Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Soils and climate change: potential impacts on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions, and future research for Australian agriculture

J. A. Baldock A D , I. Wheeler C , N. McKenzie B and A. McBrateny C

A CSIRO Land and Water/Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.

B CSIRO Land and Water, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

C University of Sydney, Faculty of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

D Corresponding author. Email: jeff.baldock@csiro.au

Crop and Pasture Science 63(3) 269-283 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CP11170
Submitted: 12 December 2011  Accepted: 20 March 2012   Published: 28 May 2012

Abstract

Organic carbon and nitrogen found in soils are subject to a range of biological processes capable of generating or consuming greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4). In response to the strong impact that agricultural management can have on the amount of organic carbon and nitrogen stored in soil and their rates of biological cycling, soils have the potential to reduce or enhance concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Concern also exists over the potential positive feedback that a changing climate may have on rates of greenhouse gas emission from soil. Climate projections for most of the agricultural regions of Australia suggest a warmer and drier future with greater extremes relative to current climate. Since emissions of greenhouse gases from soil derive from biological processes that are sensitive to soil temperature and water content, climate change may impact significantly on future emissions. In this paper, the potential effects of climate change and options for adaptation and mitigations will be considered, followed by an assessment of future research requirements. The paper concludes by suggesting that the diversity of climate, soil types, and agricultural practices in place across Australia will make it difficult to define generic scenarios for greenhouse gas emissions. Development of a robust modelling capability will be required to construct regional and national emission assessments and to define the potential outcomes of on-farm management decisions and policy decisions. This model development will require comprehensive field datasets to calibrate the models and validate model outputs. Additionally, improved spatial layers of model input variables collected on a regular basis will be required to optimise accounting at regional to national scales.


References

Allen DE, Mendham DS, Bhupinderpal S, Cowie A, Wang W, Dalal RC, Raison RJ (2009) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil are reduced following afforestation of pasture lands in three contrasting climatic zones. Australian Journal of Soil Research 47, 443–458.

Allen DE, Kingston G, Rennenberg H, Dalal RC, Schmidt S (2010) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer management and waterlogging on nitrous oxide emission from subtropical sugarcane soils. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 136, 209–217.
Effect of nitrogen fertilizer management and waterlogging on nitrous oxide emission from subtropical sugarcane soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisFentb8%3D&md5=369487e29288b8d884b620fab0ee5228CAS | open url image1

Anderson DW, Paul EA (1984) Organo-mineral complexes and their study by radiocarbon dating. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48, 298–301.
Organo-mineral complexes and their study by radiocarbon dating.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXitVyns7g%3D&md5=053ce1d190eff8c25a407e35ba005397CAS | open url image1

Angus JF (2001) Nitrogen supply and demand in Australian agriculture. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 277–288.
Nitrogen supply and demand in Australian agriculture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXkt1CrsbY%3D&md5=6bc2f63475c9af917c6e06b78f8e746dCAS | open url image1

Bai E, Houlton BZ (2009) Coupled isotopic and process-based modeling of gaseous nitrogen losses from tropical rain forests. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, Art No. GB2011
Coupled isotopic and process-based modeling of gaseous nitrogen losses from tropical rain forests.CrossRef | open url image1

Baldock JA (2007) Composition and cycling of organic carbon in soil. In ‘Soil biology. Volume 10. Nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems’. (Eds P Marschner, Z Rengel) (Springer-Verlag: Berlin)

Barton L, Kiese R, Gatter D, Butterbach-Bahl K, Buck R, Hinz C, Murphy DV (2008) Nitrous oxide emissions from a cropped soil in a semi-arid climate. Global Change Biology 14, 177–192.

