Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
REVIEW

The epidemiology and control of ascochyta blight in field peas: a review

T. W. Bretag A D , P. J. Keane B and T. V. Price C
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Primary Industries Research Victoria, Department of Primary Industries, Private Bag 260, Horsham, Vic. 3401, Australia.

B Department of Botany, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086, Australia.

C Department of Agriculture, La Trobe University, Vic. 3086, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: trevor.bretag@dpi.vic.gov.au

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 57(8) 883-902 https://doi.org/10.1071/AR05222
Submitted: 23 June 2005  Accepted: 2 February 2006   Published: 9 August 2006

Abstract

Ascochyta blight is one of the most important diseases affecting field peas. The disease occurs in almost all pea-growing regions of the world and can cause significant crop losses when conditions are favourable for an epidemic. Here we review current knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease. Details are provided of disease symptoms, the disease cycle and the taxonomy of the causal fungi, Ascochyta pisi, Mycosphaerella pinodes and Phoma pinodella.

The importance of seed-, soil- and air-borne inoculum is discussed along with the factors that influence survival of the causal fungi in soil, on seed or associated with pea trash. Many studies have been reviewed to establish how the fungi responsible for the disease survives from year to year, how the disease becomes established in new crops and the conditions that favour disease development. Evidence is provided that crop rotation, destruction of infected pea trash and chemical seed treatments can significantly reduce the amount of primary inoculum. Later sowing of crops has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of disease. Fungicides have been used successfully to control the disease, although the cost of their application can significantly reduce the profitability of the crop. The best long-term strategy for effective disease control appears to be the development of ascochyta blight resistant pea varieties. Reports of physiological specialisation in ascochyta blight fungi are also documented. Despite extensive screening of germplasm, relatively few sources of resistance to ascochyta blight fungi have been found in Pisum sativum. However, the discovery of much better sources of resistance in closely related species and the development of advanced breeding methods offer new possibilities for developing useful resistance.

Additional keywords: chemical control, crop loss assessment, disease cycle, disease resistance, host-pathogen interactions, taxonomy.


References


Abd El Rehim MA, Abo Taleb EM, Michail SH, Metwally SM (1997) Seed health testing of peas for Ascochyta spp. and their impact on foliage seed health and seed yield. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 32, 89–95. open url image1

Ali SM, Nitschke LF, Dube AJ, Krause MR, Cameron B (1978) Selection of pea lines for resistance to pathotypes of Ascochyta pinodes, A. pisi and Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 841–849.
CrossRef | open url image1

Ali SM, Paterson J, Crosby J (1982) A standard technique for detecting seed-borne pathogens in peas, chemical control, and testing commercial seed in South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 22, 348–352.
CrossRef | open url image1

Ali SM, Sharma B, Ambrose MJ (1994) Current status and future strategy in breeding pea to improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Euphytica 73, 115–126.
CrossRef | open url image1

Ali-Khan ST, Zimmer RC, Kenaschuk EO (1973) Reactions of pea introductions to Ascochyta foot rot and powdery mildew. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 53, 155–156. open url image1

Amit W, Singh PP, Sandhu KS, Wadhwa A (2002a) Extraction of pisatin from pea leaves infected with Ascochyta pisi. Plant Disease Research 17, 369–370. open url image1

Amit W, Singh PP, Sandhu KS, Wadhwa A (2002b) Factors affecting growth and sporulation of Ascochyta pisi. Plant Disease Research 17, 371–374. open url image1

Anderson AJ, Powelson ML (1979) Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by Phoma medicaginis f. sp. pinodella. Phytopathology 69, 372–375. open url image1

Anderson JAD, White JGH (1974) Yield of green peas. II. Effects of water and plant density. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 2, 165–171. open url image1

Annapurna Y, Rao PR (1979) A microbial study of Cicer arietinum L. leaves sprayed with some pesticides. Geobios 6, 230–232. open url image1

Anselme C , Hewett PD , Champion R (1970) The detection and importance of Ascochyta pisi Lib. on seed peas. In ‘Seventh International Congress of Plant Protection’. Paris, France. pp. 1–4.

Anwar SA, Bhutta AR, Rauf CA, Khan MSA (1994) Seedborne fungi of pea and their role in poor germination of pea seed. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 6, 135–139. open url image1

Banniza S, Vandenberg A (2003) The influence of plant injury on development of Mycosphaerella pinodes in field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 25, 304–311. open url image1

Bathgate JA, Sivasithamparam K, Khan TN (1989) Identity and recovery of seed-borne fungal pathogens of field peas in Western Australia. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 17, 97–101. open url image1

Baughan PJ , Toms AM (1984) The development of a complete seed coating package for peas. Proceedings British Plant Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases 10A–1, 965–970.

