Marine and Freshwater Research Marine and Freshwater Research Society
Advances in the aquatic sciences
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Microstructure of the otoliths of the glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale

E. García-Seoane A C , I. Meneses B and A. Silva B

A Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain.

B Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), Avenida de Brasília, 6, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal.

C Corresponding author. Email: evagarcia@iim.csic.es

Marine and Freshwater Research 66(1) 70-77 https://doi.org/10.1071/MF13211
Submitted: 7 August 2013  Accepted: 25 April 2014   Published: 7 November 2014

Abstract

Ageing using otolith microstructure is based on the assumption that growth increments are deposited daily. Individuals of the glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) were collected in the Flemish Cap (north-west Atlantic) during June–July 2010. A total of 44 individuals (ranging from 28 to 49 mm standard length; <2 years old) were selected to analyse otolith microstructure using light microscopy in order to assess the reliability of the use of microincrements to infer the true age of this species. Three distinct zones were distinguished: the larval zone, the postlarval zone and the postmetamorphic zone. The otolith core was, on average, 8 ± 0.7 μm. The mean microincrement number in the larval zone was 42 ± 7.5 within a radius of 0.095 ± 0.010 mm whereas in the postlarval zone it was 25 ± 3.0 within a segment of 0.104 ± 0.015 mm. SEM examinations in a subsample of otoliths showed that the resolution power of the light microscope was sufficient to study both the larval and the postlarval zones. Back-calculation from the time of capture suggests a hatching period from mid-June to mid-December with a peak in September. The spawning time and daily deposition of the microincrements in B. glaciale are discussed.

Additional keywords: age, Flemish Cap, microincrement, myctophids.


References

Albikovskaya, L. K. (1988). Some aspects of the biology and distribution of glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) over the slopes of Flemish Cap and eastern Grand Bank. NAFO Scientific Council Studies 12, 37–42. open url image1

Aldanondo, N., Cotano, U., Etxebeste, E., Irigoien, X., Álvarez, P., Martínez de Murguía, A., and Herrero, D. L. (2008). Validation of daily increments deposition in the otoliths of European anchovy larvae (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) reared under different temperature conditions. Fisheries Research 93, 257–264.
Validation of daily increments deposition in the otoliths of European anchovy larvae (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) reared under different temperature conditions.CrossRef | open url image1

Beamish, R. J., and McFarlane, G. A. (1983). The forgotten requirement for age validation in fisheries biology. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112, 735–743.
The forgotten requirement for age validation in fisheries biology.CrossRef | open url image1

Borovkov, V. A., Vaskov, A. A., and Karsakov, A. L. (2007). The impact of water circulation on the year-class abundance dynamics of redfish and cod on the Flemish Cap. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 37, 127–134.
The impact of water circulation on the year-class abundance dynamics of redfish and cod on the Flemish Cap.CrossRef | open url image1

Bystydzieńska, Z. E., Phillips, A. J., and Linkowski, T. B. (2010). Larval stage duration, age and growth of blue lanternfish Tarletonbeania crenularis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) derived from otolith microstructure. Environmental Biology of Fishes 89, 493–503.
Larval stage duration, age and growth of blue lanternfish Tarletonbeania crenularis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) derived from otolith microstructure.CrossRef | open url image1

Campana, S. E. (1983). Feeding periodicity and the production of daily growth increments in otoliths of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 61, 1591–1597.
Feeding periodicity and the production of daily growth increments in otoliths of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus).CrossRef | open url image1

Campana, S. E. (1992). Measurement and interpretation of the microstructure of fish otoliths. In ‘Otolith Microstructure Examination and Analysis’. (Eds D. K. Stevenson and S. E. Campana.) pp. 59–71. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 117.

Campana, S. E. (2001). Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. Journal of Fish Biology 59, 197–242.
Accuracy, precision and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods.CrossRef | open url image1

Campana, S. E., and Jones, C. M. (1992). Analysis of otolith microstructure data. In ‘Otolith Microstructure Examination and Analysis’. (Eds D. K. Stevenson and S. E. Campana.) pp. 73–100. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 117.

