Rediscovery and redescription of the smoothtooth blacktip shark, Carcharhinus leiodon (Carcharhinidae), from Kuwait, with notes on its possible conservation statusAlec B. M. Moore A B F , William T. White C , Robert D. Ward C , Gavin J. P. Naylor D and Richard Peirce E
A RSK Environment Ltd, Spring Lodge, 172 Chester Road, Helsby, Cheshire, WA6 OAR, UK.
B Bangor University, School of Ocean Sciences, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, UK.
C CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wealth from Oceans Flagship, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tas. 7001, Australia.
D Florida State University, School of Computational Science/Department of Biological Science, Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA.
E Shark Conservation Society, Dulverton House, 8 Crooklets, Bude, Cornwall, EX23 8NE, UK.
F Corresponding author. Email: email@example.com
Marine and Freshwater Research 62(6) 528-539 http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/MF10159
Submitted: 18 June 2010 Accepted: 9 November 2010 Published: 24 June 2011
The smoothtooth blacktip shark, Carcharhinus leiodon, is one of the rarest whaler shark species of the genus Carcharhinus, previously known only from the holotype collected over 100 years ago from the Arabian Sea coast of Yemen. Recent market surveys in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf rediscovered 25 specimens (~2% of individual sharks recorded) in Kuwait, ~3000 km away from the type location. This study combined morphometric and molecular approaches to provide a detailed redescription of this species based on new material, as well as the first information on fresh colouration, size range and maturity. Sequences from two separate regions of the mitochondrial genome (COI and ND2) support the identity of C. leiodon as a distinct species, closely related to C. limbatus, C. amblyrhynchoides and C. tilstoni. Carcharhinus leiodon is superficially similar to, but clearly distinct from, C. melanopterus and C. amblyrhynchoides. The previously uncertain type locality of C. leiodon is considered to be correct, and the narrow range and unusual disjunct distribution, relatively rare for a marine carcharhinid, is discussed. The Kuwait population of C. leiodon, including juveniles, is subject to fisheries by-catch and is in an area of extensive habitat alteration. As a result, C. leiodon is considered vulnerable, requiring urgent conservation action.
Additional keywords. Chondrichthyes, elasmobranch, Western Indian Ocean.
ReferencesAl-Yamani, F. Y., Bishop, J., Ramadhan, E., Al-Husaini, M., and Al-Ghadban, A. N. (2004). ‘Oceanographic Atlas of Kuwait’s Waters.’ (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Mariculture and Fisheries Department: Safat, Kuwait.)
Al-Yamani, F. Y., Bishop, J. M., Al-Rafaie, K., and Ismail, W. (2007). The effects of the river diversion, Mesopotamian marsh drainage and restoration, and river damming on the marine environment of the northwestern Arabian Gulf. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 10, 277–289.
| The effects of the river diversion, Mesopotamian marsh drainage and restoration, and river damming on the marine environment of the northwestern Arabian Gulf.CrossRef |
Basson, P. W., Burchard, J. E., Jr, Hardy, J. T., and Price, A. R. G. (1977). ‘Biotopes of the Western Arabian Gulf: Marine Life and Environments of Saudi Arabia.’ (Aramco Department of Loss Prevention and Environmental Affairs: Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.)
Bishop, J. M. (2002). Fishing and mariculture. In ‘The Gulf Ecosystem: Health and Sustainability’. (Eds N. Y. Khan, M. Munawar and A. R. G. Price.) pp. 253–277. (Backhuys: Leiden.)
Bonfil, R., and Abdallah, M. (2004). ‘Field Identification Guide to the Sharks and Rays of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.’ (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Rome.)
Castro, J. I. (1996). Biology of the blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, off the southeastern United States. Bulletin of Marine Science 59, 508–522.
Clayton, D., and Pilcher, C. (1983). ‘Kuwait’s Natural History: An Introduction.’ (Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and Kuwait Oil Company: Ahmadi, Kuwait.)
