6f2c325CAS | 12656488PubMed | open url image1

[89]  E. Toprak, H. Balci, B. H. Blehm, P. R. Selvin, Nano Lett. 2007, 7, 2043.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXms1equ7c%3D&md5=93483de248c41d5c099ede4df4d2c326CAS | 17583964PubMed | open url image1

[90]  A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 1998, 292, 183.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXks1Wms7Y%3D&md5=4a2d51e848855e5fa412c4766a3f0e04CAS | open url image1

[91]  L. Holtzer, T. Meckel, T. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 053902.
         | CrossRef | open url image1

[92]  B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, Science 2008, 319, 810.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhsFGhs7s%3D&md5=7ab4eda1d2d72a502430d665b19662a0CAS | 18174397PubMed | open url image1

[93]  H. P. Kao, A. S. Verkman, Biophys. J. 1994, 67, 1291.
         | CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DyaK2M7htFSlug%3D%3D&md5=a7eaa4cddd82e53c30b6597027561249CAS | 7811944PubMed | open url image1

[94]  D. Baddeley, I. D. Jayasinghe, L. Lam, S. Rossberger, M. B. Cannell, C. Soeller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 22275.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmtlahtw%3D%3D&md5=64c7d6ed23c5f38ba83c4ba9cad0e54fCAS | open url image1

[95]  D. Greenfield, A. L. McEvoy, H. Shroff, G. E. Crooks, N. S. Wingreen, E. Betzig, J. Liphardt, PLoS Biol. 2009, 7, e1000137.
         | CrossRef | 19547746PubMed | open url image1

[96]  D. M. Owen, C. Rentero, J. Rossy, A. Magenau, D. Williamson, M. Rodriguez, K. Gaus, J Biophotonics 2010, 446.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhtValt7bO&md5=6834fe03a6a6b03e9039a6b732796ae2CAS | 20148419PubMed | open url image1

[97]  S. van de Linde, M. Sauer, M. Heilemann, J. Struct. Biol. 2008, 164, 250.
         | CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtlyltLfE&md5=b69204924274df9a2e62514060cd036eCAS | 18790061PubMed | open url image1


Full Text PDF (758 KB) Export Citation Cited By (16)