Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Colonisation of the Pacific by Bembidion beetles (Coleoptera : Carabidae), with description of Bembidion tahitiense, sp. nov. from Tahiti, French Polynesia

James K. Liebherr A C and David R. Maddison B
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

B Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

C Corresponding author. Email: jkl5@cornell.edu

Invertebrate Systematics 27(4) 439-449 https://doi.org/10.1071/IS13003
Submitted: 2 February 2013  Accepted: 13 April 2013   Published: 30 August 2013

Abstract

Bembidion (Sloanephila) tahitiense, sp. nov. is described from Mont Mauru, an isolated massif of Tahiti Nui volcano. Based on evidence from seven genes (four nuclear protein-coding, one mitochondrial protein-coding, two nuclear ribosomal), its sister group is the Australian B. jacksoniense Guérin-Méneville, with which it shares a synapomorphic spur on the ostium of the male genitalia. In contrast to B. jacksoniense, B. tahitiense is brachypterous, with rounded humeri, constricted posterior pronotal margins and convex body form. Examination of the seven genes in two species of the Hawaiian subgenus Nesocidium Sharp reveals that the sister group of Nesocidium is subgenus Zecillenus Lindroth from New Zealand. These two subgenera belong to the Ananotaphus complex, a clade inhabiting Australia, New Zealand and Hawaii. The relationships of the second Hawaiian subgenus, Gnatholymnaeum Sharp, are less clear, although Gnatholymnaeum belongs to the Bembidion series (along with Sloanephila and the Ananotaphus complex). Bembidion beetles colonised the Society and Hawaiian islands independently from source areas in the south-west Pacific. Based on parsimonious reconstructions of flight-wing configuration, the Tahitian and Hawaiian colonisations involved winged individuals. Colonisation of the Society and Hawaiian islands by carabid beetles of two other tribes – Platynini and Moriomorphini – follow the dispersal patterns hypothesised for Bembidion.

Additional keywords: biogeography, brachyptery, dispersal, speciation.


References

Britton, E. B. (1948). A revision of the Hawaiian species of Mecyclothorax (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum 19, 107–166.

Darlington, P. J., Jr. (1970). Coleoptera: Carabidae including Cicindelinae. Insects of Micronesia 15(1), 49 pp.

Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L., Doallo, R., and Posada, D. (2012). jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods 9, 772.
jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC38XhtFWmsbfP&md5=a1f211acf38e8e6a3a60f2dbde7c52dcCAS | 22847109PubMed |

Gillespie, R. G., Baldwin, B. G., Waters, J. W., Fraser, C. I., Nikula, R., and Roderick, G. K. (2012). Long-distance dispersal: a framework for hypothesis testing. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27, 47–56.
Long-distance dispersal: a framework for hypothesis testing.CrossRef |

Green, P. (1999). ‘Phrap. Version 0.990329.’ Available online at: http://phrap.org [Accessed 20 July 2008].

Green, P., and Ewing, B. (2002). ‘Phred. Version 0.020425c.’ Available online at: http://phrap.org [Accessed 20 July 2008].

Guindon, S., and Gascuel, O. (2003). A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology 52, 696–704.
A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood.CrossRef | 14530136PubMed |

Hadley, A. (2006). ‘Combine Z5.’ Available online at: http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/CZ5/combinez5.htm) [Accessed 30 December 2008].

Larochelle, A., and Larivière, M.-C. (2001). Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) catalogue. Fauna of New Zealand No. 43, 285 pp.

Liebherr, J. K. (2001). Blackburnia gastrellariformis sp. n. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from Molokai: successful prediction of a new taxon by reconciled tree analysis. Insect Systematics & Evolution 32, 133–141.
Blackburnia gastrellariformis sp. n. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from Molokai: successful prediction of a new taxon by reconciled tree analysis.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K. (2003). Blackburnia lata sp. n. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Kauai: morphological transformation in the arboreal microhabitat. Insect Systematics & Evolution 34, 41–52.
Blackburnia lata sp. n. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Kauai: morphological transformation in the arboreal microhabitat.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K. (2005). Vanuatu Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae): Miocene diversification on the Melanesian Arc. Invertebrate Systematics 19, 263–295.
Vanuatu Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae): Miocene diversification on the Melanesian Arc.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K. (2007). Recognition and description of Blackburnia kavanaughi, new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Kauai, Hawaii. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 114, 17–27.
Recognition and description of Blackburnia kavanaughi, new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Kauai, Hawaii.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K. (2008). Taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Bembidion Latreille (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini) with a discussion of their reductive and derivative evolutionary specializations. Annals of Carnegie Museum 77, 31–78.
Taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Bembidion Latreille (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini) with a discussion of their reductive and derivative evolutionary specializations.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K. (2011). Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae). ZooKeys 147, 277–335.
Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae).CrossRef | 22371667PubMed |