Campana, S. E., and Neilson, J. D. (1985). Microstructure of fish otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42, 1014–1032.
Microstructure of fish otoliths.CrossRef | open url image1

Campana, S. E., Gagné, J. A., and Munro, J. (1987). Otolith microstructure of larval herring (Clupea harengus): image or reality? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44, 1922–1929.
Otolith microstructure of larval herring (Clupea harengus): image or reality?CrossRef | open url image1

Carscadden, J., Nakashima, B. S., and Frank, K. T. (1997). Effects of fish length and temperature on the timing of peak spawning in capelin (Mallotus villosus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54, 781–787.
Effects of fish length and temperature on the timing of peak spawning in capelin (Mallotus villosus).CrossRef | open url image1

Casas, M. C. (1998). Increment formation in otoliths of slow-growing winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) larvae in cold water. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55, 162–169.
Increment formation in otoliths of slow-growing winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) larvae in cold water.CrossRef | open url image1

Catul, V., Gauns, M., and Karuppasamy, P. K. (2011). A review on mesopelagic fishes belonging to family Myctophidae. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 21, 339–354.
A review on mesopelagic fishes belonging to family Myctophidae.CrossRef | open url image1

Cermeño, P., Uriarte, A., De Murguía, A. M., and Morales-Nin, B. (2003). Validation of daily increment formation in otoliths of juvenile and adult European anchovy. Journal of Fish Biology 62, 679–691.
Validation of daily increment formation in otoliths of juvenile and adult European anchovy.CrossRef | open url image1

Cherel, Y., Fontaine, C., Richard, P., and Labat, J. P. (2010). Isotopic niches and trophic levels of myctophid fishes and their predators in the Southern Ocean. Limnology and Oceanography 55, 324–332.
Isotopic niches and trophic levels of myctophid fishes and their predators in the Southern Ocean.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BC3cXitVSgur0%3D&md5=8a9a668b1bf8d83925b5c69953ad7f67CAS | open url image1

Dypvik, E., Klevjer, T. A., and Kaartvedt, S. (2012). Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale). Marine Biology 159, 443–453.
Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale).CrossRef | 24391270PubMed | open url image1

Feet, P. Ø., Ugland, K. I., and Moksness, E. (2002). Accuracy of age estimates in spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) reared under different prey densities. Fisheries Research 56, 59–67.
Accuracy of age estimates in spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) reared under different prey densities.CrossRef | open url image1

Folkvord, A., Blom, G., Johannessen, A., and Moksness, E. (2000). Growth-dependent age estimation in herring (Clupea harengus L.) larvae. Fisheries Research 46, 91–103.
Growth-dependent age estimation in herring (Clupea harengus L.) larvae.CrossRef | open url image1

Folkvord, A., Johannessen, A., and Moksness, E. (2004). Temperature-dependent otolith growth in Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) larvae. Sarsia 89, 297–310.
Temperature-dependent otolith growth in Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) larvae.CrossRef | open url image1

Fox, C. J., Folkvord, A., and Geffen, A. J. (2003). Otolith micro-increment formation in herring Clupea harengus larvae in relation to growth rate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 264, 83–94.
Otolith micro-increment formation in herring Clupea harengus larvae in relation to growth rate.CrossRef | open url image1

García-Seoane, E., Dalpadado, P., and Vázquez, A. (2013). Feeding ecology of the glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale (Actinopterygii, Myctophidae) in the Flemish Cap (north Atlantic Ocean). Hydrobiologia 717, 133–146.
Feeding ecology of the glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale (Actinopterygii, Myctophidae) in the Flemish Cap (north Atlantic Ocean).CrossRef | open url image1

García-Seoane, E., Bernal, A., and Saborido-Rey, F. (2014a). Reproductive ecology of the glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale. Hydrobiologia 727, 137–149.
Reproductive ecology of the glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale.CrossRef | open url image1

García-Seoane, E., Fabeiro, M., Silva, A., and Meneses, I. (2014b). Age-based demography of the glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) in the Flemish Cap. Marine and Freshwater Research , .
Age-based demography of the glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) in the Flemish Cap.CrossRef | open url image1

Gartner, J. V. (1991a). Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. II. Age and growth patterns. Marine Biology 111, 21–27.
Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. II. Age and growth patterns.CrossRef | open url image1

Gartner, J. V. (1991b). Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. I. Morphological and microstructural analysis of sagittal otoliths. Marine Biology 111, 11–20.
Life histories of three species of lanternfishes (Pisces: Myctophidae) from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. I. Morphological and microstructural analysis of sagittal otoliths.CrossRef | open url image1

Geffen, A. J. (1982). Otolith ring deposition in relation to growth rate in herring (Clupea harengus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae. Marine Biology 71, 317–326.
Otolith ring deposition in relation to growth rate in herring (Clupea harengus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae.CrossRef | open url image1

Giragosov, V. Y., and Ovcharov, O. P. (1992). Age and growth of the lantern fish Myctophum nitidulum (Myctophidae) from the tropical Atlantic. Journal of Ichthyology. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 32, 34–42. open url image1