Baumann G (1955) Studies on the biology of Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Stone. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten 62, 254–255. open url image1

Beasse C, Ney B, Tivoli B (1999) Effects of pod infection by Mycosphaerella pinodes on yield components of pea (Pisum sativum). Annals of Applied Biology 135, 359–367. open url image1

Bhardwaj CL, Thakur DR (2000) Dry grain yield in rainfed garden pea (Pisum sativum) in relation to environment and management of Mycosphaerella blight. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 70, 231–233. open url image1

Biddle A (1989) Fungicides for peas. Vegetable Grower 1, 12–13. open url image1

Blakeman JP, Dickinson CH (1967) The effect of ultraviolet and visible light on infection of host leaf tissue by four species of Ascochyta. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 50, 385–396. open url image1

Blixt S (1970) ‘Pisum.’ (Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford)

Blomfield PD (1954) Note on the molybdenum response on peas in Nelson. New Zealand Journal of Science 36, 46. open url image1

Boerema GH , Gruyter Jd , Noordeloos ME , Hamers MEC (2004) ‘Phoma identification manual. Differentiation of specific and infra-specific taxa in culture.’ (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Bowen JK, Peart J, Lewis BG, Cooper C, Matthews P (1996) Development of monoclonal antibodies against the fungi of the ‘Ascochyta complex’. Plant Pathology 45, 393–406.
CrossRef | open url image1

Boy N (1981) Local protection of pea against Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) by pre-inoculation with Ascochyta fabae (Speg.). Parasitica 37, 109–118. open url image1

Bretag TW (1985) Chemical control of ascochyta blight of field peas. Australasian Plant Pathology 14, 42–43.
CrossRef | open url image1

Bretag TW (1991) Epidemiology and control of ascochyta blight of field peas. PhD thesis, La Trobe University, Australia.

Bretag TW (2004) ‘Review: Ascochyta blight in field peas.’ (Victorian Department of Primary Industries: Horsham, Vic.)

Bretag TW , Brouwer JB (1995) Effects of different plant phenotypes on the severity of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in southern Australia. In ‘2nd European Conference on Grain Legumes: Improving production and utilization of grain legumes’. Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 92. (AEP)

Bretag TW, Keane PJ, Price TV (1995a) Effect of ascochyta blight on the grain yield of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 531–536.
CrossRef | open url image1

Bretag TW, Price TV, Keane PJ (1995b) Importance of seed-borne inoculum in the etiology of the ascochyta blight complex of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown in Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 35, 525–530.
CrossRef | open url image1

Bretag TW, Keane PJ, Price TV (2000) Effect of sowing date on the severity of ascochyta blight in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown in the Wimmera region of Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40, 1113–1119.
CrossRef | open url image1

Bretag TW , Ramsey MD (2001) Foliar diseases caused by fungi: Ascochyta spp. In ‘Compendium of pea diseases and pests’. (Eds JM Kraft, FL Pfleger) pp. 24–28. (APS Press: The American Phytopathological Society: St. Paul, MN)

Bretag TW , Smith LM , Ward DJ (2001) Effect of soil-borne ascochyta blight fungi on the grain yield of field peas. In ‘10th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Hobart, Tasmania. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

Brett CC, Dillon Weston WAR, Booer JR (1937) Seed disinfection. III. Experiments on the germination of peas. Seed protection by the use of disinfectant dusts containing mercury. Journal of Agriculture Science, Cambridge 27, 53–66. open url image1

Brewer D (1960) Studies in Ascochyta pisi Lib. Canadian Journal of Botany 38, 706–717. open url image1

Brewer D, MacNeill BH (1953) Preliminary studies in Ascochyta pisi Lib. Canadian Journal of Botany 31, 739–744. open url image1

Brittain MJ (1987) The resistance of Pisum to Ascochyta pisi. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, UK.

Brown JF (1980) ‘A course manual in plant protection.’ (Hedges & Bell Pty. Ltd.: Melbourne)

Carter MV (1959) Chemical destruction of mature perithecia of Mycosphaerella pinodes. Nature 183, 162–163.
CrossRef |
open url image1

Carter MV (1961) Report of Rothamsted Experimental Station for 1960. Ascospore release by Mycosphaerella pinodes from pea trash. Rothamsted Experimental Station Annual Report 1960, 1–329. open url image1

Carter MV (1963) Mycosphaerella pinodes: The phenology of ascospore release. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 16, 800–817. open url image1

Carter MV, Moller WJ (1960) Black spot of peas. Journal of Agriculture, South Australia 63, 353–363. open url image1

Carter MV, Moller WJ (1961) Factors affecting the survival and dissemination of Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Vestergr. in South Australian irrigated pea fields. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 12, 878–888.
CrossRef | open url image1

Cass Smith WP (1954) Plant diseases: Ascochyta blight of peas. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia 3, 711–713. open url image1

Chen MH, Huang JW, Yein CF (1994) The pathway and influence factors in pod and seed infections of garden peas by Mycosphaerella pinodes. Plant Pathology Bulletin 3, 133–139. open url image1

Chung HS, Wilcoxson RD (1969) Effect of conidial number and matrix on germination of conidia in Phoma medicaginis. Phytopathology 59, 440–442. open url image1

Chung HS, Wilcoxson RD (1971) Effects of temperature, light, carbon and nitrogen nutrition on reproduction in Phoma medicaginis. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata 44, 297–308.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Clulow SA (1989) The resistance of Pisum to Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Vestergr. PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, UK.