Barton L, Murphy DV, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2010) Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes are low from a bioenergy crop (canola) grown in a semi-arid climate. Global Change Biology – Bioenergy 2, 1–15.
Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes are low from a bioenergy crop (canola) grown in a semi-arid climate.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXms1antb0%3D&md5=2174b14e02cecf0ceeb467216cfa3674CAS | open url image1

Barton L, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R, Murphy DV (2011) Nitrous oxide fluxes from a grain-legume crop (narrow-leafed lupin) grown in a semiarid climate. Global Change Biology 17, 1153–1166.
Nitrous oxide fluxes from a grain-legume crop (narrow-leafed lupin) grown in a semiarid climate.CrossRef | open url image1

Blair GJ, Lefory RDB, Lisle L (1995) Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 46, 1459–1466.
Soil carbon fractions based on their degree of oxidation, and the development of a carbon management index for agricultural systems.CrossRef | open url image1

Bossio DA, Horwath WR, Mutters RG, Van Kessel C (1999) Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 31, 1313–1322.
Methane pool and flux dynamics in a rice field following straw incorporation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXktlyju7o%3D&md5=0fa1724d86b96045270e4aa55f17a2fbCAS | open url image1

Bui E, Henderson B, Viergever K (2009) Using knowledge discovery with data mining from the Australian Soil Resource Information System database to inform soil carbon mapping in Australia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, Art. No. GB2011
Using knowledge discovery with data mining from the Australian Soil Resource Information System database to inform soil carbon mapping in Australia.CrossRef | open url image1

Castaldi S (2000) Responses of nitrous oxide, dinitrogen and carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption to temperature in forest and agricutlural light-textured soils determined by model experiment. Biology and Fertility of Soils 32, 67–72.
Responses of nitrous oxide, dinitrogen and carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption to temperature in forest and agricutlural light-textured soils determined by model experiment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmvFWrtrw%3D&md5=80f1db6be19496be3bce85e31a020646CAS | open url image1

Chalk PM (1998) Dynamics of biologically fixed N in legume-cereal rotations: a review. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49, 303–316.
Dynamics of biologically fixed N in legume-cereal rotations: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXisFGqsbs%3D&md5=23a823672fd60bfd6c93900151eddfcbCAS | open url image1

Chen D, Li Y, Kelly K, Eckard R (2010a) Simulation of N2O emissions from an irrigated dairy pasture treated with urea and urine in Southeastern Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 136, 333–342.
Simulation of N2O emissions from an irrigated dairy pasture treated with urea and urine in Southeastern Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisFenurs%3D&md5=aea5d708fb4a23800370c81685fc0087CAS | open url image1

Chen D, Suter HC, Islam A, Edis R (2010b) Influence of nitrification inhibitors on nitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from a clay loam soil fertilized with urea. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42, 660–664.
Influence of nitrification inhibitors on nitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from a clay loam soil fertilized with urea.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXis1Sgtrw%3D&md5=6c789e0bf535a24d13955858d280e046CAS | open url image1

Conrad R (2005) Quantification of methanogenic pathways using stable carbon isotopic signatures, a review and a proposal. Organic Geochemistry 36, 739–752.
Quantification of methanogenic pathways using stable carbon isotopic signatures, a review and a proposal.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXjtl2rtLk%3D&md5=0e3591e022248d5857058cc955b310cbCAS | open url image1

Corton TM, Bajita JB, Grospe FS, Pamplona RR, Asis CAJ, Wassmann R, Lantin RS, Buendia LV (2000) Methane emission from irrigated and intensively managed rice fields in Central Luzon (Philippines). Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 58, 37–53.
Methane emission from irrigated and intensively managed rice fields in Central Luzon (Philippines).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhtVeisL4%3D&md5=5fff77bee7febe4ab90de5ab9d3c81cfCAS | open url image1

CSIRO (2007) Climate Change in Australia. Technical Report. Available at: www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/technical_report.php

Dalal RC, Wang W, Robertson GP, Parton WJ (2003) Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research 41, 165–195.
Nitrous oxide emission from Australian agricultural lands and mitigation options: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXktFKisr8%3D&md5=0247e07ef53d3b67dedf89daa649a534CAS | open url image1

