Crop and Pasture Science Crop and Pasture Science Society
Plant sciences, sustainable farming systems and food quality
Crop and Pasture Science

Crop and Pasture Science

Volume 68 Number 3 2017

CP16420Effect of VRN1 and PPD1 genes on anthesis date and wheat growth

F. A. J. Harris, H. A. Eagles, J. M. Virgona, P. J. Martin, J. R. Condon and J. F. Angus
pp. 195-201

PPD1 and VRN1 genes are known to be regulatory genes, influencing plant traits in addition to phasic development. We found epistatic effects of PPD1 and VRN1 genes on anthesis date, however only Vrn-B1 had an effect on crop growth. We suggest this is a pleiotropic effect of Vrn-B1 rather than a physiological association between wheat development and growth.

CP16330Nitrogen×sulfur interaction on fertiliser-use efficiency in bread wheat genotypes from the Argentine Pampas

Agustin F. Arata, Silvia E. Lerner, Gabriela E. Tranquilli, Adriana C. Arrigoni and Deborah P. Rondanini
pp. 202-212

Wheat grain production greatly depends on the availability of soil nutrients such as nitrogen and sulfur. Fertiliser-use efficiency was evaluated in a wide range of modern genotypes differing in their cycle length and baking quality. The ranking of varieties based on sulfur-use efficiency is useful to maximise bread wheat productivity in the high yielding Humid Pampa of Argentina.

CP16367Physiological, biochemical and agronomic traits associated with drought tolerance in a synthetic-derived wheat diversity panel

Fakiha Afzal, Bharath Reddy, Alvina Gul, Maria Khalid, Abid Subhani, Kanwal Shazadi, Umar Masood Quraishi, Amir M. H. Ibrahim and Awais Rasheed
pp. 213-224

A new diversity panel comprised of synthetic-derived wheats and their bread wheat donors was evaluated under well-watered and water-limited field conditions. The physiological traits like superoxide dismutase, proline and canopy temperature and agronomic traits like grain per spike and thousand-grain weight significantly explained grain yield under water-limited conditions. The study provided impetus to conduct further genetic studies to dissect the loci underpin drought tolerance in synthetic-derived diversity panel.

CP16324Microorganism profile, fermentation quality and rumen digestibility in vitro of maize-stalk silages produced at different maturity stages

Miao Zhang, Yanping Wang, Zhongfang Tan, Zongwei Li, Ya Li, Haoxin Lv, Bei Zhang and Qingsheng Jin
pp. 225-233

The microorganism profile, fermentation quality and rumen digestibility in vitro of maize-stalk silage were investigated at different maturity stages. Results showed that all tested strains of lactic acid bacteria could efficiently ferment galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, sucrose and trehalose. The pathogens Escherichia coli, aerobic bacteria, filamentous fungi and Saccharomycetes occurred in the silages, and the inhibition of these pathogens need to be further considered.

Downy mildew, caused by the pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica, is an ongoing and increasingly serious threat to oilseed Brassica production in Australia. Testing of 131 Brassicaceae varieties, including 109 Australian canola or mustard varieties, revealed high-level resistance to the disease. The most resistant varieties can now be deployed into regions where downy mildew is a persistent problem, providing the oilseed canola and mustard industries with their first effective option for management of this increasingly problematic disease.

Previous work has shown antitranspirant efficacy in protecting Brassica napus and other major food crops from drought damage in glasshouse conditions. Two experiments were carried out in the same field over consecutive years to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals with antitranspirant activity applied over different growth stages and at different dose rates for sustaining canola yield under drought. The results showed yield protection when antitranspirant was applied at 1 L ha–1 just before flowering, therefore encouraging further work in different environments and spraying conditions.

Phoma stem canker is a disease of economic importance in oilseed rape producing areas worldwide. Large-scale survey of the occurrence of two causal agents of the disease (Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa) in host tissues and the country-wide distribution of the pathogens revealed single-species infection as well as co-infection by both species, indicating Leptosphaeria spp. co-existence in the Czech Republic. Results suggest that L. biglobosa is more successful than L. maculans in colonising oilseed rape tissues in later plant growth stages.

To enhance Se and Zn concentrations in raw and cooked field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grains the efficacy of their combined application was tested. The combined application influenced positively grain Zn concentration, but cooking decreased slightly grain Se and Zn concentrations although enhanced Zn bioavailability. The consumption of 100 g of cooked, biofortified field peas would provide ~50% of recommended daily intake of Zn and 45% of Se.

Kikuyu offers nutritional advantages for grazing ruminant management and the subsequent flow on benefits in terms of food stuffs for human consumption. Equally as important is its value in urban green spaces where recreational functionality and aesthetic qualities play an important role in human health and wellbeing. This article examines the origin, genetic variability, tolerance to soil salinity, drought and the potential for genetic improvements to this economically important grass.

CP16444A modification of the arcsine–log calibration curve for analysing soil test value–relative yield relationships

Adrián A. Correndo, Fernando Salvagiotti, Fernando O. García and Flavio H. Gutiérrez-Boem
pp. 297-304

This article proposes a modification of an algorithm that improves the performance of a calibration method for soil test – crop fertilizer response relationships. This approach estimates confidence intervals for critical soil-test values thresholds. Comparisons between the original and the modified methodology are included as well as a list of procedures for potentially interested users.

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