Clulow SA, Lewis BG, Matthews P (1992) Expression of resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in Pisum sativum. Plant Pathology 41, 362–369. open url image1

Clulow SA, Lewis BG, Parker ML, Matthews P (1991a) Infection of pea epicotyls by Mycosphaerella pinodes. Mycological Research 95, 817–820. open url image1

Clulow SA, Matthews P, Lewis BG (1991b) Genetical analysis of resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea seedlings. Euphytica 58, 183–189.
CrossRef | open url image1

Cruickshank IAM (1954) Certification of pea seed. Commonwealth Mycological Conference Report 5, 1–159.

Cruickshank IAM (1957) A note on the incidence of Ascochyta species in pea seed. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 38, 497–499. open url image1

Cruickshank IAM (1963) Phytoalexins. Annual Review of Phytopathology 1, 351–374.
CrossRef | open url image1

Csizmadia L (1995) Breeding peas for disease resistance: 2. Ascochyta leaf and pod spot. Horticultural Science 27, 57–61. open url image1

Dann EK, Deverall BJ (2000) Activation of systemic disease resistance in pea by an avirulent bacterium or a benzothiadiazole, but not by a fungal leaf spot pathogen. Plant Pathology 49, 324–332.
CrossRef | open url image1

Davidse LC (1986) Benzimidazole fungicides: Mechanism of action and biological impact. Annual Review of Phytopathology 24, 43–65.
CrossRef | open url image1

Davidson JA, Ramsey MD (2000) Pea yield decline syndrome in South Australia: the role of diseases and the impact of agronomic practices. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 51, 347–354.
CrossRef | open url image1

Davies DR (1976) Peas: Pisum sativum (Leguminosae-Papilionatae). In ‘Evolution of crop plants’. (Ed. NW Simmonds) pp. 172–174. (Longman: London)

De Tempe J (1968a) An analysis of the laboratory testing requirements of two seed-borne diseases. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 33, 583–588. open url image1

De Tempe J (1968b) The quantitative evaluation of seed-borne pathogenic infection. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 33, 573–581. open url image1

Dickinson CH (1967) Fungal colonization of Pisum leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany 45, 915–927. open url image1

Dickinson CH, Sheridan JJ (1968) Studies on the survival of Mycosphaerella pinodes and Ascochyta pisi. Annals of Applied Biology 62, 473–483. open url image1

Dirlewanger E, Isaac PG, Ranade S, Belajouza M, Cousin R, de Vienne D (1994) Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of loci associated with disease resistance genes and developmental traits in Pisum sativum L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 88, 17–27.
CrossRef | open url image1

Dolgikh ST, Krotova TI (1971) Induced mutants of pea with increased resistance to Ascochyta disease. Vestnik Sel Skokhozyaistevennoi Nauki Moskva 10, 56–59. open url image1

Duparque M , Baranger A , Tivoli B , Onfroy C , Boitel C , Morin G (1998) Investigating a new simple screening method for Ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes) resistance applicable in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) breeding nurseries. In ‘3rd European Conference on Grain Legumes’. Valladolid, Spain. pp. 229–230. (AEP Publishing)

Durieu P, Ochatt SJ (2000) Efficient intergeneric fusion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) protoplasts. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 1237–1242.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Evidente A, Capasso R, Vurro M, Bottalico A (1993a) Ascosalitoxin, a phytotoxic trisubstituted salicylic aldehyde from Ascochyta pisi. Phytochemistry 34, 995–998.
CrossRef | open url image1

Evidente A, Lanzetta R, Capasso R, Vurro M, Bottalico A (1993b) Pinolidoxin, a phytotoxic nonenolide from Ascochyta pinodes. Phytochemistry 34, 999–1003.
CrossRef | open url image1

Faris Mokaiesh S, Boccara M, Denis JB, Derrien A, Spire D (1996) Differentiation of the “Ascochyta complex” fungi of pea by biochemical and molecular markers. Current Genetics 29, 182–190.
PubMed |
open url image1

Faris Mokaiesh S , Corbiere E , Bertrandy J , Spire D (1992) Studies on the variability of three Ascochyta species in pea. In ‘1st European Conference on Grain Legumes’. Angers, France. pp. 357–358. (AEP Publishing)