Gjøsæter, J. (1973). Age, growth, and mortality of the myctophid fish, Benthosema glaciale (Reinhardt), from western Norway. Sarsia 52, 1–14. open url image1

Gjøsæter, J. (1981). Growth, production and reproduction of the myctophid fish Benthosema glaciale from western Norway and adjacent seas. Fiskeridirektoratet. Skrifter. Serie Havundersoekelser 17, 79–108. open url image1

Gjøsæter, J., and Kawaguchi, K. (1980). A review of the world resources of mesopelagic fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 193, 1–153. open url image1

Gjøsæter, J., and Tilseth, S. (1988). Spawning behaviour, egg and larval development of the myctophid fish Benthosema pterotum. Marine Biology 98, 1–6.
Spawning behaviour, egg and larval development of the myctophid fish Benthosema pterotum.CrossRef | open url image1

Greely, T. M., Gartner, J. V., and Torres, J. J. (1999). Age and growth of Electrona antarctica (Pisces: Myctophidae), the dominant mesopelagic fish of the Southern Ocean. Marine Biology 133, 145–158.
Age and growth of Electrona antarctica (Pisces: Myctophidae), the dominant mesopelagic fish of the Southern Ocean.CrossRef | open url image1

Halliday, R. G. (1970). Growth and vertical distribution of the glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale, in the northwestern Atlantic. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 27, 105–116.
Growth and vertical distribution of the glacier lanternfish, Benthosema glaciale, in the northwestern Atlantic.CrossRef | open url image1

Hayashi, A., Kawaguchi, K., Watanabe, H., and Ishida, M. (2001). Daily growth increment formation and its lunar periodicity in otoliths of the myctophid fish Myctophum asperum (Pisces: Myctophidae). Fisheries Science 67, 811–817.
Daily growth increment formation and its lunar periodicity in otoliths of the myctophid fish Myctophum asperum (Pisces: Myctophidae).CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXosV2hs7k%3D&md5=099e6b5f4d7dc8e4b245e22270ec999cCAS | open url image1

Hüssy, K., Hinrichsen, H. H., Fey, D. P., Walther, Y., and Velasco, A. (2010). The use of otolith microstructure to estimate age in adult Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Journal of Fish Biology 76, 1640–1654.
The use of otolith microstructure to estimate age in adult Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.CrossRef | 20557621PubMed | open url image1

Jones, C. (1986). Determining age of larval fish with the otolith increment technique. Fishery Bulletin 84, 91–103. open url image1

Kaartvedt, S., Røstad, A., Klevjer, T. A., and Staby, A. (2009). Use of bottom-mounted echo sounders in exploring behavior of mesopelagic fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 395, 109–118.
Use of bottom-mounted echo sounders in exploring behavior of mesopelagic fishes.CrossRef | open url image1

Kawaguchi, K., and Mauchline, J. (1982). Biology of myctophid fishes (Family Myctophidae) in the Rockall Trough, northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Biological Oceanography 1, 337–373. open url image1

Kinzer, J. (1977). Observations on feeding habits of the mesopelagic fish Benthosema glaciale (Myctophidae) off NW Africa. In ‘Oceanic Sound Scattering Prediction’. (Eds W. R. Anderson and B. J. Zahuranec.) pp. 381–392. (Plenum Press: New York.)

Linkowski, T. B. (1987). Age and growth of four species of Electrona (Teleostei, Myctophidae). In ‘Proceedings of the 5th Congress of European Ichthyology, Stockholm 1985’. pp. 435–442.

Linkowski, T. B. (1996). Lunar rhythms of vertical migrations coded in otolith microstructure of North Atlantic lanternfishes, genus Hygophum (Myctophidae). Marine Biology 124, 495–508.
Lunar rhythms of vertical migrations coded in otolith microstructure of North Atlantic lanternfishes, genus Hygophum (Myctophidae).CrossRef | open url image1

Linkowski, T. B., Radtke, R. L., and Lenz, P. H. (1993). Otolith microstructure, age and growth of two species of Ceratoscopelus (Oosteichthyes: Myctophidae) from the eastern North Atlantic. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 167, 237–260.
Otolith microstructure, age and growth of two species of Ceratoscopelus (Oosteichthyes: Myctophidae) from the eastern North Atlantic.CrossRef | open url image1

