Environmental Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Society
Environmental problems - Chemical approaches
REVIEW (Open Access)

Organic phosphorus in the aquatic environment

Darren S. Baldwin

CSIRO Land and Water and the Murray–Darling Freshwater Research Centre, La Trobe University, PO Box 991, Wodonga, Vic. 3689, Australia. Email: darren.baldwin@csiro.au




Darren Baldwin is a biogeochemist based at the Murray–Darling Freshwater in Wodonga, Australia. His current research examines how natural and human-induced perturbations affect the movement and transformation of carbon and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems.

Environmental Chemistry 10(6) 439-454 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN13151
Submitted: 8 August 2013  Accepted: 21 October 2013   Published: 19 December 2013

Environmental context. Organic phosphorus can be one of the major fractions of phosphorus in many aquatic ecosystems. This paper discusses the distribution, cycling and ecological significance of five major classes of organic P in the aquatic environment and discusses several principles to guide organic P research into the future.

Abstract. Organic phosphorus can be one of the major fractions of phosphorus in many aquatic ecosystems. Unfortunately, in many studies the ‘organic’ P fraction is operationally defined. However, there are an increasing number of studies where the organic P species have been structurally characterised – in part because of the adoption of 31P NMR spectroscopic techniques. There are five classes of organic P species that have been specifically identified in the aquatic environment – nucleic acids, other nucleotides, inositol phosphates, phospholipids and phosphonates. This paper explores the identification, quantification, biogeochemical cycling and ecological significance of these organic P compounds. Based on this analysis, the paper then identifies a number of principles which could guide the research of organic P into the future. There is an ongoing need to develop methods for quickly and accurately identifying and quantifying organic P species in the environment. The types of ecosystems in which organic P dynamics are studied needs to be expanded; flowing waters, floodplains and small wetlands are currently all under-represented in the literature. While enzymatic hydrolysis is an important transformation pathway for the breakdown of organic P, more effort needs to be directed towards studying other potential transformation pathways. Similarly effort should be directed to estimating the rates of transformations, not simply reporting on the concentrations. And finally, further work is needed in elucidating other roles of organic P in the environment other than simply a source of P to aquatic organisms.

Additional keywords: 31P NMR, analysis, eutrophication, freshwater, marine, reactive phosphorus, sediment, soil, virus.


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