Faris Mokaiesh S, Corbiere R, Lyons NF, Spire D (1995) Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea seeds. Annals of Applied Biology 127, 441–455. open url image1

Gadd I (1950) Hot-water treatment, a new method of controlling Ascochyta spp. on pea seeds. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 16, 1–94. open url image1

Garry G, Jeuffroy MH, Ney B, Tivoli B (1998a) Effects of Ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes) on the photosynthesizing leaf area and the photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf area of dried-pea (Pisum sativum). Plant Pathology 47, 473–479. open url image1

Garry G, Jeuffroy MH, Tivoli B (1998b) Effects of ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes Berk. & Blox.) on biomass production, seed number and seed weight of dried-pea (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by plant growth stage and disease intensity.  Annals of Applied Biology 132, 49–59. open url image1

Garry G, Tivoli B, Jeuffroy MH, Citharel J (1996) Effects of ascochyta blight caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes on the translocation of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds from the leaf and hull to seed of dried pea. Plant Pathology 45, 769–777.
CrossRef | open url image1

Gaumann E (1950) ‘Principles of plant infection.’ (Crosby Lockwood & Son, LTD.: London)

Gent GP (1988) ‘The PGRO pea growing handbook.’ (Processors and Growers Research Organisation: Thornhaugh)

Gretenkort MA, Helsper J (1993) Disease assessment of pea lines with resistance to foot rot pathogens: protocols for in vitro selection. Plant Pathology 42, 676–685. open url image1

Grewal RK, Jhooty JS, Aulakh KS, Thind TS, Kaur J (1981) Effect of fungicides on seed-borne fungi in pea var. Bonneville under different storage conditions. Pesticides 15, 23–24. open url image1

Gritton ET (1980) Field pea. In ‘Hybridization of crop plants’. (Eds WR Fehr, HH Hadley) pp. 347–356. (American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society of America: Madison, WI)

Gurung AM, Pang ECK, Taylor PWJ (2002) Examination of Pisum and Lathyrus species as sources of ascochyta blight resistance for field pea (Pisum sativum). Australasian Plant Pathology 31, 41–45.
CrossRef | open url image1

Hare WW, Walker JC (1944) Ascochyta diseases of canning pea. Wisconsin Agricultural Experimental Station, Research Bulletin 150, 1–31. open url image1

Harlan JR (1977) Sources of genetic defence. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 287, 345–356. open url image1

Hassan HH, Cox CE (1947) Some effects of spergon as a pea seed treatment on soil fungi. Phytopathology 37, 439. open url image1

Heath MC, Wood RKS (1969) Leaf spots induced by Ascochyta pisi and Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of Botany 33, 657–670. open url image1

Heath MC, Wood RKS (1971) Role of cell-wall-degrading enzymes in the development of leaf spots caused by Ascochyta pisi and Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of Botany 35, 451–474. open url image1

Heenan DP (1994) Effects of sowing time on growth and grain yield of lupin and field pea in south-eastern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 34, 1137–1142.
CrossRef | open url image1

Hewett PD (1979) Pretreatment in seed health testing 2: Duration of hypochlorite pretreatment in the agar plate test for Ascochyta spp. Seed Science and Technology 7, 83–85. open url image1

Hillstrand DS, Auld DL (1982) Comparative Evaluation of four techniques for screening winter peas for resistance to Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Crop Science 22, 282–287. open url image1

Hiramatsu M, Ichinose Y, Shiraishi T, Oku H, Ouchi S (1986) Regulation of pisatin biosynthesis in pea leaves by elicitor and suppressor produced by Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 52, 53–58. open url image1

Hoffman RM, Turner JG (1982) Partial purification of proteins from pea leaflets that inhibit Ascochyta pisi endopolygalacturonase. Physiological Plant Pathology 20, 173–187. open url image1

Hoffman RM, Turner JG (1984) Occurrence and specificity of an endopolygalacturonase inhibitor in Pisum sativum. Physiological Plant Pathology 24, 49–59. open url image1

Hosnedl V, Ondrejova H (1982) Effect of seed dressing on production processes and health status of peas. Agrochemia 22, 338–340. open url image1

Jones FR, Vaughan RE (1921) Anthracnose of the garden pea. Phytopathology 11, 500–503. open url image1

Jones LK (1927) Studies on the nature and control of blight, leaf and pod spot, and foot-rot of peas caused by species of Ascochyta. New York State Agricultural Experimental Station, Research Report 547, 1–46. open url image1

Kaur M, Deshpande KB (1980) In vitro production of toxic metabolites by Ascochyta pisi (Pass.) Lab. inciting blight of peas (Pisum sativum L.). Acta Botanica Indica 8, 210–214. open url image1

Kerling LCP (1928) The anatomical structure of leaf spots. Mededelingen van de Landbouwhooge school te Wageningen 32, 6–107. open url image1

