Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
REVIEW

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Spartina

Susana Redondo-Gómez
+ Author Affliations
- Author Affliations

A Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41 080 – Sevilla, Spain. Email: susana@us.es

This paper originates from a presentation at the COST WG2 Meeting ‘Putting halophytes to work – genetics, biochemistry and physiology’ Hannover, Germany, 28–31 August 2012.

Functional Plant Biology 40(9) 913-921 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP12271
Submitted: 13 September 2012  Accepted: 15 February 2013   Published: 13 March 2013

Abstract

The Spartina Schreb. genus is composed of C4 perennial grasses in the family Poaceae. They are native to the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean in western and southern Europe, north-west and southern Africa, the Americas and the southern Atlantic Ocean islands. Most species are salt tolerant and colonise coastal or inland saltmarshes. The available literature on heavy metal bioaccumulation by Spartina sp. was compiled and compared. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald were the most commonly researched species of the genus, whereas many species were not represented at all. In contrast, Cu and Zn are the most intensively researched heavy metals. The few studies dealing with the physiological impacts of heavy metals or the mechanisms of metal accumulation, which involve extracellular and intracellular metal chelation, precipitation, compartmentalisation and translocation in the vascular system, were documented. Bioaccumulation of metals in roots and tillers of some species of the Spartina genus (e.g. S. maritima and Spartina densiflora Brongn.) has been described as a feasible method for remediating waters and soils contaminated with heavy metals. One such example is Spartina argentinensis Parodi, which has been found to be a Cr-hyperaccumulator; it can concentrate chromium in its tissues to levels far exceeding those present in the soil.

Additional keywords: depth, salinity, tolerance.


References

Alberts JJ, Price MT, Kania M (1990) Metal concentrations in tissues of Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) and sediments of Georgia salt marshes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 30, 47–58.
Metal concentrations in tissues of Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.) and sediments of Georgia salt marshes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3cXlsFyhsbg%3D&md5=03a9a0dfea1dd6d64bbe673c0e00ac00CAS | open url image1

Almeida CMR, Mucha AP, Vasconcelos MT (2011) Role of different salt marsh plants on metal retention in an urban estuary (Lima estuary, NW Portugal). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 91, 243–249.
Role of different salt marsh plants on metal retention in an urban estuary (Lima estuary, NW Portugal).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhvVGntA%3D%3D&md5=ba4009f4bc9a2d2d5a7e3bf6dfeef799CAS | open url image1

Andrews JC, Carraso-Gil S, Leduc D, Patty C, Millan R, Hernandez LE (2010) Using transmission x-ray microscopy, XAS, and mu-XRF to study Hg accumulation and transformation in Spartina foliosa and Medicago sativa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, A23–A23.

Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders – strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. Journal of Plant Nutrition 3, 643–654.
Accumulators and excluders – strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXhtlemsb8%3D&md5=a214f9dde87064f8064adf150f478816CAS | open url image1

Bertrand M, Guary JC, Schoefs B (2001) How plants adapt their physiology to an excess of metals. In ‘Handbook of plant and crop physiology’. (Ed. M Pessarakli) pp. 751–762. (Marcel Dekker: New York)

Best EPH, Hintelmann H, Dimock B, Bednar AJ (2008) Natural cycles and transfer of mercury through Pacific coastal marsh vegetation dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia virginica. Estuaries and Coasts 31, 1072–1088.
Natural cycles and transfer of mercury through Pacific coastal marsh vegetation dominated by Spartina foliosa and Salicornia virginica.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisFKhsbw%3D&md5=58e671bb32085101d0b091c23fb12f08CAS | open url image1

Burke DJ, Weis JS, Weis P (2000) Release of metals by the leaves of the salt marsh grasses Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 51, 153–159.
Release of metals by the leaves of the salt marsh grasses Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXmsFemt70%3D&md5=b5a4fcce349bac7d98c34732373af05aCAS | open url image1

Caçador I, Vale C, Catarino F (1996) Accumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni in sediments between roots of the Tagus estuary salt marshes, Portugal. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42, 393–403.
Accumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni in sediments between roots of the Tagus estuary salt marshes, Portugal.CrossRef | open url image1