Dalal RC, Allen DE, Livesley SJ, Richards G (2008) Magnitude and biophysical regulators of methane emission and consumption in the Australian agricultural, forest, and submerged landscapes: a review. Plant and Soil 309, 43–76.
Magnitude and biophysical regulators of methane emission and consumption in the Australian agricultural, forest, and submerged landscapes: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXosVyhsrg%3D&md5=8f4e7b629bdb98c448f0268be198aa74CAS | open url image1

Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006) Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature 440, 165–173.
Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XitFGitLo%3D&md5=90569b10944b265dacc4b570ecfe8240CAS | open url image1

de Gruijter J, Brus D, Bierkens M, Knotters M (2006) ‘Sampling for natural resource monitoring.’ (Springer: Berlin)

Denmead OT, Macdonald BCT, Bryant G, Naylor T, Wilson S, Griffith DWT, Wang WJ, Salter B, White I, Moody PW (2010) Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Australian sugarcane soils. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150, 748–756.
Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Australian sugarcane soils.CrossRef | open url image1

Di HJ, Cameron KC (2003) Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in spray-irrigated grazed grassland by treating the soil with dicyandiamide, a nitrification inhibitor. Soil Use and Management 19, 284–290.
Mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in spray-irrigated grazed grassland by treating the soil with dicyandiamide, a nitrification inhibitor.CrossRef | open url image1

Di HJ, Cameron KC (2006) Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pasture soils as affected by different rates of a fine particle suspension nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide. Biology and Fertility of Soils 42, 472–480.
Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pasture soils as affected by different rates of a fine particle suspension nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XntlGhtrw%3D&md5=5600421ac0e6ab1a18e2a6ccd4f7079eCAS | open url image1

Di HJ, Cameron KC, Sherlock RR (2007) Comparison of the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide, in reducing nitrous oxide emissions in four different soils under different climatic and management conditions. Soil Use and Management 23, 1–9.
Comparison of the effectiveness of a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide, in reducing nitrous oxide emissions in four different soils under different climatic and management conditions.CrossRef | open url image1

Dunfield P, Knowles R, Dumont R, Moore TR (1993) Methane production and consumption in temperate and subarctic peat soils, response to temperature and pH. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 25, 321–326.
Methane production and consumption in temperate and subarctic peat soils, response to temperature and pH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXisFeqtL8%3D&md5=075017cc4334ce63f62152fae038092eCAS | open url image1

Eswaran H, Van den Berg E, Reich P, Kimble JM (1995) Global soil C resources. In ‘Soils and global change’. (Eds R Lal, JM Kimble, E Levine, BA Stewart) pp. 27–43. (Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL)

Freney JR, Denmead OT, Simpson JR (1978) Soil as a source or sink for atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nature 273, 530–532.
Soil as a source or sink for atmospheric nitrous oxide.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaE1cXmtVSktrk%3D&md5=e36118f9b34353b51e4b2c7d10be3ea9CAS | open url image1

Gerber S, Hedin LO, Oppenheimer M, Pacala SW, Shevliakova E (2010) Nitrogen cycling and feedbacks in a global dynamic land model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24, Art. No. GB1001
Nitrogen cycling and feedbacks in a global dynamic land model.CrossRef | open url image1

Giardina CP, Ryan MG (2000) Evidence that decomposition rates of organic matter in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404, 858–861.
Evidence that decomposition rates of organic matter in mineral soil do not vary with temperature.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjtVCrsL4%3D&md5=4721505fc18109fbdc375b5253945a4bCAS | open url image1

Golchin A, Baldock JA, Oades JM (1997) A model linking organic matter decomposition, chemistry and aggregate dynamics. In ‘Soil processes and the carbon cycle’. (Eds R Lal, JM Kimble, RF Follett, BA Stewart) pp. 245–266. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Goodroad LL, Keeney DR (1984) Nitrous oxide proudction in aerobic soils under varying pH, temperature and water content. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 16, 39–43.
Nitrous oxide proudction in aerobic soils under varying pH, temperature and water content.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXksFeqs7s%3D&md5=ee9f4edbe77cb7b684839ea97239c8fcCAS | open url image1