Kerling LCP (1949) Infection of peas by Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Stone. Tijdschrift over Plantenziekten 55, 41–68.
CrossRef | open url image1

Kiba A, Toyoda K, Ichinose Y, Yamada T, Shiraishi T (1996) Species-specific suppression of superoxide-anion generation on surfaces of pea leaves by the suppressor from Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 62, 508–512. open url image1

Kraft JM, Dunne B, Goulden D, Armstrong S (1998) A search for resistance in peas to Mycosphaerella pinodes. Plant Disease 82, 251–253. open url image1

Lawyer AS (1984) Foliar diseases caused by fungi: diseases caused by Ascochyta spp. In ‘Compendium of pea diseases’. (Ed. DJ Hagedorn) pp. 11–15. (APS Press, The American Phytopathological Society: St. Paul, MN)

Le May C, Schoeny A, Tivoli B, Ney B (2005) Improvement and validation of a pea crop growth model to simulate the growth of cultivars infected with Ascochyta blight. European Journal of Plant Pathology 112, 1–12.
CrossRef | open url image1

Le May C , Tivoli B , Ney B (2001) Effect of pea plant architecture on epidemic development of ascochyta blight and outcomes on yield. In ‘4th European Conference on Grain Legumes’. Cracow, Poland. (Ed. AEP) pp. 72–73. (AEP Publishing)

Leach CM (1959) Effect of visible and ultraviolet radiations on the sporulation of Ascochyta pisi and other seed-borne fungi. Phytopathology 49, 543. open url image1

Leach LD, Snyder WC (1947) Localized chemical applications to the soil and their effects upon root rots of beans and peas. Phytopathology 37, 363. open url image1

Lepoivre P (1979) Protection of Pisum sativum against infection by Ascochyta pinodes by pre-inoculation with Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta fabae or Ascochyta pinodes. Parasitica 35, 73–78. open url image1

Lepoivre P (1982a) Extraction of ascochitine from pea leaves [Pisum sativum] infected by Ascochyta pisi (Lib.) or Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Vestergr. Parasitica 38, 45–53. open url image1

Lepoivre P (1982b) Sensitivity of pea cultivars to ascochitine and the possible role of the toxin in the pathogenicity of Ascochyta pisi (Lib.). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 103, 25–34. open url image1

Lepoivre P, Boy N (1983) Effect of pea lectin on the infection of pea by Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Verstergr. Parasitica 39, 145–149. open url image1

Linford MB, Sprague R (1927) Species of Ascochyta parasitic on the pea. Phytopathology 17, 381–397. open url image1

Louis I, Cooke RC (1985a) Conidial matrix and spore germination on some plant pathogens. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 84, 661–667. open url image1

Louis I, Cooke RC (1985b) Enzymes in conidial matrix of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Mycosphaerella pinodes. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 84, 742–745. open url image1

Madhosingh C, Wallen VR (1968) Serological differentiation of the Ascochyta species of peas. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 14, 449–451.
PubMed |
open url image1

Matthews D (1964) A note on the testing of pea seed for the presence of Ascochyta spp. Proceedings of the International Seed Testing Association 29, 141–144. open url image1

Matthews P (1989) Inheritance of disease resistance in Pisum. In ‘Report on the 2nd Meeting of the E.C. Pea Group’. Brussels. (Eds JF Sutcliffe, JS Pate) pp. 70–73. (Academic Press: London)

Maude RB (1966) Pea seed infection by Mycosphaerella pinodes and Ascochyta pisi and its control by seed soaks in thiram and captan suspensions. Annals of Applied Biology 57, 193–200. open url image1

Maude RB, Kyle AM (1970) Seed treatments with benomyl and other fungicides for the control of Ascochyta pisi on peas. Annals of Applied Biology 66, 37–41. open url image1

Maude RB (1973) Seed-borne diseases and their control. In ‘Seed ecology’. (Ed. W Heydecker) pp. 325–335. (Butterworth & Co. Ltd.: London)

Maude RB, Bambridge JM, Spencer A (1986a) Tests of fungicide seed treatments to eliminate seed-borne Ascochyta pisi (leaf and pod spot of peas). Annals of Applied Biology supplement Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars No. 7) 108, 70–71. open url image1

Maude RB, Presly AH, Lovett JF (1986b) Demonstration of the adherence of thiram to pea seeds using a rapid method of spectrophotometric analysis. Seed Science and Technology 14, 361–369. open url image1

McDonald GK, Dean G (1996) Effect of waterlogging on the severity of disease caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes in peas (Pisum sativum L.). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 36, 219–222.
CrossRef | open url image1

Moore WC (1946) Seed-borne diseases. Annals of Applied Biology 33, 228–231. open url image1

Morrall RAA, McKenzie DL, Slinkard AE (1976) Evidence of disease tolerance to Ascochyta blight in a field pea cultivar. Proceedings of the Canadian Phytopathological Society 44, 42. open url image1