Caçador I, Vale C, Catarino F (2000) Seasonal variation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations in the root-sediment system of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from Tagus estuary salt marshes. Marine Environmental Research 49, 279–290.
Seasonal variation of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations in the root-sediment system of Spartina maritima and Halimione portulacoides from Tagus estuary salt marshes.CrossRef | open url image1

Caçador I, Caetano M, Duarte B, Vale C (2009) Stock and losses of trace metals from salt marsh plants. Marine Environmental Research 67, 75–82.
Stock and losses of trace metals from salt marsh plants.CrossRef | open url image1

Caetano M, Vale C, Cesário R, Fonseca N (2008) Evidence for preferential depths of metal retention in roots of salt marsh plants. The Science of the Total Environment 390, 466–474.
Evidence for preferential depths of metal retention in roots of salt marsh plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXhsVOis7rN&md5=8854f30753cb85552538e951102bf007CAS | open url image1

Cambrollé J, Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Figueroa ME (2008) Comparison of the role of two Spartina species in terms of phytostabilization and bioaccumulation of metals in the esturine sediment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 2037–2042.
Comparison of the role of two Spartina species in terms of phytostabilization and bioaccumulation of metals in the esturine sediment.CrossRef | open url image1

Cambrollé J, Mateos-Naranjo E, Redondo-Gómez S, Luque T, Figueroa ME (2011) The role of two Spartina species in phytostabilization and bioaccumulation of Co, Cr, and Ni in the Tinto-Odiel estuary (SW Spain). Hydrobiologia 671, 95–103.
The role of two Spartina species in phytostabilization and bioaccumulation of Co, Cr, and Ni in the Tinto-Odiel estuary (SW Spain).CrossRef | open url image1

Canário J, Caetano M, Vale C, Cesário R (2007) Evidence for elevated production of methylmercury in salt marshes. Environmental Science & Technology 41, 7376–7382.
Evidence for elevated production of methylmercury in salt marshes.CrossRef | open url image1

Canário J, Vale C, Poissant L, Nogueira M, Pilote M, Branco V (2010) Mercury in sediments and vegetation in a moderately contaminated salt marsh (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) 22, 1151–1157.
Mercury in sediments and vegetation in a moderately contaminated salt marsh (Tagus Estuary, Portugal).CrossRef | open url image1

Chai MW, Li RL, Shi FC, Liu FC, Pan X, Cao D, Wen X (2012) Effects of cadmium on growth, metal accumulation and organic acids of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. African Journal of Biotechnology 11, 6091–6099.

Correll DS, Correll HB (1975) ‘Aquatic and wetlands plants of southwestern United States.’ (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA)

Czakó M, Feng X, He Y, Liang D, Márton L (2006) Transgenic Spartina alterniflora for phytoremediation. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 28, 103–110.
Transgenic Spartina alterniflora for phytoremediation.CrossRef | open url image1

Duarte B, Caetano M, Almeida PR, Vale C, Caçador I (2010) Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal in four salt marsh species, from Tagus Estuary (Portugal). Environmental Pollution 158, 1661–1668.
Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal in four salt marsh species, from Tagus Estuary (Portugal).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmt1KmsL8%3D&md5=a17eb005f302df4120d439064dc352f2CAS | open url image1

Duarte B, Freitas J, Caçador I (2011) The role of organic acids in assisted phytoremediation processes of salt marsh sediments. Hydrobiologia 674, 169–177.
The role of organic acids in assisted phytoremediation processes of salt marsh sediments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXpsFejsL0%3D&md5=b55c4829ef72273ed0358d8ddb31d52aCAS | open url image1

Eid MA (2011) Halophytic plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. Journal of American Science 7, 377–382.

