Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE (Open Access)

Rice cultivar responses to elevated CO2 at two free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites in Japan

Toshihiro Hasegawa A J , Hidemitsu Sakai A , Takeshi Tokida A , Hirofumi Nakamura B , Chunwu Zhu A H , Yasuhiro Usui A , Mayumi Yoshimoto A , Minehiko Fukuoka A , Hitomi Wakatsuki A , Nobuko Katayanagi A , Toshinori Matsunami C , Yoshihiro Kaneta D , Takashi Sato D , Fumiaki Takakai D , Ryoji Sameshima E I , Masumi Okada F , Tadahiko Mae G and Amane Makino G

A National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan.

B Taiyokeiki Co. Ltd, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0032, Japan.

C Akita Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, Akita, Akita 010-1231, Japan.

D Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Akita 010-0146, Japan.

E National Agricultural Research Organisation, National Agricultural Research Center for Tohoku Region, Morioka, Iwate 020-0198, Japan.

F Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan.

G Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555, Japan.

H Present address: Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210 008, PR China.

I Present address: Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan.

J Corresponding author. Email: thase@affrc.go.jp

Functional Plant Biology 40(2) 148-159 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP12357
Submitted: 26 November 2012  Accepted: 17 December 2012   Published: 30 January 2013

Abstract

There is some evidence that rice cultivars respond differently to elevated CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), but [CO2] × cultivar interaction has never been tested under open-field conditions across different sites. Here, we report on trials conducted at free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facilities at two sites in Japan, Shizukuishi (2007 and 2008) and Tsukuba (2010). The average growing-season air temperature was more than 5°C warmer at Tsukuba than at Shizukuishi. For four cultivars tested at both sites, the [CO2] × cultivar interaction was significant for brown rice yield, but there was no significant interaction with site-year. Higher-yielding cultivars with a large sink size showed a greater [CO2] response. The Tsukuba FACE experiment, which included eight cultivars, revealed a wider range of yield enhancement (3–36%) than the multi-site experiment. All of the tested yield components contributed to this enhancement, but there was a highly significant [CO2] × cultivar interaction for percentage of ripened spikelets. These results suggest that a large sink is a prerequisite for higher productivity under elevated [CO2], but that improving carbon allocation by increasing grain setting may also be a practical way of increasing the yield response to elevated [CO2].


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