Nasir M, Hoppe HH (1991) Studies on pathotype differentiation within Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Bloxam) Vestergren, a component of the Ascochyta-disease-complex of peas (Pisum sativum L.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 98, 619–626. open url image1

Nasir M, Hoppe HH (1998) Evaluation of seed treatments to control Mycosphaerella pinodes on peas. Annals of Applied Biology supplement Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars No. 19) 132, 20–21. open url image1

Nasir M, Hoppe HH, Ebrahim Nesbat F (1992) The development of different pathotype groups of Mycosphaerella pinodes in susceptible and partially resistant pea leaves. Plant Pathology 41, 187–194. open url image1

Neergaard P (1979) ‘Seed pathology.’ Vols I & II. (Macmillan Press Ltd.: London)

Ogle HJ (1997) Disease management: chemicals. In ‘Plant pathogens and plant diseases’. (Eds JF Brown, HJ Ogle) pp. 373–389. (Rockvale Publications: Armidale)

Oku H, Shiraishi T, Ouchi S (1986) Specificity of local resistance induced in pea leaves by elicitor isolated from Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 52, 347–348. open url image1

Onfroy C, Tivoli B, Corbiere R, Bouznad Z (1999) Cultural, molecular and pathogenic variability of Mycosphaerella pinodes and Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella isolates from dried pea (Pisum sativum) in France. Plant Pathology 48, 218–229.
CrossRef | open url image1

Peck DM , McDonald GK (2001) Survey of field pea production practices in South Australia. In ‘10th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Hobart, Tasmania. p. 147.

Peck DM , McDonald GK , Davidson JA (2001) Blackspot survival in soil and stubble and aerial dissemination through the season. In ‘10th Australian Agronomy Conference’. Hobart, Tasmania. (Australian Society of Agronomy)

Platero Sanz M, Fuchs A (1978) Degradation of pisatin, an antimicrobial compound produced by Pisum sativum L. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 17, 14–17. open url image1

Platero Sanz M, Fuchs A (1980) Short-lived protection of pea plants against Mycosphaerella pinodes by prior inoculation with Pseudomonas phaseolicola. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 86, 181–190.
CrossRef | open url image1

Porta Puglia A , Bretag TW , Brouwer JB , Haware MP , Khalil SA (2000) Direct and indirect influences of morphological variations on diseases, yield and quality. In ‘Linking Research and Marketing Opportunities for Pulses in the 21st Century’. (Ed. R Knight) pp. 199–220. (Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands)

Prioul S, Frankewitz A, Deniot G, Morin G, Baranger A (2004) Mapping of quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea (Pisum sativum L.), at the seedling and adult plant stages. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108, 1322–1334.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Prioul S, Onfroy C, Tivoli B, Baranger A (2003) Controlled environment assessment of partial resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Euphytica 131, 121–130.
CrossRef | open url image1

Punithalingam E, Gibson IAS (1976) Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. C.M.I. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 518, 1–2. open url image1

Punithalingam E, Holliday P (1972a) Ascochyta pisi. C.M.I. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 334, 1–2. open url image1

Punithalingam E, Holliday P (1972b) Mycosphaerella pinodes. C.M.I. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria 340, 1–2. open url image1

Rattan PS (1974) Decomposition of cellulose by three pea pathogens in pure culture. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62, 113–117. open url image1

Rennie RJ, Howard RJ, Swanson TA, Flores GHA (1985) The effect of seed applied pesticides on growth and nitrogen fixation in pea, lentil, and fababean. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65, 23–28. open url image1

Roger C, Tivoli B (1996) Spatio-temporal development of pycnidia and perithecia and dissemination of spores of Mycosphaerella pinodes on pea (Pisum sativum). Plant Pathology 45, 518–528.
CrossRef | open url image1

Roger C, Tivoli B, Huber L (1999a) Effects of interrupted wet periods and different temperatures on the development of ascochyta blight caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes on pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. Plant Pathology 48, 10–18.
CrossRef | open url image1

Roger C, Tivoli B, Huber L (1999b) Effects of temperature and moisture on disease and fruit body development of Mycosphaerella pinodes on pea (Pisum sativum). Plant Pathology 48, 1–9.
CrossRef | open url image1

Roger C , Tivoli B , Lemarchand E (1998 a) Epidemiological studies of ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes) development on pea: understanding and predicting epidemics. In ‘3rd European Conference on Grain Legumes: Healthy and Added-value Crops to meet European Demands’. Valladolid, Spain. (Ed. AEP) pp. 100–101.