Fitzgerald EJ, Caffrey JM, Nesaratnam ST, McLoughlin P (2003) Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland. Environmental Pollution 123, 67–74.
Copper and lead concentrations in salt marsh plants on the Suir Estuary, Ireland.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXitlGjurg%3D&md5=d3b8566ca60027a6d168d8e3d65dec5fCAS | open url image1

Gleason ML, Elmer DA, Pien NC, Fisher JS (1979) Effects of stem density upon sediment retention by salt marsh cord grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Estuaries 2, 271–273.
Effects of stem density upon sediment retention by salt marsh cord grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel.CrossRef | open url image1

Goodman PJ (1969) Spartina Schreb. Journal of Ecology 57, 285–287.
Spartina Schreb.CrossRef | open url image1

Hatch SL, Schuster JL, Drawe DL (1999) ‘Grasses of the Texas Gulf prairies and marshes.’ (Texas A&M University Press: College Station, TX)

Heller AA, Weber JH (1998) Seasonal study of speciation of mercury (II) and monomethyl mercury in Spartina alterniflora from Great Bay Estuary, NH. Science of the Total Environment 221, 181–188.
Seasonal study of speciation of mercury (II) and monomethyl mercury in Spartina alterniflora from Great Bay Estuary, NH.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmsFygt70%3D&md5=d5270cfd0d5d9c616118f9f773b439eaCAS | open url image1

Hempel M, Botté SA, Negrin VL, Chiarello MN, Marcovecchio JE (2008) The role of the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and associated sediments in the heavy metal biogeochemical cycle within Bahía Blanca estuary salt marshes. Journal of Soils and Sediments 8, 289–297.
The role of the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and associated sediments in the heavy metal biogeochemical cycle within Bahía Blanca estuary salt marshes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtlamtrnJ&md5=1a155760e53786d0ccbfd3ff24298292CAS | open url image1

Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) ‘Trace elements in soils and plants.’ (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL)

Kamal M, Ghaly AE, Mahmoud N, Côté R (2004) Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants. Environment International 29, 1029–1039.
Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXptVSqt7k%3D&md5=d1e86e7b23431ba6d69e295d7fdf07cfCAS | open url image1

Krauss ML (1988) Accumulation and excretion of five heavy metals by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 33, 39–43.

Kuboi T, Noguchi A, Yazaki J (1987) Relationship between tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in higher plants. Plant and Soil 104, 275–280.
Relationship between tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in higher plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1cXovFWnsQ%3D%3D&md5=c17f9120a514533e567e55efe977f821CAS | open url image1

Kunze R, Frommer WB, Flügge UI (2002) Metabolic engineering in plants: the role of membrane transport. Metabolic Engineering 4, 57–66.
Metabolic engineering in plants: the role of membrane transport.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XlsVSruw%3D%3D&md5=1f91cd681991e3d0fe9f21d273c2ddd4CAS | open url image1

Leendertse P, Scholten M, van der Wal JT (1996) Fate and effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 94, 19–29.
Fate and effects of nutrients and heavy metals in experimental salt marsh ecosystems.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXos12lsQ%3D%3D&md5=74cde54ee52beb472e5a325b976ea96aCAS | open url image1

Luque CJ, Castellanos EM, Castillo JM, Gonzalez M, Gonzalez-Vilches MC, Figueroa ME (1999) Metals in halophytes of a contaminated estuary (Odiel saltmarshes, SW Spain). Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, 49–51.

Mahon S, Carman KR (2008) The influence of salinity on the uptake, distribution, and excretion of metals by the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.), grown in sediment contaminated by multiple metals. Estuaries and Coasts 31, 1089–1097.
The influence of salinity on the uptake, distribution, and excretion of metals by the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (Loisel.), grown in sediment contaminated by multiple metals.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisFKhsb0%3D&md5=b32093f2226d40dae18830f2e3528e15CAS | open url image1

Martínez Domínguez D, Torronteras Santiago R, Córdoba García F (2009) Modulation of the antioxidative response of Spartina densiflora against iron exposure. Physiologia Plantarum 136, 169–179.
Modulation of the antioxidative response of Spartina densiflora against iron exposure.CrossRef | open url image1

Martínez Domínguez D, Córdoba García F, Canalejo Raya A, Torronteras Santiago R (2010) Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the response of the antioxidative defense system in Spartina densiflora. Physiologia Plantarum 139, 289–302.