Grace J, Rayment M (2000) Respiration in the balance. Nature 404, 819–820.
Respiration in the balance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXjtVCmtbo%3D&md5=638f3c8786d92381db570bbc2658b1d6CAS | open url image1

Herrmann A, Witter E, Katterer T (2005) A method to assess whether ‘preferential use’ occurs after 15N ammonium addition; implication for the 15N isotope dilution technique. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 183–186.
A method to assess whether ‘preferential use’ occurs after 15N ammonium addition; implication for the 15N isotope dilution technique.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXovVKntb4%3D&md5=b91278c38d9b92e74534e9b9f95780f9CAS | open url image1

Hou AX, Chen GX, Wang ZP, Van Cleempu TO, Patrick WHJ (2000) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice field in relation to soil redox and microbiological processes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 2180–2186.
Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice field in relation to soil redox and microbiological processes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhsFSrtQ%3D%3D&md5=fdddb7bc3f07a102fdcf2cf859d55ac0CAS | open url image1

Houghton RA (2005) The contemporary carbon cycle. In ‘Biogeochemistry’. (Ed. WH Schlesinger) pp. 473–513. (Elsevier Science: Amsterdam)

Huang X, Grace P, Mengersen K, Weier K (2011) Spatio-temporal variation in soil derived nitrous oxide emissions under sugarcane. The Science of the Total Environment 409, 4572–4578.
Spatio-temporal variation in soil derived nitrous oxide emissions under sugarcane.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhtFCrtbrJ&md5=7c894066696007dc49aca4ab74552eabCAS | open url image1

Hutchinson JJ, Campbell CA, Desjardins RL (2007) Some perspectives on carbon sequestration in agriculture. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142, 288–302.
Some perspectives on carbon sequestration in agriculture.CrossRef | open url image1

Janik LJ, Skjemstad JO, Shepherd KD, Spouncer LR (2007) The prediction of soil carbon fractions using mid-infrared-partial least square analysis. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45, 73–81.
The prediction of soil carbon fractions using mid-infrared-partial least square analysis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXjsFygurk%3D&md5=63ae64f9cdd032480e23410b3b99a8dcCAS | open url image1

Jenkinson DS, Hart PBS, Rayner JH, Parry LC (1987) Modelling the turnover of organic matter in long-term experiments at Rothamsted. Intecol Bulletin 15, 1–8.

Jobbágy EG, Jackson RB (2000) The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological Applications 10, 423–436.
The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation.CrossRef | open url image1

Kebreab E, France J, Beever DE, Castillo AR (2001) Nitrogen pollution by dairy cows and its mitigation by dietary manipulation. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60, 275–285.
Nitrogen pollution by dairy cows and its mitigation by dietary manipulation.CrossRef | open url image1

Keeney DR, Fillery IR, Marx GP (1979) Effect of temperature on the gaseous nitrogen products of denitrification in a silt loam soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43, 1124–1128.
Effect of temperature on the gaseous nitrogen products of denitrification in a silt loam soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXhs1aksro%3D&md5=b765f7b87139e1be177b10cb71e755f9CAS | open url image1

Kessavalou A, Mosier AR, Doran JW, Drijber RA, Lyon DJ, Heinemeyer O (1998) Fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in grass sod and winter wheat–fallow tillage management. Journal of Environmental Quality 27, 1094–1104.
Fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in grass sod and winter wheat–fallow tillage management.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmtl2js7Y%3D&md5=98a2c92ffd16c34435e2bb9d97cbc506CAS | open url image1

