Invertebrate Systematics Invertebrate Systematics Society
Systematics, phylogeny and biogeography

Author Instructions

All manuscripts should be submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Invertebrate Systematics is an international journal for publication of original and significant contributions on the systematics and biodiversity of invertebrates worldwide.

Submission of a paper implies that the results reported have not been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere. The journal assumes that all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission. The journal will use its best endeavours to ensure that work published is that of the named authors except where acknowledged and, through its reviewing procedures, that any published results and conclusions are consistent with the primary data. It takes no responsibility for fraud or inaccuracy on the part of the authors. All papers are refereed. Authors may suggest the names of suitable referees.

Copyright in the journal rests with CSIRO Publishing and a Licence to Publish form must be completed.

Licence to publish
For details regarding copyright, please see Copyright/Licence to Publish.

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Open access
Authors may choose to publish their paper Open Access on payment of a publication fee. See Open Access for more details.

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Invertebrate Systematics publishes original and significant contributions on the systematics and evolution of invertebrates worldwide. Morphological and molecular studies are welcomed. Systematic revisions should provide comprehensive treatment of a clearly defined group, and contain information on the phylogeny, biogeography and/or other aspects of biodiversity and general biology of the group. The aim of the work must be clear and all papers should include a discussion indicating the significance of the work, and its broader implications. Contributions on the systematics of selected species that are of economic, medical or veterinary importance may also be considered if these aspects are substantially highlighted in the work. Review or discussion papers on methodology, theoretical systematics, cladistics, phylogeny, molecular biology and biogeography pertinent to invertebrate systematic biology are also encouraged. Pivotal reviews of general invertebrate systematics, containing innovative data or overviews of current theories, are also actively sought.

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Submission of manuscripts
To submit your paper, please use our online journal management system ScholarOne Manuscripts, which can be reached directly through this link or from the link on the journal´s homepage. If a first-time user, register via the ´Register here´ link, or use your existing username and password to log in. Then click on the ´Author Centre´ link and proceed.

A covering letter must accompany the submission and should include the name, address, fax and telephone numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The letter should also contain a statement justifying why the work should be considered for publication in the journal, and that the manuscript has not been published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere. Suggestions of possible referees are welcome.

If you encounter any difficulties, or you have any queries, please contact:
Invertebrate Systematics
CSIRO Publishing
Locked Bag 10
Clayton South, Vic. 3169
Telephone +61 3 9545 8526
Fax +61 3 9545 8578

Authors are advised to read recent issues of the journal to note details of the scope of papers, headings, tables, illustrations, style, and general form. Observance of these and the following details will shorten the time between submission and publication. Poorly prepared and unnecessarily lengthy manuscripts have less chance of being accepted.

For manuscripts involving phylogenetic analyses, electronic copies of the data sets in Nexus or Nona/WinClada format should be supplied with the submitted manuscript (e.g. morphological data sets, aligned nucleotide sequence data).

There are no page charges for publishing in Invertebrate Systematics.

Format of manuscripts
Papers must be typed with double- or 1.5-line spacing throughout and with a margin of at least 3 cm on the left-hand side. All pages of the manuscript must be numbered consecutively, including those carrying references, tables and figure captions, all of which are to be placed after the text. Illustrations, both line drawings and photographs, are to be numbered as figures in a common sequence, and each must be referred to in the text. Figures that are of the same quality as those to be reproduced in the published paper must be included at the end of the electronic file and must be clearly numbered. Colour figures are accepted but will be printed at the author´s expense; cost is dependent upon the number of pages involved and the editor may be consulted for an estimate.

Authors are advised to note the layout of headings, tables and illustrations exemplified in the latest issues of the Journal. Strict observance of these and the requirements listed under ´Preparation of manuscripts´ will shorten the interval between submission and publication.