Mateos-Naranjo E, Redondo-Gómez S, Cambrollé J, Luque T, Figueroa ME (2008a) Growth and photosynthetic responses to zinc stress of an invasive cordgrass, Spartina densiflora. Plant Biology 10, 754–762.
Growth and photosynthetic responses to zinc stress of an invasive cordgrass, Spartina densiflora.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXlslajtr4%3D&md5=6981a6b761744aaceafade61a02d5211CAS | open url image1

Mateos-Naranjo E, Redondo-Gómez S, Cambrollé J, Figueroa ME (2008b) Growth and photosynthetic responses to copper stress of an invasive cordgrass, Spartina densiflora. Marine Environmental Research 66, 459–465.
Growth and photosynthetic responses to copper stress of an invasive cordgrass, Spartina densiflora.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtF2ktr3N&md5=ce2144e2071ad538fbd44ed8ccb7390cCAS | open url image1

Mateos-Naranjo E, Andrades-Moreno L, Redondo-Gómez S (2011) Comparison of germination, growth, photosynthetic responses and metal uptake between three populations of Spartina densiflora under different soil pollution conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 74, 2040–2049.
Comparison of germination, growth, photosynthetic responses and metal uptake between three populations of Spartina densiflora under different soil pollution conditions.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXht1ehs7jE&md5=2db2508920a16d921f61ffffbca68419CAS | open url image1

Mobberley DG (1956) Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Spartina. Iowa State College Journal of Science 30, 471–574.

Montemayor MB, Price JS, Rochefort L, Boudreau S (2010) Temporal variations and spatial patterns in saline and waterlogged peat fields: II. Ion accumulation in transplanted salt marsh graminoids. Environmental and Experimental Botany 69, 87–94.
Temporal variations and spatial patterns in saline and waterlogged peat fields: II. Ion accumulation in transplanted salt marsh graminoids.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXmtFantLg%3D&md5=2ab4fccd7dc4a46ff19d948700d081d1CAS | open url image1

Nalla S, Hardaway CJ, Sneddon J (2012) Phytoextraction of selected metals by the first and second growth seasons of Spartina alterniflora. Instrumentation Science & Technology 40, 17–28.
Phytoextraction of selected metals by the first and second growth seasons of Spartina alterniflora.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhs1yrs7nF&md5=e18682c416333655ad3dcc65625356b9CAS | open url image1

Ornes WH, Sajwan K, Loganathan BG, Chetty CH (1998) Comparison of selected element concentrations in tall and short forms of Spartina alterniflora. Marine Pollution Bulletin 36, 390–395.
Comparison of selected element concentrations in tall and short forms of Spartina alterniflora.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXksFKgtbc%3D&md5=c1e313bfd4f7ca1675bd1e1ef5bad87bCAS | open url image1

Otte ML, Bestebroer SJ, van der Linden JM, Rozema J, Broekman RA (1991) A survey of zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations in salt marsh plants along the Dutch coast. Environmental Pollution 72, 175–189.
A survey of zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations in salt marsh plants along the Dutch coast.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXkvFyrs74%3D&md5=b402ec00d468f164fb5afc4a71f411e3CAS | open url image1

Otte ML, Haarsma MS, Broekman RA, Rozema J (1993) Relation between heavy metal concentrations in salt marsh plants and soil. Environmental Pollution 82, 13–22.
Relation between heavy metal concentrations in salt marsh plants and soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXns1Kl&md5=521c3eb7c3ed9403d272f2e97f3798f4CAS | open url image1

Patty C, Barnett B, Mooney B, Kahn A, Levy S, Liu Y, Pianetta P, Andrews JC (2009) Using X-ray microscopy and Hg L3 XANES to study Hg binding in the rhizosphere of Spartina cordgrass. Environmental Science & Technology 43, 7397–7402.
Using X-ray microscopy and Hg L3 XANES to study Hg binding in the rhizosphere of Spartina cordgrass.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1MXhtV2nsLzF&md5=281129e47be19d1f32f706aff9b702b7CAS | open url image1

Prasad MNV (1997) Trace metals. In ‘Plant ecophysiology’. (Ed. MNV Prasad) pp. 207–249. (Wiley: New York)