Knorr W, Prentice IC, House JI, Holland EA (2005) Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming. Nature 433, 298–301.
Long-term sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to warming.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlt1KksA%3D%3D&md5=82974d2ebc209f0024097c72f8c6bbabCAS | open url image1

Kumaraswamy S, Ramakrishnan B, Sethunathan N (2001) Methane production and oxidation in an anoxic rice soil as influenced by inorganic redox species. Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 2195–2201.
Methane production and oxidation in an anoxic rice soil as influenced by inorganic redox species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xht1Slt7s%3D&md5=37805f51b7b2f249d9851eae0c539a42CAS | open url image1

Ladd JN, Oades JM, Amato M (1981) Microbial biomass formed from 14C, 15N-labelled plant material decomposing in soils in the field. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 13, 119–126.
Microbial biomass formed from 14C, 15N-labelled plant material decomposing in soils in the field.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXkt1entLY%3D&md5=5c725596ea4ab339ac5a229ee60a1dceCAS | open url image1

Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123, 1–22.
Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXoslSmsLY%3D&md5=2ebebc7c26ad7be1ad95dccf27605f6aCAS | open url image1

Le Mer J, Roger P (2001) Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: a review. European Journal of Soil Biology 37, 25–50.
Production, oxidation, emission and consumption of methane by soils: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXjvFOnsbs%3D&md5=d2b5576333bd01d55b5c8662fe8dd120CAS | open url image1

Li CS, Frolking S, Butterbach-Bahl K (2005) Carbon sequestration in arable soils is likely to increase nitrous oxide emissions, offsetting reductions in climate radiative forcing. Climatic Change 72, 321–338.
Carbon sequestration in arable soils is likely to increase nitrous oxide emissions, offsetting reductions in climate radiative forcing.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtFKmsLvP&md5=d8e50257b0d66f4deb26b09265529a6aCAS | open url image1

Luo J, de Klein CAM, Ledgard SF, Saggar S (2010a) Management options to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from intensively grazed pastures: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 136, 282–291.
Management options to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from intensively grazed pastures: a review.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisFentbc%3D&md5=ac59d1808229c73ff3789253679c036eCAS | open url image1

Luo Z, Wang E, Sun OJ (2010b) Soil carbon change and its responses to agricultural practices in Australian agro-ecosystems: a review and synthesis. Geoderma 155, 211–223.
Soil carbon change and its responses to agricultural practices in Australian agro-ecosystems: a review and synthesis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXitlWgtb0%3D&md5=b7a89e32cfe8955b3737e3e8f9b12231CAS | open url image1

Ma JF, Ryan PR (2010) Understanding how plants cope with acid soils. Functional Plant Biology 37, iii–vi.
Understanding how plants cope with acid soils.CrossRef | open url image1

Macdonald BCT, Denmead OT, White I, Byrant G (2011) Gaseous nitrogen losses from coastal acid sulfate soils: a short-term study. Pedosphere 21, 197–206.
Gaseous nitrogen losses from coastal acid sulfate soils: a short-term study.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXkvVyrsLw%3D&md5=5653ebbdc357fc210259c47245c12976CAS | open url image1

Mackenzie FT (1998) ‘Our changing planet: an introduction to earth system science and global environmental change.’ 2nd edn (Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ)

Masscheleyn PH, DeLaune RD, Patrick WHJ (1993) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from laboratory measurements of rice soil suspension: effect of soil oxidation-reduction status. Chemosphere 26, 251–260.
Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from laboratory measurements of rice soil suspension: effect of soil oxidation-reduction status.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXitlaqs7Y%3D&md5=bb0d3ee0932a9def7393ed978fb50880CAS | open url image1

McSwiney CP, Robertson GP (2005) Nonlinear response of N2O flux to incremental fertilizer addition in a continuous maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Global Change Biology 11, 1712–1719.
Nonlinear response of N2O flux to incremental fertilizer addition in a continuous maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system.CrossRef | open url image1