Lowerre-Barbieri, S. K., Ganias, K., Saborido-Rey, F., Murua, H., and Hunter, J. R. (2011). Reproductive timing in marine fishes: variability, temporal scales, and methods. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 3, 71–91.
Reproductive timing in marine fishes: variability, temporal scales, and methods.CrossRef | open url image1

Maillet, G. L., Pepin, P., Craig, J. D. C., Fraser, S., and Lane, D. (2005). Overview of biological and chemical conditions on the Flemish Cap with comparisons of the Grand Banks shelf and slope waters during 1996–2003. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 37, 29–45.
Overview of biological and chemical conditions on the Flemish Cap with comparisons of the Grand Banks shelf and slope waters during 1996–2003.CrossRef | open url image1

Marshall, S. L., and Parker, S. S. (1982). Pattern identification in the microstructure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) otoliths. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 542–547.
Pattern identification in the microstructure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) otoliths.CrossRef | open url image1

Mazhirina, G.P. (1988). Some information on the development of ovaries in Benthosema glaciale from different areas of the North Atlantic. NAFO Scientific Council Research Document 88/21(Serial No. N1457), 1–11.

McGurk, M. D. (1984). Ring deposition in the otoliths of larval Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi. Fishery Bulletin 82, 113–120. open url image1

McGurk, M. D. (1987). Age and growth of Pacific herring larvae based on length–frequency analysis and otolith ring number. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20, 33–47.
Age and growth of Pacific herring larvae based on length–frequency analysis and otolith ring number.CrossRef | open url image1

Moku, M., Ishimaru, K., and Kawaguchi, K. (2001). Growth of larval and juvenile Diaphus theta (Pisces: Myctophidae) in the transitional waters of the western North Pacific. Ichthyological Research 48, 385–390.
Growth of larval and juvenile Diaphus theta (Pisces: Myctophidae) in the transitional waters of the western North Pacific.CrossRef | open url image1

Moku, M., Hayashi, A., Mori, K., and Watanabe, Y. (2005). Validation of daily otolith increment formation in the larval myctophid fish Diaphus slender-type spp. Journal of Fish Biology 67, 1481–1485.
Validation of daily otolith increment formation in the larval myctophid fish Diaphus slender-type spp.CrossRef | open url image1

Morgan, M. J., Wright, P. J., and Rideout, R. M. (2013). Effect of age and temperature on spawning time in two gadoid species. Fisheries Research 138, 42–51.
Effect of age and temperature on spawning time in two gadoid species.CrossRef | open url image1

Munk, P., Larsson, P. O., Danielsen, D., and Moksness, E. (1995). Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front. Marine Ecology Progress Series 125, 21–30.
Larval and small juvenile cod Gadus morhua concentrated in the highly productive areas of a shelf break front.CrossRef | open url image1

Neilson, J. D., and Geen, G. H. (1982). Otoliths of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): daily growth increments and factors influencing their production. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 1340–1347.
Otoliths of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): daily growth increments and factors influencing their production.CrossRef | open url image1

Pannella, G. (1971). Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science 173, 1124–1127.
Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns.CrossRef | open url image1

Penney, R. W., and Evans, G. T. (1985). Growth histories of larval redfish (Sebastes spp.) on an offshore Atlantic fishing bank determined by otolith increment analysis. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42, 1452–1464.
Growth histories of larval redfish (Sebastes spp.) on an offshore Atlantic fishing bank determined by otolith increment analysis.CrossRef | open url image1

Pepin, P. (2013). Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: fish–zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations. Deep-sea Research. Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers 75, 119–134.
Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: fish–zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations.CrossRef | open url image1

Peterman, R. M., and Bradford, M. J. (1987). Wind speed and mortality rate of a marine fish, the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax). Science 235, 354–356.
Wind speed and mortality rate of a marine fish, the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax).CrossRef | 1:STN:280:DC%2BC3cvitlOltA%3D%3D&md5=ac96ddfd98c061a8f97e50a89442deeeCAS | 17750387PubMed | open url image1

Platt, T., Fuentes-Yaco, C., and Frank, K. T. (2003). Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival. Nature 423, 398–399.
Spring algal bloom and larval fish survival.CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3sXjvFalt78%3D&md5=00a56633c5bf4e8fb70f39624e5dd3cbCAS | 12761538PubMed | open url image1

Radtke, R., and Fey, D. P. (1996). Environmental effects on primary increment formation in the otoliths of newly-hatched Arctic charr. Journal of Fish Biology 48, 1238–1255. open url image1

Robison, B. H. (1973). A system for maintaining midwater fishes in captivity. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30, 126–128.
A system for maintaining midwater fishes in captivity.CrossRef | open url image1