Puk R, Weber JH (1994) Determination of mercury(II), monomethylmercury cation, dimethylmercury and diethylmercury by hydride generation, cryogenic trapping and atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Analytica Chimica Acta 292, 175–183.
Determination of mercury(II), monomethylmercury cation, dimethylmercury and diethylmercury by hydride generation, cryogenic trapping and atomic absorption spectrometric detection.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXlsVOru7c%3D&md5=5eeae29f15a3c7c657e465d885eb0b89CAS | open url image1

Qu RL, Li D, Du R, Qu R (2003) Lead uptake by roots of four turfgrass species in hydroponic cultures. HortScience 38, 623–626.

Quan WM, Han JD, Shen AL, Ping XY, Qian PL, Li CJ, Shi LY, Chen YQ (2007) Uptake and distribution of N, P and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from Yangtze River Estuary, China. Marine Environmental Research 64, 21–37.
Uptake and distribution of N, P and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from Yangtze River Estuary, China.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXkvFOmurw%3D&md5=88610270f1e717cc15d6e2648bf4a78cCAS | open url image1

Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F (2011) Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Science 180, 169–181.
Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhs1agtLzI&md5=0acde339469592ad3e4d8650691a6693CAS | open url image1

Raskin I, Ensley BD (2000) ‘Phytoremediation of toxic metals. Using plants to clean up the environment.’ (John Wiley & Sons: New York)

Reboreda R, Caçador I, Pedro S, Almeida PR (2008) Mobility of metals in salt marsh sediments colonised by Spartina maritima (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Hydrobiologia 606, 129–137.
Mobility of metals in salt marsh sediments colonised by Spartina maritima (Tagus Estuary, Portugal).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXkvFGju7k%3D&md5=36aba6b28b8594a090546d5cbb40808aCAS | open url image1

Reboredo F (1993) How differences in the field influence Cu, Fe and Zn uptake by Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima. Science of the Total Environment 133, 111–132.
How differences in the field influence Cu, Fe and Zn uptake by Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3sXktFCqt7w%3D&md5=00bbea21786fa663c60edf5b587adcc3CAS | open url image1

Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Andrades-Moreno L (2010) Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. Journal of Hazardous Materials 184, 299–307.
Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum.CrossRef | open url image1

Redondo-Gómez S, Andrades-Moreno L, Mateos-Naranjo E, Parra R, Valera-Burgos J, Aroca R (2011a) Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass Spartina densiflora. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 5521–5530.
Synergic effect of salinity and zinc stress on growth and photosynthetic responses of the cordgrass Spartina densiflora.CrossRef | open url image1

Redondo-Gómez S, Mateos-Naranjo E, Vecino-Bueno I, Feldman SR (2011b) Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis. Journal of Hazardous Materials 185, 862–869.
Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of chromium in a cordgrass Cr-hyperaccumulator, Spartina argentinensis.CrossRef | open url image1

Rozema J, Buys E, Otte ML, Broekman RA, Ernst WHO (1991) Ion content and ion excretion of Spartina anglica in relation to salinity and redox potential of salt marsh soil. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 154, 307–313.
Ion content and ion excretion of Spartina anglica in relation to salinity and redox potential of salt marsh soil.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXmtVSmtrg%3D&md5=fb48dd71877c4b85f2c2f705356beebfCAS | open url image1

Salla V, Hardaway CJ, Sneddon J (2011) Preliminary investigation of Spartina alterniflora for phytoextraction of selected heavy metals in soils from Southwest Louisiana. Microchemical Journal 97, 207–212.
Preliminary investigation of Spartina alterniflora for phytoextraction of selected heavy metals in soils from Southwest Louisiana.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXhsFCqsrrO&md5=765c199af5db35d46aa60e261f46be0fCAS | open url image1

Santos-Echeandía J, Vale C, Caetano M, Pereira P, Prego R (2010) Effect of tidal flooding on metal distribution in pore waters of marsh sediments and its transport to water column (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Marine Environmental Research 70, 358–367.
Effect of tidal flooding on metal distribution in pore waters of marsh sediments and its transport to water column (Tagus Estuary, Portugal).CrossRef | open url image1

Srivastava AK, Purnima X (1998) Phytoremediation for heavy metals – a land plant based sustainable strategy for environmental decontamination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. India. Section B, Biological Sciences 68, 199–215.