Rapid communications
The Journal publishes preliminary communications of results that are of special significance or of current and extreme interest. Such papers should yield no more than ten pages when printed, including illustrations, tables and references, and should conform with every aspect of the Notice to Authors. Illustrations must be submitted in a camera-ready or electronic form consistent with the format of the Journal. An article submitted as a ´Rapid Communication´ will be subject to accelerated, but very strict, refereeing and assessment by the Editorial Board. The article should be accompanied by a statement explaining why it merits urgent publication. The paper may be submitted electronically by email (see submission details) or four hard copies of the manuscript, illustrations and statement should be mailed to the Editor-in-Chief. Envelopes and correspondence should be clearly marked ´Urgent. Rapid Communication´.

Review articles
The Journal welcomes review articles and they should be submitted in the same way as research papers. They should be formatted as simply as possible, using no more than three levels of heading and normal or body text style for the main text. Summary diagrams should be used where possible to reduce the amount of description required to introduce a topic. Authors should remember the wide readership of the Journal when preparing their article, and are advised to discuss the review with the Editor-in-Chief or a member of the Editorial Board before submission.

Perspective articles
Perspective articles are similar to reviews in that they critically assess specific topics of broad interest, explore significant questions, examine the validity of current views in the field, and recommend directions for future research. However, they also give authors the freedom to present thought-provoking ideas, develop novel hypotheses, and speculate on controversial topics. In the interests of provoking discussion among researchers, Perspectives will be made freely available online.

Perspective articles will be commissioned by members of the Editorial Board but prospective authors are welcome to submit proposals to the Editor-in-Chief, who will assess their suitability for publication. Like all content in Invertebrate Systematics, Perspective articles are subject to peer review.

Front cover image
The Journal welcomes submission of suitably eye-catching, high-quality images for consideration for the cover after the paper has been accepted. The image will reflect the content of one of the papers in the issue and must be suitable for reproduction at very high resolution as the final image will be large (approx. 180 × 165 mm). Submission of an image does not guarantee publication. The choice will be based on several factors, including image quality, interest and appeal, suitability for the Journal, and relevance to the content of the issue.

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Preparation of manuscripts
General presentation. The work should be presented clearly and concisely in English. The title should reflect the key points of interest in the paper, and should include the order and family (or higher categories if necessary). The names and addresses of all authors should be presented on the first page, together with the full postal address and email address (or facsimile number) of the corresponding author. The introduction should indicate the reason for the work and include essential background references. Authors must observe the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and decisions of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Authors are expected to register all new taxonomic names with ZooBank, the Official Registry of Zoological Nomenclature, after the manuscript has been accepted for publication. All nucleotide sequence data (aligned and unaligned) should be submitted to Genbank, EMBL or, DDBJ. Morphology data matrices should also be made available online through a permanent site, such as the journal´s website or TreeBASE.

Title. Readers see your title first, and the quality of your title often determines whether they keep reading. Ensure that your title is informative and interesting, and provides information on your key findings. Include higher classification categories. The title should contain all keywords necessary to facilitate retrieval by modern searching techniques.

Running title. Provide an abridged title not exceeding 50 letter spaces, for use at the top of the typeset page.

Abstract. The abstract should comprise the following 4 components: an opening sentence that outlines the context of the study or the problem being examined; the methods used; a summary of the key results; a discussion of the implications of the principal findings. The abstract should not exceed 200 words, but should contain enough information to facilitate retrieval by modern searching techniques.

Short summary. Authors of accepted papers will be asked to provide a short summary for use in the journal’s Table of Contents. The short summary should contain the same 4 components as the Abstract, but should be shorter and free from scientific jargon. The first sentence should engage the reader, explaining why your work is important. The second sentence should introduce the problem addressed in the paper; the third the main discovery. The final sentence should describe how the results fit into the bigger picture.

Introduction. The opening paragraph(s) of the Introduction should be written for the general reader of the journal rather than the experts on the group concerned. Taxonomic history should be kept to a minimum and should include only essential information, as much of the relevant history is better placed later in the paper. Although the biology of a particular group might be obvious to the author and other experts and so is often not mentioned, this information is likely to be of interest to the general reader and can also provide useful context for the paper – the ecological importance of a group as predators, scavengers, etc. Finally, the last part of the Introduction should include a clear statement of the aims of the study.