Roe, H. S. J., and Badcock, J. (1984). The diel migrations and distributions within a mesopelagic community in the north east Atlantic. 5. Vertical migrations and feeding of fish. Progress in Oceanography 13, 389–424.
The diel migrations and distributions within a mesopelagic community in the north east Atlantic. 5. Vertical migrations and feeding of fish.CrossRef | open url image1

Sameoto, D. D. (1988). Feeding of lantern fish Benthosema glaciale off the Nova Scotia shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 44, 113–129.
Feeding of lantern fish Benthosema glaciale off the Nova Scotia shelf.CrossRef | open url image1

Shelekhov, V. A. (2004). Results of otolith microstructure analysis, the growth rate, and life span of Diaphus theta (Myctophidae). Journal of Ichthyology 44, 616–623. open url image1

Stein, M. (2007). Oceanography of the Flemish Cap and adjacent waters. Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 37, 135–146.
Oceanography of the Flemish Cap and adjacent waters.CrossRef | open url image1

Suthers, I. M. (1996). Spatial variability of recent otolith growth and RNA indices in pelagic juvenile Diaphus kapalae (Myctophidae): an effect of flow disturbance near an island? Marine and Freshwater Research 47, 273–282.
Spatial variability of recent otolith growth and RNA indices in pelagic juvenile Diaphus kapalae (Myctophidae): an effect of flow disturbance near an island?CrossRef | 1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xls1Khu7s%3D&md5=38574f84bbde658cc748e3ebc2681338CAS | open url image1

Szedlmayer, S. T., and Able, K. W. (1992). Validation studies of daily increment formation for larval and juvenile summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49, 1856–1862.
Validation studies of daily increment formation for larval and juvenile summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus.CrossRef | open url image1

Takagi, K., Yatsu, A., Moku, M., and Sassa, C. (2006). Age and growth of lanternfishes, Symbolophorus californiensis and Ceratoscopelus warmingii (Myctophidae), in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Transition Zone. Ichthyological Research 53, 281–289.
Age and growth of lanternfishes, Symbolophorus californiensis and Ceratoscopelus warmingii (Myctophidae), in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Transition Zone.CrossRef | open url image1

Tsarin, S. A. (1994). Age, growth, and some production characteristics of Ceratoscopelus warmingii (Myctophidae) in the tropical zone of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 34, 234–242. open url image1

Vandeperre, F., and Methven, D. A. (2007). Do bigger fish arrive and spawn at the spawning grounds before smaller fish: cod (Gadus morhua) predation on beach spawning capelin (Mallotus villosus) from coastal Newfoundland. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 71, 391–400.
Do bigger fish arrive and spawn at the spawning grounds before smaller fish: cod (Gadus morhua) predation on beach spawning capelin (Mallotus villosus) from coastal Newfoundland.CrossRef | open url image1

Volk, E. C., Mortensen, D. M., and Wertheimer, A. C. (1995). Non-daily otolith increments and seasonal changes in growth of a pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) population in Auke Bay, Alaska. In ‘Recent Developments in Fish Otolith Research’. (Eds D. H. Secor, J. M. Dean, and S. E. Campana.) pp. 211–225. (University of South Carolina Press: Columbia, SC.)

Waldron, M. E., Prosch, R. M., and Armstrong, M. J. (1991). Growth of juvenile round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi in the Benguela system. South African Journal of Marine Science 10, 83–89.
Growth of juvenile round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi in the Benguela system.CrossRef | open url image1

Wieland, K., Jarre-Teichmann, A., and Horbowa, K. (2000). Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod: possible causes and implications for recruitment. ICES Journal of Marine Science 57, 452–464.
Changes in the timing of spawning of Baltic cod: possible causes and implications for recruitment.CrossRef | open url image1

Wild, A., Wexler, J. B., and Foreman, T. J. (1995). Extended studies of increment deposition rates in otoliths of yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Bulletin of Marine Science 57, 555–562. open url image1

Wright, P. J., and Gibb, F. M. (2005). Selection for birth date in North Sea haddock and its relation to maternal age. Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 303–312.
Selection for birth date in North Sea haddock and its relation to maternal age.CrossRef | open url image1

Young, J. W., Bulman, C. M., Blaber, S. J. M., and Wayte, S. E. (1988). Age and growth of the lanternfish Lampanyctodes hectoris (Myctophidae) from eastern Tasmania, Australia. Marine Biology 99, 569–576.
Age and growth of the lanternfish Lampanyctodes hectoris (Myctophidae) from eastern Tasmania, Australia.CrossRef | open url image1



Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (1)