Sun RL, Zhou QX, Wei SH (2011) Cadmium accumulation in relation to organic acids and nonprotein thiols in leaves of recently found Cd hyperaccumulator Rorippa globosa and the Cd-accumulating plant Rorippa islandica. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 30, 83–91.
Cadmium accumulation in relation to organic acids and nonprotein thiols in leaves of recently found Cd hyperaccumulator Rorippa globosa and the Cd-accumulating plant Rorippa islandica.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3MXhvVWhtbc%3D&md5=ba6375b22f9a43e91a797e296babf1adCAS | open url image1

Sundby B, Vale C, Caçador I, Catarino F, Madureira MJ, Caetano M (1998) Metal-rich concretions on the roots of salt marsh plants: mechanisms and rate of formation. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 245–252.
Metal-rich concretions on the roots of salt marsh plants: mechanisms and rate of formation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjvFWju70%3D&md5=1f8412de0b40699bb52b09a76c0562bfCAS | open url image1

Suntornvongsagul K, Burke DJ, Hamerlynck EP, Hahn D (2007) Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments. Environmental Pollution 149, 79–91.
Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXotVGgsLo%3D&md5=de401b1e38576a87f7f32f25b2cc6d21CAS | open url image1

Tomsett AB, Thurman DA (1988) Molecular biology of metal tolerances of plants. Plant, Cell & Environment 11, 383–394.
Molecular biology of metal tolerances of plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXitFSmsQ%3D%3D&md5=32a55414b0d2ff5d4270e5480c07c7f2CAS | open url image1

Vale C, Catarino FM, Cortesão C, Caçador MI (1990) Presence of metal-rich rizhoconcretions on the roots of Spartina maritima from the salt marshes of the Tagus Estuary, Portugal. The Science of the Total Environment 97-98, 617–626.
Presence of metal-rich rizhoconcretions on the roots of Spartina maritima from the salt marshes of the Tagus Estuary, Portugal.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXkvFWjsQ%3D%3D&md5=3a3605126aee07f9a4feaf8a917af933CAS | open url image1

Weis JS, Weis P (2004) Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environment International 30, 685–700.
Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXisFCgsbw%3D&md5=8a63fab9ef7662f2842d08f212ea7deeCAS | open url image1

Weis P, Windham L, Burke DJ, Weis JS (2002) Release into the environment of metals by two vascular salt marsh plants. Marine Environmental Research 54, 325–329.
Release into the environment of metals by two vascular salt marsh plants.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xmsl2ntrc%3D&md5=fe6f74c5d69dd218dcb0ac5a47e56552CAS | open url image1

Williams TP, Bubb JM, Lester JN (1994) The occurrence and distribution of trace metals in halophytes. Chemosphere 28, 1189–1199.
The occurrence and distribution of trace metals in halophytes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXisl2mtLw%3D&md5=d7d5bf197da843b642db667ad1113e6bCAS | open url image1

Windham L, Weis JS, Weis P (2001a) Lead uptake, distribution, and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Marine Pollution Bulletin 42, 811–816.
Lead uptake, distribution, and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXnt1arsbo%3D&md5=b2df0e9c7aa01a97e04564d16a71a275CAS | open url image1

Windham L, Weis JS, Weis P (2001b) Patterns and processes of mercury release from leaves of two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora. Estuaries 24, 787–795.
Patterns and processes of mercury release from leaves of two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora.CrossRef | open url image1

Windham L, Weis JS, Weis P (2003) Uptake and distribution of metals in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56, 63–72.
Uptake and distribution of metals in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Phragmites australis (common reed).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjtFGmtrY%3D&md5=b81698ea5908ccd42029403b46436554CAS | open url image1

Zhu YX, Wei YZ, Ye ZQ, Yang XE (2006) Function of organic acids in heavy metal tolerance mechanism in hyperaccumulator. Journal of Northwest Sci–tech University of Agriculture and Forestry 34, 121–126.



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (3)