Phylogenetic methods. Analyses must be repeatable and therefore the programs used and the choice of models and program settings should be clearly explained. Measures of support should be shown (e.g. bootstrap, decay index or jacknife values).

Headings. Headings for all taxonomic categories from subspecies upwards should be centred. The name of a genus should be preceded by the word ´Genus´ and followed by the unabbreviated name of the author. Similarly the author of a species should follow the species name. The date should not be given in headings. The abbreviations ´gen. nov.´, ´sp. nov.´, ´subsp. nov.´ must be used for indicating a new genus, species, or subspecies and should be separated from the new name by a comma. Genera and species should be treated in alphabetical order, unless another logical order is preferred, in which case the reason for the order should be given in the Methods section, so that a species of interest can be found easily.

Synonymies. If adequate synonymies and references are reasonably accessible in the literature, these need not be repeated in full, but a reference to that source must be given. The reference to the original description should always appear immediately below the centred headings. References given, whether to the accepted name or synonyms, should include the author, date, page number and any figure numbers, but should exclude the name of the publication, as this is given under author and date in a list of references at the end of the paper. Synonymies should not be further annotated. Multiple synonyms should be arranged in order of date of first application to the unit in question, and, under each name the separate references (if more than one is given) should be in chronological order.

Citation of type species of genera and location of primary types of known species. The type species, with author and date, should be cited immediately beneath the synonymy for each genus treated. The author and date of publication of a taxonomic name should be separated by a comma. The names of two or more authors should be linked with an ampersand (&). For each known species treated, the museum in which the primary type (holotype, lectotype or neotype) is preserved should be similarly stated, or an account given of the steps taken to ascertain the whereabouts of the type in the event that it could not be located.

Type designation and lodgment. Authors are required to follow the requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth Edition, effective from 1 January 2000) with respect to designation of types and their lodgment. Types should be lodged in publicly accessible formal repositories, such as a museum or other public institution.

It is expected that all material has been collected under appropriate collection permits and approved ethics guidelines, and a statement to this effect should be included in the Acknowledgments. Authors should be aware of the provisions of the regulations that govern the import and export of all specimens of wildlife to and from the countries in which they have worked. Among other things the regulations often require that any specimen exported from the country that is subsequently designated a primary type must be lodged in an appropriate instituition of the source country, e.g. The Australian Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982 and associated Regulations 1984, requires that any specimen exported from Australia after 1 May 1984 and that is subsequently designated a primary type of an Australian native animal must be lodged in an Australian institution.

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Material examined. Concise lists of specimens examined should be presented for each species.
Type specimens: full details should be provided for type material and information on specimen labels should be replicated with supplementary details (e.g. current country names, altitudes, etc.) provided in square brackets. If the day of the month is included, the month is to be given in lower-case roman numerals. The year is never abbreviated. Authors should consult recent issues of the journal to ensure lists are consistent with journal style with respect to punctuation, use of bold headings for country and state names, etc. Non-type specimens: lists should be reduced to a bare minimum, and at most confined to the number and sex of specimens, locality name and repository (with the registration or accession number of specimens). Lists should be arranged in alphabetical or other appropriate order of localities within States or similar major regions. Where the sex of specimens is given, the symbol ´#´ should be used for males, and ´@´ for females to enable easy replacement during typesetting. Significant information regarding distribution, habitat, host association, seasonality, behaviour, or biology should be summarized in the body of the paper, e.g. in the Remarks section. Authors are encouraged to provide distribution maps where appropriate. If authors request, a full list of all material examined, including complete specimen information, can be submitted as an additional file to be placed on the journal´s website as Supplementary Material.

Descriptions. The ´telegraphic´ style is required for descriptions and diagnoses. Diagnoses should contain only the distinguishing characters or combination of characters for that taxon. Comparative comments are to be placed under ´Remarks´. The use of figures to illustrate descriptions is encouraged and should permit some reduction in the length of the verbal description of the parts figured. Authors should subdivide long descriptions by using appropriate subordinate headings.

Keys. Keys should use clear-cut characters that can be interpreted unambiguously. The judicious use of triplets, instead of couplets, is permissible to improve the efficiency of the key. Headings to keys should be self-explanatory. Tabular (i.e. synoptic or special purpose) keys are permitted where appropriate.