Roger C, Tivoli B, Lemarchand E (1998b) L’Anthracnose du pois proteagineux. Phytoma 509, 32–36. open url image1

Sakar D, Muehlbauer FJ, Kraft JM (1982) Techniques of screening peas for resistance to Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Crop Science 22, 988–992. open url image1

Salam MU , Galloway J , ‘Blackspot Manager’ for understanding blackspot of peas and ascochyta blight management. In ‘2005 Lupin and Pulses Updates. Agribusiness Crop Updates’. pp. 67–69. (Dept. of Agriculture, Western Australia: South Perth, WA)

Salter WJ , Smith JM (1986) Peas – Control of establishment pests and diseases using metalaxyl based seed coatings. In ‘1986 British Plant Protection Conference – Pests and diseases’. Brighton, England. pp. 1093–1100.

Sattar A (1934) A comparative study of the fungi associated with blight diseases of certain cultivated leguminous plants. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 18, 276–301. open url image1

Sharma B, Tyagi MC (1977) Effect of seed quality on flowering time in pea (Pisum sativum). Seed Research 5, 73–77. open url image1

Sheridan JJ, Dickinson CH (1968) A comparison of the behaviour of two pea pathogens in cut-away and loam. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 335–342. open url image1

Shiraishi T, Oku H, Tsuji Y, Ouchi S (1978a) Inhibitory effect of pisatin on infection process of Mycosphaerella pinodes on pea. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 44, 641–645. open url image1

Shiraishi T, Oku H, Yamashita M, Ouchi S (1978b) Elicitor and suppressor of pisatin induction in spore germination fluid of pea pathogens, Mycosphaerella pinodes. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 44, 659–665. open url image1

Shiraishi T , Ouchi S , Oku H (1983) Regulation of resistance expression in Pisum sativum by elicitor and suppressor of Mycosphaerella pinodes. In ‘4th International Congress of Plant Pathology’. Melbourne, Australia p. 194.

Skolko AJ, Groves JW, Wallen VR (1954) Ascochyta diseases of peas in Canada with special reference to seed transmission. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Science 34, 417–427. open url image1

Snyder WC, Hansen HN (1947) Advantages of natural media and environments in the culture of fungi. Phytopathology 37, 420–421. open url image1

Sprague R (1929) Host range and life history studies of some leguminous ascochytae. Phytopathology 19, 917–932. open url image1

Stone RE (1912) The life history of Ascochyta on some leguminous plants. Annals of Mycology 10, 564–592. open url image1

Tar’an B, Warkentin T, Somers DJ, Miranda D, Vandenberg A, Blade S, Woods S, Bing D, Xue A, DeKoeyer D, Penner G (2003) Quantitative trait loci for lodging resistance, plant height and partial resistance to mycosphaerella blight in field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 107, 1482–1491.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Thomas JE , Kenyon DM , Biddle AJ , Ward RL (2000) Forecasting and control of leaf and pod spot (Mycosphaerella pinodes) on field peas. In ‘The British Crop Protection Council Conference: Pests and Diseases’. Brighton, UK. pp. 871–876.

Timmerman-Vaughan GM, Frew TJ, Butler R, Murray S, Gilpin M, Falloon K, Johnston P, Lakeman MB, Russell A, Khan T (2004) Validation of quantitative trait loci for Ascochyta blight resistance in pea (Pisum sativum L.), using populations from two crosses. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 109, 1620–1631.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Timmerman-Vaughan GM, Frew TJ, Russell AC, Khan T, Butler R, Gilpin M, Murray S, Falloon K (2002) QTL mapping of partial resistance to field epidemics of Ascochyta blight of pea. Crop Science 42, 2100–2111. open url image1

Tivoli B, Beasse C, Lemarchand E, Masson E (1996) Effect of Ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes) on yield components of single pea (Pisum sativum) plants under field conditions. Annals of Applied Biology 129, 207–216. open url image1

Tivoli B, Ney B, Jeuffroy MH (1998) Towards a greater awareness of the impact of Ascochyta blight in fungicidal pea crop control. Phytoma 512, 16–20. open url image1

Tohamy AM, Nour Eldin HA, Mohamed ZK, Gad El-Karim GA, Madkour MA (1997) Identification of three Ascochyta spp. by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Phytopathology 87, S97. open url image1

Uehara K (1964) Relationship between the host specificity of pathogen and phytoalexin. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 29, 103–110. open url image1

Van der Plank JE (1968) ‘Disease resistance in plants.’ (Academic Press: New York)

Wade GC (1951) Pea diseases in Tasmania. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania 22, 40–49. open url image1

Walker J (1961) Mycosphaerella blight of peas. Agricultural Gazette, New South Wales 72, 192–194. open url image1

Walker JC (1969) Diseases incited by ascomycetes. V. Mycosphaerella and Ascochyta diseases of pea. In ‘Plant pathology’. (Ed. JC Walker) pp. 369–376. (McGraw-Hill, Inc.: New York)