Mosier A, Wassmann R, Verchot L, King J, Palm C (2004) Methane and nitrogen oxide fluxes in tropical agricultural soils, sources, sinks and mechanisms. Environment, Development and Sustainability 6, 11–49.
Methane and nitrogen oxide fluxes in tropical agricultural soils, sources, sinks and mechanisms.CrossRef | open url image1

Mulligan FJ, Dillon P, Callan JJ, Rath M, O’Mara FP (2004) Supplementary concentrate type affects nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87, 3451–3460.
Supplementary concentrate type affects nitrogen excretion of grazing dairy cows.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXotFykurs%3D&md5=f23d9afc51a31e8979748daa667ab260CAS | open url image1

Nielsen NM, Kristensen T, Nørgaard P, Hansen H (2003) The effect of low protein supplementation to dairy cows grazing clover grass during half of the day. Livestock Production Science 81, 293–306.
The effect of low protein supplementation to dairy cows grazing clover grass during half of the day.CrossRef | open url image1

Paul EA, Collins HP, Leavitt SW (2001) Dynamics of resistant soil carbon of Midwestern agricultural soils measured by naturally occurring 14C abundance. Geoderma 104, 239–256.
Dynamics of resistant soil carbon of Midwestern agricultural soils measured by naturally occurring 14C abundance.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXnsFGht7c%3D&md5=7732f366d2a4a62a27db541e8232cf25CAS | open url image1

Peoples MB, Baldock JA (2001) Nitrogen dynamics of pastures: nitrogen fixation inputs, the impact of legumes on soil nitrogen fertility, and the contributions of fixed nitrogen to Australian farming systems. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 327–346.
Nitrogen dynamics of pastures: nitrogen fixation inputs, the impact of legumes on soil nitrogen fertility, and the contributions of fixed nitrogen to Australian farming systems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXkt1Crtrw%3D&md5=0ff51c42b388da7654025c9d4c32eea8CAS | open url image1

Phillips FA, Leuning R, Baigenta R, Kelly KB, Denmead OT (2007) Nitrous oxide flux measurements from an intensively managed irrigated pasture using micrometeorological techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 143, 92–105.
Nitrous oxide flux measurements from an intensively managed irrigated pasture using micrometeorological techniques.CrossRef | open url image1

Powlson D (2005) Climatology: will soil amplify climate change? Nature 433, 204–205.
Climatology: will soil amplify climate change?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlt1Khsw%3D%3D&md5=ccbdfaa9ac7f4f2475ad89e174d96464CAS | open url image1

Rawluk CDL, Grant CA, Racz GJ (2001) Ammonia volatilization from soils fertilized with urea and varying rates of urease inhibitor NBPT. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 81, 239–246.
Ammonia volatilization from soils fertilized with urea and varying rates of urease inhibitor NBPT.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXlvVGqsrc%3D&md5=3ba4272db089ff188b139fb9da795a13CAS | open url image1

Sanderman J, Farquharson R, Baldock JA (2010) Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential: A review for Australian agriculture. CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagship Report, prepared for Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. Available at: www.csiro.au/resources/Soil-Carbon-Sequestration-Potential-Report.html

Scheer C, Grace PR, Rowlings DW, Kimber S, Van Zwieten L (2011) Effect of biochar amendment on the soil–atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases from an intensive subtropical pasture in northern New South Wales, Australia. Plant and Soil 345, 47–58.
Effect of biochar amendment on the soil–atmosphere exchange of greenhouse gases from an intensive subtropical pasture in northern New South Wales, Australia.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXptFymt7o%3D&md5=3ebf4faf0d5dc0e612132825d8d92f00CAS | open url image1

Six J, Callewaert P, Lenders S, De Gryze S, Morris SJ, Gregorich EG, Paul EA, Paustian K (2002) Measuring and understanding carbon storage in afforested soils by physical fractionation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 1981–1987.
Measuring and understanding carbon storage in afforested soils by physical fractionation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XoslKhtr0%3D&md5=645a4455cd79b208349a8365a746cf88CAS | open url image1