Footnotes. Footnotes are discouraged and should be used only when essential. They should be placed within horizontal rules immediately under the lines to which they refer.

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References. In the text, references are cited chronologically by the author and date and are not numbered. Names of two coauthors are linked by ´and´; for three or more, the first author´s name is followed by ´et al.´. Citation of authorities (name and date) should be given when a taxon name is first mentioned. Two or more coauthors of a name are linked by ´&´. All references cited must be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper; all entries in this list must correspond to references in the text. No editorial responsibility can be taken for the accuracy of the references and authors are requested to check these with special care. Titles must be included for all references. Papers that have not been accepted for publication may not be included in the list of references and must be cited either as ´unpublished data´ or as ´personal communication´; the use of such citations is discouraged. Authors are referred to the latest issues of the Journal for the style to be used in citing references to books and other literature. Titles of periodicals must not be abbreviated.

EndNote and Reference Manager provide output styles for Invertebrate Systematics. References should be in the following formats:

  • Haswell, W. A. (1882). ´Catalogue of the Australian Stalk- and Sessile-eyed Crustacea.´ (Australian Museum: Sydney, Australia.)
  • Sluys, R., and Ball, I. R. (1988). A synopsis of the marine triclads of Australia and New Zealand (Platyhelminthes : Tricladida : Maricola). Invertebrate Taxonomy 2, 915-959.
  • Voss, G. L. (1988). Evolution and phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea octopods (Cirrata and Incirrata). In ´The Mollusca. Vol. 12. Palaeontology and Neontology of Cephalopods´. (Eds M. R. Clarke and E. R. Trueman.) pp. 253-276. (Academic Press: London, UK.)
  • Erzinçlioglu, Y. Z. (1984). ´Studies on the Morphology and Taxonomy of the Immature stages of Calliphoridae, with Analysis of Phylogenetic Relationships within the Family, and Between It and Other Groups in the Cyclorrhapha (Diptera).´ PhD thesis., (University of Durham:, UK.)
  • Huelsenbeck, J. P., and Ronquist, F. (2001). ´MrBayes 2.01: Bayesian Inference of Phylogeny.´ Available at

Units. Authors are requested to use the International System of Units (Système International d´Unités) for exact measurements of physical quantities and as far as practicable elsewhere.

Statistical evaluation of results. The tests should be described briefly and, if necessary, supported by references. Numbers of individuals, mean values, ranges and measures of variability should be stated. It should be made clear whether the standard deviation or the standard error of the mean has been given.

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Each table (including data matrices and character lists, where appropriate) must be numbered with arabic numerals and must be accompanied by a title. A headnote containing material relevant to the whole table should start on a new line, as it will be set in a different font. Tables should be arranged with regard to the dimensions of the printed page (17.5 by 22.5 cm in two 8.5-cm columns) and the number of table columns kept to a minimum. Excessive subdivision of column headings is undesirable and long headings should be avoided by the use of explanatory notes, which should be incorporated into the headnote. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and reserved for specific items in columns. Horizontal rules should be inserted only above and below the column headings and at the foot of the table. Vertical rules must not be used. Each table must be referred to in the text. Only in exceptional circumstances will the presentation of essentially the same data in both tabular and graphical form be permitted; where adequate, the graphical form should be used. Short tables can frequently be incorporated into the text as a sentence or as a brief untitled tabulation.

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Authors should submit their illustrations in electronic format (see ´Electronic files´). All illustrations should conform to the general instructions for layout as follows.

