Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Responses of rice to Fe2+ in aerated and stagnant conditions: growth, root porosity and radial oxygen loss barrier

Jenjira Mongon A C D , Dennis Konnerup B , Timothy D. Colmer B and Benjavan Rerkasem A

A Division of Agronomy, Department of Plant Science and Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

B School of Plant Biology and University of Western Australia Institute of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.

C College of Bhodivijalaya, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110, Thailand.

D Corresponding author. Email: jenjira_mongon@hotmail.com

Functional Plant Biology 41(9) 922-929 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP13359
Submitted: 18 December 2013  Accepted: 8 March 2014   Published: 6 May 2014

Abstract

Lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) encounters flooded soils that are anaerobic and chemically reduced. Exposure of the roots to high soil Fe2+ concentrations can result in toxicity. Internal aeration delivering O2 to submerged roots via the aerenchyma is well understood, but the effect of Fe2+ on O2 transport in roots is less studied. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Fe2+ on growth and root aeration. O. sativa var. Amaroo was grown in aerobic and deoxygenated solutions with 0 mM, 0.18 mM, 0.36 mM, 0.54 mM or 0.72 mM Fe2+ using FeSO4.7H2O and a control with 0.05 mM Fe-EDTA. The treatments were imposed on 14-day-old plants (28–30 days old when harvested). Dry mass, shoot Fe concentration, root porosity and patterns of radial O2 loss (ROL) along roots were determined. In the aerobic solution, where Fe2+ was oxidised in the bulk medium, root dry mass increased with higher Fe2+; this was not the case in stagnant solutions, which had no significant root growth response, although Fe oxidation near the root surface was visible as a precipitate. In the highest Fe2+ treatment, shoot Fe concentrations in aerobic (667 mg kg–1) and stagnant (433 mg kg–1) solutions were below the level for toxicity (700 mg kg–1). Rice responded to high Fe2+ in aerobic conditions by increasing root porosity and inducing strong barriers to ROL. In stagnant conditions, root porosity was already high and the ROL barrier induced, so these root aeration traits were not further influenced by the Fe2+ concentrations applied.

Additional keywords: aerenchyma, flood tolerance, iron deficiency, iron toxicity, radial oxygen loss, root porosity.


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