Walker JC, Hare WW (1943) Pea diseases in Wisconsin in 1942. Wisconsin Agricultural Experimental Station Research Bulletin 145, 1–33. open url image1

Wallen VR (1955) The effect of storage for several years on the viability of Ascochyta pisi in pea seed and on the germination of the seed and emergence. Plant Disease Reporter 39, 674–677. open url image1

Wallen VR (1957) The identification and distribution of physiologic races of Ascochyta pisi Lib. in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 37, 337–341. open url image1

Wallen VR (1965) Field evaluation and the importance of the Ascochyta complex on peas. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 45, 27–33. open url image1

Wallen VR (1974) Influence of three Ascochyta diseases of peas on plant development and yield. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 54, 86–90. open url image1

Wallen VR, Cuddy TF (1968) Ascochyta blight of field peas. Canadian Agriculture 13, 24–25. open url image1

Wallen VR, Cuddy TF, Grainger PN (1967) Epidemiology and control of Ascochyta pinodes on field peas in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 47, 395–401. open url image1

Wallen VR, Hoffman I (1959) Fungistatic activity of captan in pea seedlings after treatment of the seeds or roots of seedlings. Phytopathology 49, 680–683. open url image1

Wallen VR, Jeun J (1968) Factors limiting the survival of Ascochyta spp. of peas in soil. Canadian Journal of Botany 46, 1279–1286. open url image1

Wang H, Hwang SF, Chang KF, Turnbull GD, Howard RJ (2000) Characterization of Ascochyta isolates and susceptibility of pea cultivars to the ascochyta disease complex in Alberta. Plant Pathology 49, 540–545.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wark DC (1950a) The inheritance of resistance to Ascochyta pisi Lib. in Pisum sativum L. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1, 382–390.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wark DC (1950b) The susceptibility of peas to four diseases occurring naturally in the Australian Capital Territory. The Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science 16, 32–33. open url image1

Warkentin TD, Rashid KY, Xue AG (1996) Fungicidal control of Ascochyta blight of field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 76, 67–71. open url image1

Warkentin TD, Xue AG, McAndrew DW (2000) Effect of mancozeb on the control of Mycosphaerella blight of field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80, 403–406. open url image1

Wroth JM (1996) Host-pathogen relationships of the ascochyta blight (Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. & Blox.) Vestegr.) disease of field pea (Pisum sativum L.). PhD thesis, University of Western Australia, Australia.

Wroth JM (1998a) Possible role for wild genotypes of Pisum spp. to enhance ascochyta blight resistance in pea. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 38, 469–479.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wroth JM (1998b) Variation in pathogenicity among and within Mycosphaerella pinodes populations collected from field pea in Australia. Canadian Journal of Botany 76, 1955–1966.
CrossRef | open url image1

Wroth JM (1999) Evidence suggests that Mycosphaerella pinodes infection of Pisum sativum is inherited as a quantitative trait. Euphytica 107, 193–204.
CrossRef | open url image1

Xue AG (2000) Effect of seed-borne Mycosphaerella pinodes and seed treatments on emergence, foot rot severity, and yield of field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 22, 248–253. open url image1

Xue AG, Warkentin TD (2001) Partial resistance to Mycosphaerella pinodes in field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81, 535–540. open url image1

Xue AG, Warkentin TD, Gossen BD, Burnett PA, Vandenberg A, Rashid KY (1998) Pathogenic variation of western Canadian isolates of Mycosphaerella pinodes on selected Pisum genotypes. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 20, 189–193. open url image1

Xue AG, Warkentin TD, Greeniaus MT, Zimmer RC (1996) Genotypic variability in seedborne infection of field pea by Mycosphaerella pinodes and its relation to foliar disease severity. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 18, 370–374. open url image1

Xue AG, Warkentin TD, Kenaschuk EO (1997) Effects of timings of inoculation with Mycosphaerella pinodes on yield and seed infection of field pea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 77, 685–689. open url image1

Zhang JX, Fernando WGD, Xue AG (2003) Virulence and genetic variability among isolates of Mycosphaerella pinodes. Plant Disease 87, 1376–1383. open url image1

Zhang JX, Fernando WGD, Xue AG (2004) Temporal and spatial dynamics of mycosphaerella blight. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 26, 522–532. open url image1

Zhang JX, Fernando WGD, Xue AG (2005a) Daily and seasonal spore dispersal by Mycosphaerella pinodes and development of mycosphaerella blight of field pea. Canadian Journal of Botany 83, 302–310.
CrossRef | open url image1

Zhang JX, Xue AG, Fernando WGD (2005b) Effect of residue type and burial depth on survival of Mycosphaerella pinodes in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 27, 132–136. open url image1

Zimmer RC, Sabourin D (1986) Determining resistance reactions of field pea cultivars at the seedling stage to Mycosphaerella pinodes. Phytopathology 76, 878–881. open url image1








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (55)

View Altmetrics