Compagno, L. J. V. (1979). Carcharhinoid sharks: morphology, systematics and phylogeny. Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Compagno, L. J. V. (1984). FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4, Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. vol. 4, pt. 2 (Carcharhiniformes), pp. 251–655. FAO, Rome.
Compagno, L. J. V. (1988). ‘Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes.’ (Blackburn Press: Caldwell, NJ.)
Compagno, L. J. V. (2001). ‘Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Volume 2. Bullhead, Mackerel and Carpet Sharks (Heterdontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes).’ (FAO: Rome.)
Compagno, L. J. V. (2005). Carcharhinus leiodon. In ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species’. Version 2010.1. Available at www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 3 June 2010].
Compagno, L., Dando, M., and Fowler, S. (2005). ‘A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World.’ (Harper Collins: London.)
Compagno, L. J. V., White, W., and Fowler, S. (2003). Carcharhinus hemiodon. In ‘IUCN Red List of Threatened Species’. Version 2010.1. Available at www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 1 June 2010].
FAO (1981). A report on the demersal resources of the Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Regional Fishery Survey (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) and Development Project FI DP/RAB/71/278/10. FAO, Rome.
Garrick, J. A. F. (1982). Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Technical Report NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service) Circular 445.
Garrick, J. A. F. (1985). Additions to revision of the shark genus Carcharhinus: synonymy of Aprionodon and Hypoprion, and description of a new species of Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). NOAA Technical Report NMFS 34. Available at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/tr34.pdf [Accessed May 2011].
Golani, D., and Bogorodsky, S. V. (2010). The fishes of the Red Sea – reappraisal and updated checklist. Zootaxa 2463, 1–135.
Goubanov, E. P., and Shleib, N. A. (1980). ‘Sharks of the Arabian Gulf.’ (Ministry of Public Works, Agricultural Department, Fisheries Division: Kuwait.)
Hebert, P. D. N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S. L., and de Waard, J. R. (2003). Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings. Biological Sciences 270, 313–321.
| Biological identifications through DNA barcodes.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXktVWiu7g%3D&md5=8baaaa53058d9c2058e0c7a9cfff536eCAS |
Henderson, A. C., McIlwain, J. L., Al-Oufi, H. S., and Al-Sheili, S. (2007). The Sultanate of Oman shark fishery: Species composition, seasonality and diversity. Fisheries Research 86, 159–168.
| The Sultanate of Oman shark fishery: Species composition, seasonality and diversity.CrossRef |
Holmes, B. H., Steinke, D., and Ward, R. D. (2009). Identification of shark and ray fins using DNA barcoding. Fisheries Research 95, 280–288.
| Identification of shark and ray fins using DNA barcoding.CrossRef |
Hoorn, C., and Cremaschi, M. (2004). Late Holocene palaeoenvironmental history of Khawr Rawri and Khawr Al Balid (Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 213, 1–36.
| Late Holocene palaeoenvironmental history of Khawr Rawri and Khawr Al Balid (Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman).CrossRef |
Hussain, N. A., Naiama, A. K., and Al-Hassan, L. A. J. (1988). Annotated check list of the fish fauna of Khor Al-Zubair, North West of the Arabian Gulf, Iraq. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 1, 17–24.
IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria [Accessed 2 September 2010].
Kimura, M. (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111–120.
| A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXmtFSktg%3D%3D&md5=b624e05c6d4a1dff9a13279cf8cb9101CAS | 7463489PubMed |
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (2005). Elasmobranchs of Kuwait waters. Poster. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Mariculture and Fisheries Department: Safat, Kuwait.)
Morgan, G. (2006). Country reviews: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE. In ‘Review of the State of World Marine Capture Fisheries Management: Indian Ocean’. (Ed. C. De Young.) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 488, FAO, Rome. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0477e/a0477e00.htm [Accessed 12 December 2009].
Naylor, G. J. P., Ryburn, J. A., Fedrigo, O., and López, J. A. (2005). Phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of modern elasmobranchs. In ‘Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes: Sharks, Batoids and Chimaeras, Vol. 3’. (Eds W. C. Hamlett and B. G. M. Jamieson.) pp. 1–25. (Science Publishers: Enfield, NH.)
