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RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Environmental effects on arsenosugars and arsenolipids in Ectocarpus (Phaeophyta)

Ásta H. Pétursdóttir A B C D , Kyle Fletcher B , Helga Gunnlaugsdóttir C , Eva Krupp A , Frithjof C. Küpper B and Jörg Feldmann A D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A TESLA – Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland, UK.

B Oceanlab, University of Aberdeen, Newburgh, AB41 6AA, UK.

C Matis, Food Safety, Environment and Genetics Department, Vinlandsleid 12, IS-113 Reykjavik, Iceland.

D Corresponding authors. Email: astap@matis.is; j.feldmann@abdn.ac.uk

Environmental Chemistry 13(1) 21-33 https://doi.org/10.1071/EN14229
Submitted: 25 October 2014  Accepted: 2 March 2015   Published: 28 July 2015

Environmental context. Arsenolipids, which are present in seaweed, can show high toxicity, emphasising the need for more information on these compounds. We investigated the effects of different stress factors on the arsenic compounds formed by cultures of brown algae, and compared the results with those from field-collected samples. We show that the arsenolipid and arsenosugar profiles differ depending on the experimental conditions, and that a deficiency in phosphate has a direct positive effect on the biosynthesis of arsenic-containing phospholipids.

Abstract. Seaweeds have recently been shown to contain a significant proportion of arsenic in the form of arsenolipids (AsLp). Three strains of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus species were grown in the laboratory with different simulations of environmental stress: control conditions (1/2 Provasoli-enriched seawater), low nitrate (30 % of the amount of nitrates in the control), low phosphate (30 % of the amount of phosphate in the control) and under oxidative stress levels (2 mM H2O2). Generally, the major AsLp was an arsenic-containing hydrocarbon, AsHC360 (50–80 %), but additionally, several arsenic-containing phospholipids (AsPL) were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS). The AsLps in cultures were compared with AsLps in Ectocarpus found in its natural habitat as well as with other brown filamentous algae. The AsLp and arsenosugar profiles differed depending on the experimental conditions. Under low phosphate conditions, a significant reduction of phosphorus-containing arsenosugars was noticed, and a significant increase of phosphate-containing AsLps was found when compared with the controls. Strains grown under oxidative stress showed a significant increase in AsLps as well as clear physiological changes.

Additional keywords: chloroplasts, cultures, HPLC-ESIMS, HPLC-ICP-MS, lipid-soluble arsenic, speciation.


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