Skjemstad JO, Spouncer LR, Cowie B, Swift RS (2004) Calibration of the Rothamsted organic carbon turnover model (RothC ver. 26.3), using measurable soil organic carbon pools. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42, 79–88.
Calibration of the Rothamsted organic carbon turnover model (RothC ver. 26.3), using measurable soil organic carbon pools.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXht1ahsbo%3D&md5=8ca7a9b18f84ee4593bfad5ae1a917dbCAS | open url image1

Smith LC, de Klein CAM, Catto WD (2008) Effect of dicyandiamide applied in a granular form on nitrous oxide emissions from a grazed dairy pasture in Southland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 51, 387–396.
Effect of dicyandiamide applied in a granular form on nitrous oxide emissions from a grazed dairy pasture in Southland, New Zealand.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXisFersbk%3D&md5=28d171ad771db2a6274f13404f45bf50CAS | open url image1

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1989) ‘Statistical methods.’ 8th edn (Iowa State University Press: Ames, IA)

Spain AV, Isbell RF, Probert ME (1983) Soil organic matter. In ‘Soils: an Australian viewpoint’. pp. 551–563. (CSIRO: Melbourne/Academic Press: London)

Swanston CW, Torn MS, Hanson PJ, Southon JR, Garten CT, Hanlon EM, Ganio L (2005) Initial characterization of processes of soil carbon stabilization using forest stand-level radiocarbon enrichment. Geoderma 128, 52–62.
Initial characterization of processes of soil carbon stabilization using forest stand-level radiocarbon enrichment.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXlvV2ks7c%3D&md5=804befc6da9a3acbf1c51d5e9ab7e9b6CAS | open url image1

Turner DA, Chen D, Galbally IE, Leuning R, Edis RB, Li Y, Kelly K, Phillips F (2008) Spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions from an Australian irrigated dairy pasture. Plant and Soil 309, 77–88.
Spatial variability of nitrous oxide emissions from an Australian irrigated dairy pasture.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXosVyhsrs%3D&md5=97917e83281ec2a8a9f69e871b91ab0eCAS | open url image1

Unkovich M, Baldock J, Forbes M (2010) Variability in harvest index of grain crops and potential significance for carbon accounting: examples from Australian agriculture. Advances in Agronomy 105, 173–219.
Variability in harvest index of grain crops and potential significance for carbon accounting: examples from Australian agriculture.CrossRef | open url image1

Veldkamp E, Weitz AM, Keller M (2001) Management effects on methane fluxes in humid tropical pasture soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 33, 1493–1499.
Management effects on methane fluxes in humid tropical pasture soils.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmtFSls70%3D&md5=da65ddbaee48734d71f8978b65d0ad5eCAS | open url image1

Wang W, Dalal RC, Reeves SH, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2011) Greenhouse gas fluxes from an Australian subtropical cropland under long-term contrasting management regimes. Global Change Biology 17, 3089–3101.
Greenhouse gas fluxes from an Australian subtropical cropland under long-term contrasting management regimes.CrossRef | open url image1

Wassmann R, Neue HU, Lantin RS, Makarim K, Chareonsilp N, Buendia LV, Rennenberg H (2000) Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. II differences among irrigated, rainfed, and deepwater rice. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 58, 13–22.
Characterization of methane emissions from rice fields in Asia. II differences among irrigated, rainfed, and deepwater rice.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXhtVeis7Y%3D&md5=494294ee1731eb8355bc3cbb431ec164CAS | open url image1

Watson CJ (2000) Urease activity and inhibition—principles and practice. In ‘Proceedings of the International Fertilizer Society No. 454’. London, UK. (Ed. CJ Watson) p. 40. (International Fertiliser Society)

Whitehead DC (1995) ‘Grassland nitrogen.’ (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)


Full Text PDF (1.1 MB) Export Citation Cited By (24)