Ovenden, J. R., Morgan, J. A. T., Kashiwagi, T., Broderick, D., and Salini, J. (2010). Towards better management of Australia's shark fishery: genetic analyses reveal unexpected ratios of cryptic blacktip species Carcharhinus tilstoni and C. limbatus. Marine and Freshwater Research 61, 253–262.
| Towards better management of Australia's shark fishery: genetic analyses reveal unexpected ratios of cryptic blacktip species Carcharhinus tilstoni and C. limbatus.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXisVahu70%3D&md5=b0a087c800f9dd27ad994b457c0fd847CAS |
Parker, A. G., and Goudie, A. S. (2008). Geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf region and the implication for the archaeology of the region. Geomorphology 101, 458–470.
| Geomorphological and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the southeastern Arabian Gulf region and the implication for the archaeology of the region.CrossRef |
Randall, J. E. (1986). ‘Sharks of Arabia.’ (Immel Publishing: London.)
Sheppard, C, Al-Husiani, M., Al-Jamali, F., Al-Yamani, F., Baldwin, R., Bishop, J., Benzoni, F., Dutrieux, E., Dulvy, N. K., Durvasula, S. R. V., Jones, D. A., Loughland, R., Medio, D., Nithyanandan, M., Pilling, G. M., Polikarpov, I., Price, A. R. G., Purkis, S., Riegl, B., Saburova, M., Samimi Namin, K., Taylor, O., Wilson, S., and Zainal, K. (2010). The Gulf: a young sea in decline. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 13–38.
| The Gulf: a young sea in decline.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXktlSqug%3D%3D&md5=25fa4b3ba17a7659d40173ba24e6de73CAS | 20005533PubMed |
Speake, J. (Ed.) (2003). ‘Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopaedia. Volume 3: R to Z.’ (Fitzroy Dearborn: London.)
Springer, V. G., and Garrick, J. A. F. (1964). A survey of vertebral numbers in sharks. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 116, 73–96.
Swofford, D. L. (2002). ‘PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4.’ (Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.)
Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. (2007). MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24, 1596–1599.
| MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2sXpsVGrsL8%3D&md5=927227bc5d8533f730ac83ff20a64694CAS | 17488738PubMed |
Ward, R. D., Zemlak, T. S., Innes, B. H., Last, P. R., and Hebert, P. D. N. (2005). DNA barcoding Australia’s fish species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 360, 1847–1857.
| DNA barcoding Australia’s fish species.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXhtlSjsrjK&md5=e1f0704a3c9093bcd61999b5e90e1aa2CAS |
Ward, R. D., Holmes, B. H., White, W. T., and Last, P. R. (2008). DNA barcoding Australasian chondrichthyans: results and potential uses in conservation. Marine and Freshwater Research 59, 57–71.
| DNA barcoding Australasian chondrichthyans: results and potential uses in conservation.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD1cXhtFKnt7c%3D&md5=cb1feae646109716ca6448cf570cc33cCAS |
White, W. T., and Potter, I. C. (2004). Habitat partitioning among four elasmobranch species in nearshore, shallow waters of a subtropical embayment in Western Australia. Marine Biology 145, 1023–1032.
| Habitat partitioning among four elasmobranch species in nearshore, shallow waters of a subtropical embayment in Western Australia.CrossRef |
White, W. T., Platell, M. E., and Potter, I. C. (2004). Comparisons between the diets of four abundant species of elasmobranchs in a subtropical embayment: implications for resource partitioning. Marine Biology 144, 439–448.
| Comparisons between the diets of four abundant species of elasmobranchs in a subtropical embayment: implications for resource partitioning.CrossRef |
White, W. T., and Sommerville, E. (2010). Elasmobranchs of tropical marine ecosystems. In ‘Sharks and Their Relatives II: Biodiversity, Adaptive Physiology, and Conservation’. (Eds J. C. Carrier, M. R. Heithaus and J. A. Musick.) pp. 159–240. (CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.)