Liebherr, J. K. (2012a). The first precinctive Carabidae from Moorea, Society Islands: new Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera) from the summit of Mont Tohiea. ZooKeys 224, 37–80.
The first precinctive Carabidae from Moorea, Society Islands: new Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera) from the summit of Mont Tohiea.CrossRef | 23129989PubMed |

Liebherr, J. K. (2012b). New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Moriomorphini) define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism. ZooKeys 227, 63–99.
New Mecyclothorax spp. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Moriomorphini) define Mont Mauru, eastern Tahiti Nui, as a distinct area of endemism.CrossRef | 23166465PubMed |

Liebherr, J. K., and Krushelnycky, P. D. (2011). Mecyclothorax palikea sp. n. from the Waianae Range, Oahu, and the biogeographical history of Hawaii’s M. flavomarginatus species group (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Moriomorphini). Insect Systematics & Evolution 42, 365–384.
Mecyclothorax palikea sp. n. from the Waianae Range, Oahu, and the biogeographical history of Hawaii’s M. flavomarginatus species group (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Moriomorphini).CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K., and Short, A. E. Z. (2007). Blackburnia riparia, new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Platynini): a novel element in the Hawaiian riparian insect fauna. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 114, 1–16.
Blackburnia riparia, new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Platynini): a novel element in the Hawaiian riparian insect fauna.CrossRef |

Liebherr, J. K., and Zimmerman, E. C. (2000). Hawaiian Carabidae (Coleoptera), Part 1: Introduction and Tribe Platynini. Insects of Hawaii 16, 494 pp.

Lindroth, C. H. (1980). A revisionary study of the taxon Cillenus Samouelle, 1819 and related forms (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini). Entomologica Scandinavica 11, 179–205.
A revisionary study of the taxon Cillenus Samouelle, 1819 and related forms (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini).CrossRef |

Lorenz, W. (2005). ‘Systematic List of Extant Ground Beetles of the World: Insecta Coleoptera Geadephaga: Trachypachidae and Carabidae Incl. Paussinae, Cicindelinae, Rhysodinae.’ (W. Lorenz: Tutzing, Germany.)

Maddison, D. R. (2012). Phylogeny of Bembidion and related ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidiina). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63, 533–576.
Phylogeny of Bembidion and related ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidiina).CrossRef | 22421212PubMed |

Maddison, D. R., and Maddison, W. P. (2011a). ‘Chromaseq: a Mesquite module for analyzing sequence chromatograms. Version 1.0.’ Available online at http://mesquiteproject.org/packages/chromaseq

Maddison, W. P., and Maddison, D. R. (2011b). ‘Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75.’ Available online at: http://mesquiteproject.org [30 September 2011].

Moore, B. P. (1984). Taxonomic notes on some Australasian Mecyclothorax Sharp (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Psydrinae) and descriptions of new species. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23, 161–166.
Taxonomic notes on some Australasian Mecyclothorax Sharp (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Psydrinae) and descriptions of new species.CrossRef |

Moore, B. P., Weir, T. A., and Pyke, J. E. (1987). Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga: Rhysodidae and Carabidae, pp. 17–366. In: ‘Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 4’. (Ed. D. W. Walton.) (Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra.)

Perrault, G. G. (1977). La faune des Carabidae de Tahiti. Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 7, 283–289.

Perrault, G. G. (1978a). La faune des Carabidae de Tahiti II. genre Mecyclothorax (Sharp). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 8, 27–36.

Perrault, G. G. (1978b). La faune des Carabidae de Tahiti II. genre Mecyclothorax (Sharp). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie 8, 133–162.

Southwood, T. R. E. (1977). Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies? Journal of Animal Ecology 46, 336–365.
Habitat, the templet for ecological strategies?CrossRef |

Stamatakis, A. (2006). RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22, 2688–2690.
RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XhtFKlsbfI&md5=b75cb342275b0257cdc9a3a5e1c1c37bCAS | 16928733PubMed |

Swofford, D. L. (2002). ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4.0b10.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA.)

Toledano, L. (2005). The Australian species of Bembidion Latreille, 1802: a taxonomic treatment, with notes about Gondwana as an evolutionary source area (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini). Monografie Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali Torino 42, 73–136.

Wheeler, T. J., and Kececioglu, J. D. (2007). Multiple alignments by aligning alignments. Bioinformatics 23, i559–i568.
Multiple alignments by aligning alignments.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXos1yrur0%3D&md5=8d579ee4465eb55321f6b74852384369CAS | 17646343PubMed |

Wollaston, T. V. (1877). ‘Coleoptera Sanctæ Helenæ.’ (John Van Voorst: London, UK.)

Zimmerman, E. C. (1948). Introduction. In: ‘Insects of Hawaii’. 1, 206 pp.



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (2)