Line drawings. Scale bars should be included in all taxonomic drawings. Figures should not normally exceed 8.5 cm wide (single column) or 17.5 cm by 22.5 cm (double column) when printed. The dimensions of figures submitted for scanning must not exceed 21 by 30 cm; high-quality bromide prints are acceptable. Lettering should be in ´sans-serif´ type (Helvetica is ideal) with only the first letter of the first word and of any proper names capitalized. The x-height after reduction should be 1.3-1.7 mm (or 8-10 point in Helvetica). Thus for the reduction of graphs to 30, 40 or 50% of original linear dimensions, the initial x-height of lettering would be 5, 4 or 3 mm (c. 30, 22 and 18 pt) respectively. Proportionately smaller sizes of type, symbols, grid marks and curve thickness should be used for lesser reductions. Symbols and grid marks should be the same respective sizes and, after reduction, curves and axes should not exceed 1.5 point in thickness unless required for clarity. Lines should not be thinner than 0.5 pt, or they may drop out during printing. The following symbols are readily available and should be used: . The symbols + or × should be avoided in figures. Explanations of symbols should be given in the caption to the figure. Lettering of graphs should be kept to a minimum as excessive lettering within the frame of a graph makes the lines difficult to decipher. Grid marks should point inwards; legends to axes should state the quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate units in parentheses. Unsatisfactory artwork will be returned for correction. The Editor may be consulted for further guidance.

Photographs. Photographs must be of the highest quality with a full range of tones and of good contrast. They must be separated from adjacent photographs by uniform spaces that will be 2 mm wide after reduction. Lettering should be in ´sans-serif´ type and contrast with its background; thus, white lettering should be used on darker backgrounds. The size of lettering should be such that the final height after reduction is 1.5-2.0 mm. Important features to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated. A scale bar must be included on all micrographs except scanning electron micrographs where the magnification can be given in the caption. Colour photographs are accepted for the web version, but the journal does not cover the cost of colour reproduction in the print version. Please speak to the Editor if you wish to publish figures in colour in the print version of the journal, to obtain a cost estimate.

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Electronic files
Electronic files of the final versions of both the text and illustrations should be provided when the paper has been accepted for publication. You will be asked to upload them to ScholarOne Manuscripts, via the journal´s website. Files should be named using the paper number and appropriate identifying information (e.g. IS05001_Fig1). The text and figure captions should be sent as a single Word file, and the tables as separate Word files. If you are unable to supply files in Word, please contact the Editor-in-Chief for acceptable alternatives.

Line drawings should be scanned at high resolution, at least 800 dpi at final (printed) size, and saved in black and white bitmap format as TIFF files. Fine line drawings with a lot of variable grey shading should be saved in greyscale format as TIFF files. Photographs should be scanned at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size and saved in greyscale format as TIFF or Photoshop files. It is preferable for labels to be applied electronically to the scanned images, rather than scanning manually labeled figures. Electronic files of colour figures or photographs should be saved in CMYK colour not in RGB colour, because the CMYK format is required for printing. Authors should note that colours change when converted to CMYK from RGB and when printed from different types of printer; hence it is important to provide a hard copy in which the colours are correct and match the CMYK file version.

Computer-generated figures, including cladograms, prepared using either a draw or chart/graph program must be saved in one of the following formats: Adobe Illustrator (.ai) (preferred format), encapsulated postscript (.eps), encapsulated metafile (.emf), Windows metafile (.wmf) or Excel; cladograms should be saved as EMF or WMF files (from PAUP*, trees can be exported as PICT files or opened in TreeView and saved in WMF format; from WinClada, trees can be saved in EMF format); illustrations created using PowerPoint should be saved in PowerPoint; CorelDraw files should be saved as EPS or .AI files; charts created on a Macintosh computer should be saved as EPS, PS or PICT files. In all cases they should be editable vector graphic files. Avoid using 3D surface area charts because print quality is often poor. Remove colours from all charts and graphs. Figures embedded in Word are often difficult to import successfully into typesetting programs; thus, if you can only provide Word files for your figures, please also make sure that you give us high-quality, hardcopy originals, not larger than A4 size, for scanning if necessary.

Unsatisfactory figures will be returned for correction. The Editor-in-Chief may be consulted for further guidance.

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Page proofs and corrections
Copyedited manuscripts and subsequently page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking prior to publication. At this stage only essential alterations and correction of publisher errors may be undertaken. Excessive author alterations at page proof stage be charged back to the author at $5 per item.

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A PDF file will be supplied to the corresponding author on publication of the article. Paper reprints may also be ordered before publication. An order form is sent to the corresponding author with the final page proofs.

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